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“5G: Small Cells and Mobile Backhaul” Markets, Technologies and Applications

“5G: Small Cells and Mobile Backhaul” Markets, Technologies and Applications

Practel is following the small cell development from the beginning of their commercialization and contributed several technical/marketing reports to this subject.

This report updates previous studies as well as adds the new information. The report presents in detail and in easily understandable terms independent, unbiased analysis, which reflects progress in small cells and their backhauls solutions developments. Through vendors’ interviews and the analysis of other multiple data sources, the report provides latest, accurate marketing and technological information.

In particular, the report provides the analysis of dynamically evolving small cells technologies, concentrating on their advantages, varieties and specifics. Major applications are analyzed and standardization developments are emphasized. Based on the in-depth industry analysis, which included the analysis of multiple studies and interviews with vendors, market prognoses (2018-2022) are presented. The survey of more than thirty-five small cell equipment vendors and their portfolios are also provided. It is shown that 4G mobile technologies (and later, 5G) will concentrate on building HetNets in which small cells play an important role.

The report emphasizes that the small cells backhaul solution may prove or brake the small cell business case. Specifics of small cells backhauls, their varieties and differences from macro cells backhauls are analyzed in details. The need for standardization is emphasized. The study of industry trends, interviews with vendors and the analysis of publically available statistical data helped to perform the marketing analysis. The survey of vendors (about 30 manufacturers of small cells backhaul solutions) reflects this industry specifics and trends. There is a range of use cases for open access small cells, from targeted demand hotspots in city centers, through generalized capacity uplift, to serving not-spots in remote rural areas. In each case the emphasis on backhaul requirements shifts, and aspects that are critical to one type of deployment can be relaxed in others. Solutions with different characteristics will address the needs of different types of small cells backhaul in different areas.

Attachments contain the in-depth analysis of promising small cell microwave and Wi-Fi backhaul solutions:
1. 60 GHz technologies (V-band). Both Ethernet radio and 802.11ad solutions are addressed. Marketing and technical specifics are described in details. The survey of vendors is also provided. The 802.11ay standard - to be approved – has been also analyzed.
2. 802.11ac. The technology supports throughput, range and other characteristics that satisfy small cell backhaul requirements. Authors analyzed specifics of 802.11ac as they relate to the small cell backhaul application; they also analyzed the market and vendors’ portfolios. Next generation technology – 802.11ax – to be approved – is also detailed.
3. E-band radio. Popularity of this radio for discussed applications is growing; and this trend will be even more pronounced approaching the 5G era.

Wireless backhauls for SCs are prevailing now and it is expected that they will keep this leadership position in future.

The report is written for a wide audience of telecommunications specialists who deal with complicated choices in mobile networking to support business cases.


