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Mongolia - Telecoms, Mobile and Internet


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Mongolia aims high to launch own satellite by 2015 as it drives towards ‘ICT Vision 2021’

Since the Mongolian Government’s telecommunications reform program in the mid-1990s, there has been effective liberalisation of all market segments, partial privatisation of the fixed-line incumbent operator, Mongolia Telecom, and establishment of an independent regulator. Mongolia acceded to the WTO in 1997.

Competition is in place for both fixed and mobile telephony including local, long-distance and international, internet, VoIP and VSATs. The internet market is a growing sector supported by government initiatives such as the e-Mongolia National Program and ICT Vision 2021.

Although the fixed-line network is declining as per other markets in Asia, the mobile phone market has seen strong growth, spurred by the launch of 3G networks more recently and the increased popularity of smart phones. The national policy has been to have a competitive telecommunications segment with two CDMA and two GSM mobile telephone service operators. Accordingly, two additional mobile licences were awarded in 2005/06 to Unitel (GSM) and rural mobile operator G-Mobile (CDMA).

As part of the transition to a market-based economy, Mongolia committed itself to modernising its telecommunications network and steadily introducing advanced communications services. The government considers national infrastructure development as a high priority and, in particular, it has focused on the development of the telecoms sector, seeing it as central to the overall development of the country, the improvement of living standards, increasing foreign investment, boosting tourism and private sector development, and implementation of innovative changes.

Market highlights:

Cabinet approved Mongolia’s first satellite in late 2012, making clear the height of the country’s ambitions for improving ICT and transforming the economy into a knowledge-based economy by 2021.

In addition to the satellite project, the National Broadband Programme (2011-15) is a government plan to ensure that over 50% of households have access to inexpensive broadband connections for bandwidth-intensive services, high-speed internet and television. The government also plans for 40% of households in remote areas to have access to a wireless broadband service.

Mongolia has been quickly rising through the ranks of global networking surveys. In the Networked Readiness Index 2011-12 released by the World Economic Forum, Mongolia achieved 63th place out of the 143 counties surveyed compared to 85th out of 138 nations in 2010-11.

Coverage in rural areas improved into 2013, with a World Bank-funded project creating a network of 152 satellite public telephones for herders in remote areas beyond the reach of mobile networks.

4G or long-term evolution (LTE) technologies are expected to be deployed in the next few years as the market shifts from traditional voice and message services and their associated declining margins, to a future revenue stream from services such as IPTV, high-speed mobile internet, VoIP, content and applications

Mongolia – key telecom parameters – 2006; 2009, 2013 (e)
Sector | 2006 | 2009 | 2013 (e)
Internet users | 310,000 | 355,000 | 420,000
Fixed-line subscribers | 195,000 | 189,000 | 175,000
Mobile phone subscribers | 775,000 | 2,250,000 | 3,750,000
Mobile penetration rate | 30% | 84% | 123%
(Source: BuddeComm based on industry data)
Mongolia is a small country with predominantly basic telecommunications services. The report covers trends and developments in telecommunications, mobile, internet and broadband.

Subjects include:

Market and industry analyses, trends and developments;
Facts, figures and statistics;
Industry and regulatory issues;
Infrastructure;
Major players, subscribers;
Internet;
Mobile voice and data markets;
Broadband (FttH, DSL, cable TV).


