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Evolution of Public Safety Communications

Evolution of Public Safety Communications

Development of Public Safety Communications (PSC) is an important part of governmental efforts to keep first responders well informed and safe in disastrous situations. The dynamics of technologies that support PSC require periodic review of multiple technical contributions and related markets’ changes.

This report updates information on the development of PSC and on recent standardization efforts to support integration of commercial and private communications to provide cost efficient and feature-rich networking for first responders.

The report reflects the history of PSC and follows the road of their evolution. Two major groups of standards – P25 and TETRA – define specifics of PSC worldwide. These LMR standards are being in the development for at least twenty-two years and they supported and continue to support voice and relatively low-speed data that first responders’ communications required. At the present time, P25 and TETRA standards are mostly completed and moved to the stage of maintenance and some enhancements.

In the last several years, commercial cellular communications achieved a significant progress in enhancing performance and economic characteristics, such as the speed of transmission, reliability, ability to communicate with fast moving objects, the cost factor and other. 4G technologies (such as LTE and WiMAX) proved their attractiveness; and the industry, especially R&D, is looking for introduction 5G technologies in 3-4 years.

The PSC community, which requires to enhance connectivity to support video and massive data files with high-speed reliable transmission as well as to improve other characteristics, such as network economics was investigating applicability of LTE for PSC; and this effort led to decision to adapt this commercial cellular technology that provides the economies of scales for critical communications and to build PSC networks based on the LTE technology. One such a network – the FirstNet – is being deployed as the U.S. nationwide first responders system. The FirstNet development is in the evolving stage; and its implementation has begun. Other countries are also experimenting with LTE network structures built specifically for PSC (in this report, we addressed such developments in England and other countries).

The report provides the detailed technical and marketing analysis of P25/TETRA LMR together with the survey of related industries. Then, it is concentrating on the specifics of LTE as a commercial technology that has to be adapted to carry PSC tasks; LTE technological and marketing specifics as well as the industry (as they relate to the report subject) are analyzed.

The 3GPP standardization work in this area is detailed. The report shows that the industry is already developing LTE-PSC equipment, though the complete set PSC-LTE standards is expected from the 3GPP only in 2019-2020.

The report also provides a detailed analysis of the current status of the FirstNet – the nationwide U.S. LTE-based PSC network. The process of the network design, its technical specifics as well as the structure of its governing are analyzed. Even in these early stages of LTE-PSC development, there is already competition on the nationwide scale.

The U.S. is not alone in adapting LTE for PSC – England and other countries are also involved in the construction LTE-PSC networks. The most advanced is S. Korea, which has already deployed such a network mostly utilizing Samsung equipment.

The report concludes that LMR and LTE-based PSC infrastructures will co-exist in the foreseeable future (7-9 years), complementing each other to provide high-speed data communications with narrowband voice, making communications rich with features and more reliable and cost-effective. Looking further in time, it seems that LTE-PSC will prevail (though, rapid progress in telecommunications may present even better future solutions).

The report also contains the survey of LTE-LMR-PSC related patents for 2016-2018 time frame.

The report is written for a wide audience of technical and managerial staff involved in the design and implementation of PSC networks as well as for users such networks.