1.0 Introduction
1.1 General
1.2 Current Situation and Role of Small Cells
1.3 SC Backhaul
1.4 Scope
1.5 Report Structure
1.6 Research Methodology
1.7 Target Audience
2.0 Mobile Technologies Generations
2.1 4G Specifics
2.1.1 Traffic Volumes and SC
2.1.2 From 3G to 4G
2.1.3 4G Distinguished Features
2.1.3.1 HetNet
2.2 5G Specifics
2.2.1 5G Timetable (3GPP-ITU) and SCs
2.2.2 5G Advances
2.3 Process
3.0 Small Cells Development
3.1 Rational
3.2 Nomenclature
3.2.1 Group
3.3 Background
3.4 Applications
3.4.1 Indoor Use Cases
3.4.2 Outdoor Use Cases
3.4.3 Public Safety Communications
3.4.4 Summary
3.5 Benefits and Issues
3.6 Small Cell Market
3.6.1 Market Geography
3.6.2 Estimate
3.7 Standardization
3.7.1 Organizations
3.7.1.1 Small Cell Forum
3.7.1.2 3GPP and Other
3.7.2 First Standard
3.7.3 Standard Interfaces – 3GPP
3.7.4 3GPP Rel.12 and SCs
3.8 Small Cell Industry
Airspan
AirHop Communications
Alpha Networks
Argela
Broadcom (acquired by Avago in 2015)
BTI Wireless
Cavium
Cisco
CommScope
Contela
Ericsson
Fujitsu
Juniper
Huawei
ip.access
Intel
Gilat
Juni
NEC
Nokia
Qualcomm
Radisys
Samsung
Spider Cloud (acquired by Corning in 2017)
TI
Xilinx
ZTE
4.0 Small Cell Backhaul
4.1 General
4.1.1 Classifications
4.2 Specifics
4.2.1 Change
4.2.2 Differences
4.3 Parameters
4.3.1 Factors
4.3.2 Planning
4.4 Need for Standardization
4.5 Market Characteristics
4.5.1 Components
4.5.2 TCO Factor
4.6 Small Cell Backhaul Industry
Actelis (wireline)
Airspan (integrated wireless backhaul – 802.11ac - NLOS)
Bluwan (42 GHz)
BLiNQ (sub – 6 GHz)
Cambium (sub-6 GHz)
Cambridge Broadband (Microwave Backhaul)
CCS (26 GHz and up)
Ceragon (sub-6 GHz and other)
DragonWave (microwave)
Exalt (Microwave)
Intracom (Microwave)
Genesis (wireline)
MAX4G (Microwave)
Polewall (FSO)
Radwin (sub-6 GHz)
Tarana (LoS, NLoS 3 GHz)
Trango System
TI (NLoS)
4.7 Summary
5.0 Conclusions
Attachment A: SC Backhaul – 60 GHz Wireless Technologies
A.1 V-band Radio: General
A.2 60 GHz Radio Specifics
A.2.1 Spectrum
A.2.2 Oxygen Absorption
A.2.3 Antenna Focus
A.2.4 Combined Effects
A.2.5 Availability
A.2.6 Progress in Chip Technology for mmWave Spectrum
A.2.6.1 Modulation and Duplexing
A.1.6.2 Antenna
A.1.6.2.1 Indoor Behavior
A.1.6.2.2 Outdoor Behavior – FCC Modifications
A.2.7 Summary
A.2.8 60 GHz Radio Developments and Market
A.2.8.1 Synopsis
A.2.8.2 Market Estimate
A.2.8.2.1 General
A.2.8.2.2 Drivers
A.2.8.2.3 Forecast
A.2.9 60 GHz Radio – SC Backhaul Choice
A.2.10 Industry
BridgeWave
Fastback
IgniteNet
SIAE MICROELETTRONICA
Ceragon
DragonWave
Intracom
Infineon
Lattice
Lightpointe
NEC
Plasma Antennas
Siklu
Solectek
A.3 60 GHz Wi-Fi – 802.11ad/ay
A.3.1 Advanced Wi-Fi: Benefits and Issues
A.3.2 WiGig Alliance
A.3.2.1 Union
A.3.3 IEEE 802.11ad – 60 GHz Wi-Fi
A.3.3.1 Status
A.3.3.2 Coexistence
A.3.3.3 Scope
A.3.3.3.1 Channelization
A.3.3.3.2 PHY
A.3.3.3.3 MAC
A.3.3.3.4 Specifics
A.3.3.3.5 Summary
A.3.3.3.6 802.11ad and SC Backhaul
A.3.3.4 Industry
Analog Devices
Blu Wireless
Broadcom
Collaboration (InterDigital, imec, Peraso)
Intel
InterDigital-BlueWireless
Lattice
Nitero
Peraso
Tensorcom
Qualcomm Atheros
Additional Information
A.3.3.5 Certification
A.3.3.6 Market
A.3.3.6.1 Market Drivers
A.3.3.6.2 Usage Models
A.3.3.6.3 Estimate
A.4 802.11ay
A.4.1 Need
A.4.2 Opportunity
A.4.3 Scope
Attachment B: 802.11ac and SC Backhaul
B.1 Approval
B.2 General – Improving 802.11n Characteristics