1. Executive summary
2. Key statistics
3. Country Overview
3.1 Background
3.2 Mongolia’s economy
4. Regulatory environment
4.1 Background
4.2 Communications Regulatory Commission (CRC)
4.3 Information Communication Technology and Post Authority of Mongolia (ICTPA)
4.3.1 National information technology park
4.3.2 National data centre
4.4 National ICT Committee
4.5 CIO Council
5. Telecommunications market
5.1 Overview of Mongolia’s telecom market
5.2 Mongolia’s telecom market – financial statistics
5.3 Mongolian Information and Communications Vision 2010
5.4 Interconnection
5.5 Policy progress – 2010
5.6 ICT Vision 2021
5.7 Number of licensees – 2009 – 2012
5.8 Law on unfair competition
6. Telecommunications infrastructure
6.1 National telecom network
6.1.1 Rural services
6.2 Fixed-line statistics
6.3 Wireless local loop statistics
6.4 International infrastructure
6.5 Satellite program
6.6 Satellite band usage in Mongolia
6.7 Chronological data of ICT developments in Mongolia
7. Vision of e-Mongolia
7.1 e-Mongolia status June 2009
7.2 E-government
7.3 Online services
7.3.1 E-commerce and e-banking
7.3.2 E-Signatures
7.4 International ranking
8. Internet market
8.1 Overview
8.2 Internet statistics
8.3 Internet infrastructure statistics
8.4 Mongolia internet Exchange (MIX)
8.5 ISP market
8.6 ISP charges
9. Broadband market
9.1 Overview
9.2 National broadband program of Mongolia
9.3 Broadband statistics
9.4 Wi-Fi
10. Television services
10.1 Satellite and terrestrial television services
10.2 Cable, DTH and MMDS television services
10.3 Digital TV
10.4 IPTV and Mobile TV
10.5 Television broadcasting standards by network type
11. Mobile communications Market
11.1 Overview of Mongolia’s mobile market
11.2 Mobile statistics
11.3 Mobile charges
11.4 3G Services
12. Fixed network operators in Mongolia
12.1 Mongolia Telecom
12.2 Mongolian Railways Communications
12.3 Ulusnet
13. Mobile network operators in Mongolia
13.1 MobiCom
13.2 SkyTel
13.3 Unitel
13.4 G-Mobile
14. Related reports
Table 1 – Country statistics Mongolia – 2013
Table 2 – Telecom revenue and investment statistics – 2012
Table 3 – Telephone network statistics – 2011
Table 4 – Internet user statistics – 2011
Table 5 – Mobile statistics – 2011
Table 6 – National telecommunications authorities
Table 7 – GDP and foreign direct investment: 2003 – 2015
Table 8 – Total revenue and investment of ICT sector and tax contribution – 2005 – 2011
Table 9 – ICT sector revenue breakdown – 2011
Table 10 – Licensees by service – 2009 – 2012
Table 11 – Fixed lines in service and teledensity – 1990, 1995 – 2013
Table 12 – Local fixed-line telephone traffic – 1997 – 2009
Table 13 – Wireless local loop (WLL) lines in service – 2003 – 2011
Table 14 – L and S band usage – July 2012
Table 15 – C band usage – July 2012
Table 16 – Ku band usage – July 2012
Table 17 – Internet users – 1995 – 2013
Table 18 – Total fixed-line internet subscribers – 1998 – 2011
Table 19 – Total internet subscribers – 2005 – 2012
Table 20 – Different types of access to the internet – 2010
Table 21 – International internet bandwidth – 2000 – 2010
Table 22 – Number of PCs – 2000 – 2009
Table 23 – Market share of ISPs – 2009 – 2010
Table 24 – Broadband internet subscribers – 2001 – 2012
Table 25 – DSL subscribers – 2001 - 2010
Table 26 – TV subscribers by technology and TV sets – 2004 - 2009
Table 27 – Cable, DTH and MMDS TV subscribers – 2004 - 2011
Table 28 – Market share of CATV operators – 2009
Table 29 – TV license type, frequency, technical standard and coverage – 2012
Table 30 – Mobile total subscribers, prepaid subscribers, annual change and penetration rate – 1996 - 2014
Table 31 – Mobile operators and subscribers – June 2009, December 2010
Table 32 – Domestic mobile telephone traffic – 1999 - 2009
Table 33 – MMS and SMS traffic – 2000 - 2009
Table 34 – Mobile communication charges per minute – 2010
Table 35 – Telecom Mongolia revenue, EBITDA, net income – 2006 - 2011
Chart 1 – Mongolia GDP, GDP per capita and foreign direct investment: 2003 – 2012
Chart 2 – Total revenue and investment of ICT sector and tax contribution – 2005 – 2011
Chart 3 – ICT sector revenue breakdown – 2010
Chart 4 – Fixed and mobile market share by subscribers – 1998 – 2014
Chart 5 – Fixed lines in service and teledensity – 1998 – 2014
Chart 6 – Types of access to the internet – 2010
Chart 7 – Mobile subscribers and penetration – 1998 - 2014
Chart 8 – Mobile operator market share – June 2012
Chart 9 – Mobile communication charges per minute by operator – 2006 - 2010
Exhibit 1 – Map of Mongolia
Exhibit 2 – Chronological events of ICT developments in Mongolia – 1921 – 2011
Exhibit 3 – e-Mongolia programme – targets – 2009; 2012; 2015

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