1.0 Introduction
1.1 Status – Mixed Picture
1.2 Requirements
1.3 Scope and Goals
1.4 Research Methodology
1.5 Target Audience
2.0 Today: “Traditional” PSC Technologies
2.1 Project 25 (P25)
2.1.1 Standardization Process
2.1.1.1 General
2.1.1.2 Details
2.1.2 Project 25/TIA 102: Scope
2.1.2.1 Efforts
2.1.2.2 Phased Approach
2.1.2.2.1 Phases
2.1.2.2.1.1 Phase I
2.1.2.2.1.2 Phase II
2.1.3 Status
2.1.4 CAP
2.1.5 P25 Development-Phase I
2.1.5.1 General Mission and Objectives
2.1.5.2 Compliance
2.1.5.3 Benefits and Issues
2.1.5.4 Technical Highlights- Interfaces
2.1.5.4.1 Common Air Interface
2.1.5.4.2 Fixed Station Interface
2.1.5.4.3 Console Sub-System Interface (CSSI)
2.1.5.4.4 RF Sub-system
2.1.5.4.5 Inter-system Interface (ISSI)
2.1.5.4.5.1 ISSI Technology
2.1.5.4.6 Telephone Interconnect Interface
2.1.5.4.7 Network Management Interface
2.1.5.4.8 Host and Network Data Interfaces
2.1.5.4.9 Summary: Interfaces
2.1.5.4.10 Frequency Spectrum
2.1.5.4.10.1 700 MHz Band
2.1.5.5 Security
2.1.5.6 Coding
2.1.5.7 Advances
2.1.5.8 Services
2.1.5.9 Network Scenario
2.1.5.10 Summary
2.1.6 Development: P25 Phase II
2.1.6.1 Transition
2.1.6.2 Scope
2.1.6.3 Interfaces – Phase II
2.1.6.4 Attributes
2.1.6.5 Data Services Standards
2.1.6.6 Enhancements - Details
2.1.6.7 Time and Documentation
2.1.7 P25 Radio Market Analysis
2.1.7.1 General
2.1.7.2 Geography
2.1.7.3 Market Drivers
2.1.7.4 Market Forecast
2.1.7.4.1 Considerations
2.1.7.4.1.1 P25 Way
2.1.7.4.1.2 Commercial Involvement
2.1.7.4.2 Model Assumptions
2.1.7.4.3 Estimate
2.1.8 Summary: Phase I and Phase II
2.1.9 P25 Industry
Avtec
Airbus DS (in 2017, P25 business was acquired by Motorola Solutions)
Codan (include P25/LTE solution)
Digital Voice System
Etherstack (include P25/LTE solution)
EF Johnson (a JVCKENWOOD company)
Harris (LMR/LTE)
Icom America
Kenwood
Motorola Solutions (P25/LTE)
PowerTrunk (a Hytera company)
Relm Wireless
Simoco
Technisonic Industries
Tait Communications
Westel
2.2 TETRA
2.2.1 General
2.2.1.1 TCCA
2.2.1.2 Major Milestones
2.2.2 TETRA: Scope-Release I
2.2.2.1 General
2.2.2.2 Spectrum Regulations
2.2.2.3 TETRA and GSM
2.2.2.4 Main Features
2.2.2.4.1 Functionalities
2.2.2.4.2 Technical Details
2.2.2.4.3 Services
2.2.2.5 Benefits
2.2.2.6 Networking
2.2.2.7 Release I Details
2.2.2.7.1 General
2.2.2.7.2 Interfaces
2.2.2.7.3 Infrastructure
2.2.2.7.4 Call Types
2.2.2.8 Mobiles
2.2.2.9 Security
2.2.2.10 Summary
2.2.3 TETRA Release II
2.2.3.1 History
2.2.3.2 Drivers
2.2.3.2.1 Rational
2.2.3.3 Two-track Approach
2.2.3.4 Applications
2.2.3.5 Trunked Mode Operation (TMO) Range Extension
2.2.3.6 Mixed Excitation Liner Predictive, Enhanced (MELPe) Voice Codec
2.2.3.7 Data Services Development
2.2.3.7.1 TAPS
2.2.3.7.2 TEDS
2.2.3.8 Comparison
2.2.3.9 Enhancements
2.2.4 Market Analysis
2.2.4.1 General
2.2.4.2 Geography
2.2.4.3 Market Drivers-Industries-Applications
2.2.4.4 Model Assumptions
2.2.4.5 Estimate
2.2.5 Industry
Airbus DS (include TETRA/LTE)
DAMM Cellular
Etelm (TETRA – LTE)
EtherStack
Hytera (include TETRA over LTE)
Motorola Solutions
Pegasus Network
Portalify (a Hytera company)
Rohill
Sepura (acquiring by Hytera in 2017)
Selex ES
Thales
3.0 P25 and TETRA
3.1 General
3.2 TDMA: Advantages and Issues
3.3 Characteristics
3.4 Modifications
3.5 TETRA in North America
3.5.1 FCC Position
3.5.2 TETRA Trials and Deployments in U.S.
4.0 Next Generation PSC
4.1 Mutual Benefits
4.2 Issues
4.3 Help
5.0 LTE Details: PSC
5.1 De-facto Standard
5.2 Broadband Wireless Communications Stages
5.2.1 LTE Standardization-Industry Collaboration
5.2.1.1 Industry Initiative
5.2.1.2 LTE Timetable
5.2.1.3 Initial Releases
5.3 Key Features of LTE
5.3.1 Comparison
5.4 Details
5.4.1 Evolved UMTS Radio Access Network (EUTRAN) - eNB
5.4.2 UE Categories
5.4.3. Evolved Packet Core (EPC)
5.4.4 LTE Layers
5.5 LTE Advanced
5.6 Self-organized Network (SON)
5.7 Market: LTE
5.7.1 General
5.7.2 Market Drivers
5.7.3 Demand: Wireless Broadband
5.7.4 LTE Market Projections
5.8 3GPP and PSC LTE
5.8.1 Releases and PSC
5.8.1.1 Voice
5.8.1.1.1 Opinions
5.8.1.2 Efforts: R11-R13-PSC
5.8.1.2.1 Main Areas
5.8.1.2.1.1 Proximity Services
5.8.1.2.1.2 Group Communications Service
5.8.1.2.1.2.1 MCPTT
5.8.1.2.1.3 Process
5.8.1.2.1.3.1 Release 14 and 15
5.8.2 LTE PSC – Market