B.3 Major Features
B.4 Major Benefits
B.4.1 Waves
B.5 Usage Models
B.6 Market Projections
B.7 Industry
Airspan Networks
Aruba – HP
Broadcom
Buffalo
Cisco
D-Link
Huawei
Linksys
Mimosa
Marvell
Netgear
Qorvo
Quantenna
Redpine Signals
B.8 802.11ax
B.8.1 Background
B.8.2 Focal Points
B.8.3 Major Features
B.8.4 Major Applications
B.8.5 Physical Layer
B.8.5.1 Multi-User Operation
B.8.5.2 Role of MU-MIMO
B.8.5.3 Multi-User OFDMA
B.8.6 MAC
B.8.6.1 Spatial Reuse with Color Codes
B.8.6.2 Power-saving with Target Wake Time
B.8.6.3 Density
B.8.6.4 802.11ax Operating Modes
B.8.7 Further Development
B.8.8 Industry
Asus
Broadcom
Huawei
Marvell
Quantenna
Qualcomm
Attachment C: E-band Radio - SC Backhaul Solution
C.1 Benefits
C1.1 Typical Characteristics
C.2 Market
C.3 Vendors
Aviat
DragonWave
E-band Communications
Fujitsu
Intracom
Infineon
LightPointe
Loea
NEC
Siklu
Figure 1: Mobile Data Traffic Growth – Global (Petabytes/Month)
Figure 2: ITU-R Schedule for IMT-2020 Development
Figure 3: 3GPP – Tentative Timeline – 5G Standardization
Figure 4: Major Network Characteristics – 5G
Figure 5: mmWave Advantages
Figure 6: Macro vs Small BS – Shipped (Ratio)
Figure 7: BS: Characteristics and Classification
Figure 8: SC Parameters
Figure 9: SC Use Cases Examples
Figure 10: Estimate: SC Global Shipments (Mil. Units)
Figure 11: Estimate: SC Global Shipments ($B)
Figure 12: SCs and 3GPP Releases
Figure 13: 3GPP Rel. 12 SC Enhancements
Figure 14: Scenario 1
Figure 15: Scenario 2
Figure 16: SC Backhaul Illustration
Figure 17: SC Backhaul Types
Figure 18: (a) Non-ideal; (b) Ideal SC Backhaul Characteristics
Figure 19: Technological Changes
Figure 20: Summary: Specifics of Backhauls - SCs vs Macrocells
Figure 21: Estimate: SC Backhaul - Global Market ($B)
Figure 22: Estimate: Global Market – SC Microwave Backhaul ($B)
Figure 23: PMP and PTP Architectures
Figure 24: Summary: SC Backhauling Choices: Benefits and Limitations
Figure 25: 60 GHz Radio Use Cases
Figure 26: RF Signals Attenuation in 60 GHz Band
Figure 27: Signal Absorption
Figure 28: Directivity
Figure 29: Bands Features Comparison - Illustration
Figure 30: 60 GHz Links Characteristics
Figure 31: 60 GHz Link Characteristics
Figure 32: Global Market - SC Backhaul - 60 GHz Radio ($B)
Figure 33: 60 GHz SC Backhaul Characteristics
Figure 34: Licensed and Unlicensed Bands Transmission
Figure 35: 802.11ad Major Features
Figure 36: 802.11ad PHY - Modulation
Figure 37: 802.11ad MAC
Figure 38: Summary
Figure 39: 60 GHz Wi-Fi Usage Models
Figure 40: Estimate: Wi-Fi Chipsets Sales – Global (Bil. Units)
Figure 41: Estimate: Global Sales Wi-Fi Chipsets ($B)
Figure 42: Estimate: Global Sales-802.11ad Chipsets (Bil. Units)
Figure 43: Estimate: Global Sales-802.11ad Chipsets ($B)
Figure 44: Functionalities – 802.11ac
Figure 45: Channel Assignment: 802.11ac
Figure 46: Rates: 802.11ac
Figure 47: Channel Size-Rate
Figure 48:802.11ac Waves
Figure 49: Usage Models
Figure 50: Estimate: 802.11ac Consumers AP Shipping - Global (Bil. Units)
Figure 51: Estimate- 802.11ac Consumers AP Shipping – Global ($B)
Figure 52: Comparison – Wi-Fi Characteristics
Figure 53: PHY: 802.11ax vs 802.11ac
Figure 54: Illustration – E-band Radio – Backhauling Mobile Network
Figure 55: Regulations
Figure 56: E-Band Radio Generations
Figure 57: Estimate: Global Market-SC Backhaul-E-band Radio ($B)

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