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“Connected Home”Technologies, Markets, Applications

“Connected Home”Technologies, Markets, Applications

This report is based on the authors’ experience working in the industry that supports high-speed communications developments for indoor connectivity; as well as their R&D in related areas.

The analysis of several advanced indoor communications technologies and related markets, applications and survey of the industries are presented. Particular, this report concentrates on:

Wireline indoor communications, including:

  • HomePlug AV2 (MIMO)
  • MoCA (2 and 2.5)
  • HomePNA 3.1 – ITU
Wireless indoor communications, including:
  • IEEE802.11ac
  • IEEE802.11ax
  • IEEE802.11ad
  • IEEE802.11ay
  • Visible Light Communications (VLC).
Such a selection was based on the intention to analyze the most advanced techniques that support multi-Gb/s speeds of transmission combined with other latest achievements in indoor wireline/wireless communications. Besides, these techniques are applicable for supporting a wide spectrum of indoor services – from entertainment to Home Area Networks to the broadband Internet.

-The report shows that wireline indoor communications are evolving towards ITU as a technology that can use all three existing indoor wirings – electrical, phone and coax to achieve the speed of transmission more than 1 Gb/s. This standard developers believe that it can become the universal standard for home/small office networking; though shipments PLC and MoCA equipment expect to be ahead at least till 2020-2021. Altogether, wireline technologies experience severe competition from rapidly developing wireless advanced indoor communications.

-802.11ac and 802.11ad are two advanced WLAN technologies. They are demonstrating the direction of WLANs development towards multi-Gb/s rates and efficient coverage. The major trend in WLAN silicon is towards using tri-band chips – 2.4 GHz, 5 GHz and 60 GHz bands – all implemented in a single device. Such a trend together with the falling electronics prices and convenience of wireless (vs. wireline) connectivity make 802.11xx a winning technology.

Report also addresses next generation WICT – IEEE802.11ax (5 GHz band) and IEEE802.11ay (mmWave band). Their wide commercialization is expected in 1-2 years.

Visible Light Communications (VLC), which is defined by the ITU as the 5G technology opens additional opportunities for indoor communications. Dual-purpose LED lighting/transmission is efficient means of communications with the multi-Gb/s speed of transmission and covering offices and homes and similar structures.

All above mentioned technologies with their advantages and issues are analyzed in this report, which addresses corresponding markets and applications as well.

The report also surveys 802.11ad and VLC related patents (2017-2018).

The report is written for a wide audience of technical and managerial staff involved in indoor communications development.