5.9 Summary of LTE Benefits
5.10 Industry
Aricent
Cisco
CommAgility
Ericsson (PSC)
Fujitsu
General Dynamics (PSC)
Harris (PSC)
Huawei
Lime Microsystems
Motorola Solutions (PSC)
Nokia
Qualcomm
Samsung (PSC)
Sequans
TI
u-blox
ZTE
5.11 Summary – LTE Benefits for PSC
6.0 FirstNet: Structure and Features
6.1 General
6.2 Beginning - Plan
6.2.1 Spectrum Auctions
6.2.1.1 Band 14
6.2.2 Governing – Opt-in Decisions
6.2.2.1 Road Map: 2017-2019
6.3 Differences – PSG Communications
6.4 Design: RFIs and RFPs Process
6.4.1 Selection - Participants
6.5 FirstNet – Structural Details
6.5.1 Connectivity
6.5.1.1 Applications
6.5.2 Standards Compliance
6.5.2.1 Layers
6.5.2.1.1 Core Network
6.5.2.1.2 Transport Backhaul
6.5.2.1.3 Radio Access Network (RAN)
6.5.2.1.4 Public Safety Devices
6.6 FirstNet and LTE Current Limitations: 3GPP Releases
6.6.1 LTE – LMR
6.6.2 FirstNet- Adopting Commercial Technology
6.6.3 Challenges and Coexistence
6.7 Industry Preparedness
Assured Wireless
CalAmp
Cradlepoint
Elektrobit
Elbit
General Dynamic
Harris
In Motion Technology –Sierra Wireless
Motorola Solutions
Nokia
Oceus
Parallel Wireless
Sonim
Star Solutions
6.8 Pilot Projects
6.9 AT&T Core - Completeon
6.10 Verizon Plan
7.0 TETRA – LTE
7.1 Possibility – Union
7.2 ETSI - TCCA
7.3 England – ESMCP
7.4 Other Countries
8.0 Conclusions
Appendix I: 3GPP Releases
Appendix II: References
Appendix III: LTE-P25-TETRA – related Patents Survey (2016-2018)
Table of Figures:
Figure 1: APCO Project 25 Interface Committee: Process
Figure 2: Generic-P25 System Structure
Figure 3: P25 System – Major Interfaces
Figure 4: ISSI-P25 System-to-System
Figure 5: ISSI-Roaming
Figure 6: 700 MHz Band Plan for Public Safety Services
Figure 7: Example-Network Scenario
Figure 8: Phase II Modulation
Figure 9: Interfaces Family
Figure 10: CAI Details
Figure 11: Capacity
Figure 12: Vocoders
Figure 13: Spectrum Utilization – FM – Phase II
Figure 14: Differences: Phase I and Phase II
Figure 15: P25 Geography
Figure 16: Estimate: P25 Equipment Global Sales ($B)
Figure 17: P25 Market Applications Segments
Figure 18: TETRA: Spectrum Allocation
Figure 19: TETRA Release I - Functionalities
Figure 20: TETRA Interworking Illustration
Figure 21: TETRA Interoperability Interfaces
Figure 22: Network Scenarios
Figure 23: TETRA Release I Interfaces
Figure 24: TETRA RII Data Services Developments
Figure 25: Two-track Approach
Figure 26: TAPS
Figure 27: TEDS RF Channel Characteristics
Figure 28: Spectral Efficiency
Figure 29: Rates and Range
Figure 30: Illustration - TETRA TEDS Characteristics
Figure 31: TETRA Market Geography (2017)
Figure 32: TETRA Segmentation by Industries (2017)
Figure 33: Estimate: TETRA Equipment Global Sales ($B)
Figure 34: PSC Applications Scenarios
Figure 35: Evolution Path
Figure 36: Towards Wireless Mobile Broadband
Figure 37: Details – Releases Time Schedule and LTE PSC
Figure 38: LTE – IP
Figure 39: Major LTE Advantages
Figure 40: LTE – Reference Architecture
Figure 41: LTE Layers
Figure 42: Estimate: Global Broadband Mobile Subscribers Base (Bil.)
Figure 43: Estimate: LTE-Subscribers’ Base-Global (Bil)
Figure 44: LTE Equipment Global Sales ($B)
Figure 45: Estimate: LTE PSC Subscribers Base – Global (Mil.)
Figure 46: Estimate: Installed Base – PSC LTE eNodeB – Global (000)
Figure 47: Estimate: Global LTE PSC Market ($B)
Figure 48: FirstNet Frequency Plan Details
Figure 49: Illustration-FirstNet Connections
Figure 50: FirstNet Layers
Figure 51: Core Network
Figure 52: FirstNet Devices
Figure 53: LMR-LTE Capacities - Illustration
Tables:
Table 1: Approved P25 Standards (samples)
Table 2:P25 Phase I Advantages and Issues
Table 3: CAI Major Characteristics
Table 4: P25 Services
Table 5: Phase II Documents
Table 6: Components
Table 7: TETRA Established
Table 8: TETRA Release I-Major Characteristics
Table 9: TETRA Needs
Table 10: Applications (Release II)
Table 11: Evolution of TETRA Applications
Table 12: Terminal Cost
Table 13:3GPP Releases
Table 14: Initial LTE Characteristics
Table 15: Users Equipment Categories (Initial)
Table 16: UE Categories - Extended
Table 17: Release 12: PSC-related Items
Table 18: LTE Frequencies – Band 14
Table 19: FirstNet Broadband Applications - Examples

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