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2006-2007 Europe - Telecoms, Mobile and Broadband in Balkans and South East Europe


Attention: There is an updated edition available for this report.

This report covers Albania, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Greece, Macedonia (FYROM), Romania, Serbia and Montenegro. Trends and developments in telecommunications, mobile, Internet, broadband, digital TV and converging media including VoIP, VoD and IPTV developments. Subjects include:

Market and industry analyses, trends and developments
Facts, figures and statistics
Industry and regulatory issues
Research, Marketing, Benchmarking
Major Players, Revenues, Subscribers, Prepaid
VoIP, IPTV, VoD, digital TV and DTTV


Telecommunications in the ten countries that comprise the Balkans is following the path taken by neighbouring Central Eastern Europe, with numerous markets liberalised. Incumbents still dominate but are under attack, with alternative operators steadily gaining fixed-line subscribers. Recognising that they can only delay the eventual onset of competition, broadband and convergence services have been chosen by the incumbents as new revenue growth areas. Hence ADSL take up is growing very rapidly, a trend that we expect will continue in 2007, with incumbents expected to eventually launch convergence offerings such as IPTV, once they have established a sizeable broadband base.

Mobile penetration levels are growingly strongly, although markets are maturing in some cases. Fierce competition is forcing the operators to focus on increasing postpaid user penetration and mobile content in order to stabilise ARPU levels, a strategy that will become increasingly common in the region during 2007 and beyond as mobile voice subscriber growth declines. With this mind, third generation networks will be increasingly relied upon to generate mobile data revenue, although we believe non-SMS/MMS mobile data usage will depend on what content/pricing propositions the operators are able to offer.

Key Highlights
Both Bulgaria and Romania have liberalised their markets as part of EU requirements, with alternative operators making significant progress in the fixed-line market in Romania. However alternative operators in the two countries have complained of the tactics used by the incumbent to delay offering access, a tactic seen all too well in each EU country which liberalised its fixed-line market. As seen in Western Europe, the incumbents will eventually accept the regulator’s authority rather than raise objections to every decision they make, but this will take time. Croatia, Macedonia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Albania, and Serbia and Montenegro have also liberalised their markets with important developments such as the issuing of reference interconnect offers concluded. Greece has finally transposed the EU’s regulatory framework for communications into national law, a move that will benefit competition and help drive broadband growth, which is among the lowest of all 25 EU nations. Telekom Srpske, one of the three incumbent operators in Bosnia-Herzegovina, was in the process of being privatised in late 2006, which follows the successful privatisation of the country’s publicly-owned mobile operator. Privatisation plans were also underway in Greece, Macedonia and Romania for each country’s respective fixed-line incumbent. Transferring public ownership of incumbent operators to the private sector will allow the country’s regulators to focus on their jobs, ultimately benefiting competition in the long term.

Increased large-scale international merger and acquisition activity is being witnessed leading to the emergence of regional players in the non-mobile markets such as Hungary’s Magyar Telekom, Greece’s OTE, Romania’s RCS/RDS and Liberty Global’s UPC, a trend which is expected to continue due to recently liberalised markets.

As seen in the Central European markets after they underwent liberalisation in 2004, the incumbents in the more liberalised markets are driving ADSL take up. The untapped financial potential of underdeveloped broadband markets offers a new revenue source for incumbents suffering from competition in low-growth potential fixed-line voice markets. We believe broadband uptake is most likely to expand in two phases; in the first phase due to the incumbents who wish to catch the benefits of first-mover advantage, with serious competition only expected from the cable operators, and the second phase, when alternative operators are able to gain better access to LLU-based services once suitable interconnection and access regimes are in place and enforced. The big question hangs over the impact wireless will have on markets and in particular, technologies such as WiMAX.

WiMAX networks have been deployed in Serbia and in Croatia by the incumbent and an alternative operator, which has deployed a WiBRO network. A mesh WiFi network that will provide nationwide broadband connectivity is under construction in Macedonia, with all of the country’s schools already connected. NGN/VoIP deployments are underway in Croatia by both the incumbent and alternative operators, in Greece by an alternative operator, in Macedonia by the incumbent operator, in Romania by the incumbent operator and in Bulgaria by the incumbent operator. The desire to offer broadband and convergence services are driving NGN/VoIP deployments, with more deployments likely as the strategy of focusing on broadband and convergence becomes more common.

Triple play services are offered by the cable operators, with Croatia’s fixed-line incumbent announcing plans to offer services. An alternative operator has launched a competing triple play offer to that of the incumbent in Cyprus, based on its ADSL2+ network. ADSL2+ networks have also provided the base for triple play services by a Greek alternative operator.