1.0 Introduction
1.1 General
1.2 Statistics
1.3 Scope
1.4 Structure
1.5 Research Methodology
1.6 Target Audience
2.0 Wireline ICT
2.1 PLC – HomePlug
2.1.1 HomePlug Alliance Goal Timetable
2.1.2 HomePlug AV2 Advances HomePlug AV2-mimo General Certification Major Improvements Specification Details MIMO Role Industry
GigaFast Ethernet
Lea Networks
Qualcomm Atheros
2.2 HomePNA and ITU MIMO-based Technologies
2.2.1 HomePNA Alliance (HomeGrid Forum)
2.2.2. Specifications General HomePNA Specification 3.1: Major Features Fast EoC HomePNA Major Benefits ITU General Details Differences Common Features Acceptance HomePNA and Documents – G.9963 Drivers G.9963 Details Industry
2.3 MoCA (Multimedia over Coax Alliance)
2.3.1 General
2.3.2 Partnerships
2.3.3 Details MoCA 2.0 MoCA 2.0 Technical Highlights MoCA 2.5
2.3.4 Samples of Vendors
2.3.5 Comparison
3.0 Wireless ICT
3.1 IEEE 802.11ac
3.1.1 Approval
3.1.2 Advanced Wi-Fi Standard
3.1.3 Major Features: Summary
3.1.4 Benefits
3.1.5 Usage Models
3.1.6 Waves
3.1.7 Market Projections
3.1.8 Industry
Redpine Signals
3.1.9 MIMO and 802.11ac Standard Comparison
3.2 P802.11ax
3.2.1 Scope
3.2.2 Pre-standard Products
3.3 60 GHz WLAN
3.3.1 Benefits and Issues
3.3.2 WiGig Alliance Specification: 60 GHz Wi-Fi WiGig Protocol Adaption Layer Specifications WiGig Bus Extension and WiGig Serial Extension Specification WiGig Display Extension Specification Union
3.3.3 IEEE 802.11ad – 60 GHz Wi-Fi Status Coexistence Scope Channelization PHY MAC Specifics Use Cases Industry
Blu Wireless
SiBeam (a Lattice Company)
TP-Link Market Market Drivers Estimate
3.3.4 P802.11ay – Next Generation 60 GHz Wi-Fi Purpose and Schedule Scope
3.4 Visible Light Communications (VLC)
3.4.1 VLC – Innovation
3.4.2 LED Specifics Properties Spectrum
3.4.3 Types
3.4.4 LED Modulation Limitations
3.4.5 LED – Dual Functionality
3.4.6 Developments - History
3.4.7 Technical/Economic Characteristics
3.4.8 Communications Aspects: VLC Place Drivers Industry Activity VLC Standards Development The IEEE 802.15.7 Standard Considerations Project IEEE802.15.7r1 JEITA (Japan Electronics and Information Technology Industries Association) Standards JEITA CP-1221 JEITA CP-1222 JEITA CP-1223 (2013) Visible Light Communications Association (VLCA) General Experimental Systems- VLCA Projects ARIB T50 ECMA 397-2010 Li-Fi Consortium
3.4.9 VLC Channel - Details General Communications Channel Transmitter Receiver Image Sensors LED as Receiver Major Characteristics General Modulation VLC Channel: Characteristics Summary Emerging Areas Limitations
3.4.10 Applications: Summary Indoor VLC Channel
3.4.11 Market
3.4.12 Industry
Firefly Wireless Networks
Nakagawa Laboratories
Outstanding Technology
Supreme Architecture
3.4.13 5G View Attocell Cell Structures
5.0 Conclusions
Attachment I: 802.11ad – related Patents Survey (2017-2018)
Attachment II: VLC – related Patents Survey (2017-2018)
Figure 1: HomePlug Major Milestones
Figure 2: HomePlug AV2 Features
Figure 3: MIMO HomePlug AV2 Channels
Figure 4: ITU and HomePNA Standards
Figure 5: Standards and Technologies
Figure 6: HomePNA and Characteristics
Figure 7: G.9963-MIMO (2x2)
Figure 8: MIMO -Details
Figure 9: Maximum Theoretical PHY Rates (home media-wireline communications)
Figure 10: Comparative Characteristics
Figure 11: - Frequency-Rate Characteristics
Figure 12: MoCA Roadmap
Figure 13: Comparative Characteristics: MoCA Technologies
Figure 14: Comparison
Figure 15: Evolution of 802.11 Technology
Figure 16: Properties – 802.11ac
Figure 17: Channel Assignment-802.11ac
Figure 18: Specifics-802.11ac
Figure 19: Rates/Spatial Streams – 802.11ac
Figure 20: Usage Models – 802.11ac
Figure 21: 802.11ac WAVEs
Figure 22: Estimate-802.11ac Consumers AP Shipping-Global (Bil. Units)
Figure 23: Projections-802.11ac Consumers AP Shipping-Global ($B)
Figure 24: Estimate: Global Shipping – 802.11ac MU-MIMO Consumers AP ($B)
Figure 25: 802.11n vs. 802.11ac
Figure 26: Preliminary Schedule
Figure 27: Characteristics – 802.11ac and 802.11ax
Figure 28: 802.11ad Major Features
Figure 29: PHY Characteristics – 802.11ad
Figure 30: 802.11ad MAC Structure
Figure 31: Use Cases – 802.11ad
Figure 32: Estimate: Global Sales of 802.1ad Chipsets (Bil. Units)
Figure 33: Estimate: Global Sales of 802.11ad Chipsets ($B)
Figure 34: 802.11ay – Proposed Timeline
Figure 35: LED Structure
Figure 36: Spectrum (450-750 nm – visible)
Figure 37: Wavelengths (nm)
Figure 38: LED Properties Illustration
Figure 39: Laser vs. LED
Figure 40: Estimate: U.S. Lighting LED Market ($B)
Figure 41: Estimate: U.S. Lighting LED Market (Bil. Units)
Figure 42: LED Price Factor (Cents/Lumen)
Figure 43: Cost and Brightness- Light Sources
Figure 44: WPAN/WLAN Family and VLC
Figure 45: Use Cases - VLC
Figure 46: Devices and Characteristics - VLC
Figure 47: Frequency Plan – 802.15.7
Figure 48: Illustration-VLC Channel
Figure 49: VLC Properties
Figure 50: VLC Applications
Figure 51: VLC, IR and RF Communications ITS Applications Comparison
Figure 52: Locations Technologies-VLC Place
Figure 53: Estimate – Global VLC Market ($B)

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