Romania has seen four digital satellite pay TV operators enter the market, with the largest and most successful player expanding services into Hungary, Slovakia and the Czech Republic, with plans to enter Serbia and Croatia. Strong growth has been recorded across most mobile markets, although low annual growth rates in Bosnia and Greece suggest saturated markets. With numerous markets approaching maturity, operators are attempting to maintain revenue growth momentum through increasing ARPU levels. Strategies used include encouraging migration to postpaid plans, differentiated tariff plans and encouraging mobile data and content usage.

3G will become increasingly important in the near future as the focus shifts to mobile data and content usage. However widespread uptake will be challenged in the short/medium term by the lack of desirable mobile content, lack of awareness/familiarity with mobile content services and penetration of 3G-capable handsets.

Commercial 3G services launched during 2006 were witnessed in Romania and Bulgaria, with HSDPA services launched in Romania, Bulgaria and Croatia. Romania’s third and fourth UMTS licences were awarded in October 2006, with an established CDMA operator and the country’s second largest cable operator emerging victorious. The mobile arm of the country’s fixed-line incumbent missed out in the beauty pageant-style tender.

1. ALBANIA
1.1 Key statistics
1.2 Telecommunications market
1.2.1 Overview of Albania’s telecom market
1.3 Regulatory environment
1.3.1 Background
1.3.2 Regulatory authority
1.3.3 Telecom sector liberalisation in Albania
1.3.4 Privatisation
1.3.5 Interconnect
1.4 Fixed network operators in Albania
1.4.1 Overview
1.4.2 Albtelecom
1.5 Telecommunications infrastructure
1.5.1 National telecom network
1.5.2 International infrastructure
1.6 Internet market
1.6.1 Overview of the Internet in Albania
1.6.1.1 Internet statistics
1.6.2 ISP market
1.7 Convergence
1.7.1 Overview of broadcasting market
1.7.2 Digital TV
1.7.2.1 Digital Terrestrial TV (DTTV)
1.7.2.2 Cable TV (CATV)
1.7.2.3 Satellite-based digital pay TV developments
1.8 Mobile communications
1.8.1 Overview of Albania’s mobile market
1.8.1.1 Mobile statistics
1.8.2 Regulatory issues
1.8.2.1 Second digital mobile licence
1.8.2.2 Third digital mobile licence
1.8.3 Mobile technologies
1.8.4 Major mobile operators
1.8.4.1 Albanian Mobile Communications (AMC)
1.8.4.2 Vodafone
1.8.5 Mobile voice services
1.8.5.1 Prepaid
1.8.6 Mobile data services
1.8.6.1 Short Message Service (SMS)
1.8.6.2 Multimedia Messaging Service (MMS)
1.8.6.3 General Packet Radio Service (GPRS)
2. BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA
2.1 Key statistics
2.2 Telecommunications market
2.2.1 Overview of Bosnia-Herzegovina’s telecom market
2.3 Regulatory environment
2.3.1 Background
2.3.1.1 Telecommunications law of 1999
2.3.1.2 Telecommunications policy March 2002
2.3.1.3 Law on Communications enacted 2002
2.3.1.4 Interconnect and access
2.3.1.5 Number portability, carrier preselection and carrier selection
2.3.1.6 Licences
2.3.1.7 Tariff rebalancing
2.3.2 Regulatory authority
2.3.3 Telecom sector liberalisation in Bosnia-Herzegovina
2.3.4 Privatisation
2.3.4.1 BH Telecom
2.3.4.2 HT Mostar
2.3.4.3 Telekom Srpske
2.4 Fixed network operators in Bosnia
2.4.1 BH Telecom
2.4.2 HT Mostar
2.4.3 Telekom Srpske
2.5 Telecommunications infrastructure
2.5.1 National telecom network
2.5.2 International infrastructure
2.6 Internet market
2.6.1 Overview of the Internet in Bosnia
2.6.1.1 Internet statistics
2.6.2 ISP market
2.7 Broadband market
2.8 Convergence
2.8.1 Overview of broadcasting market
2.8.2 Regulatory issues
2.8.3 Digital TV
2.8.3.1 Digital Terrestrial TV (DTTV)
2.8.3.2 Cable TV (CATV)
2.9 Mobile communications
2.9.1 Overview of Bosnia-Herzegovina’s mobile market
2.9.1.1 Mobile statistics
2.9.2 Regulatory issues
2.9.2.1 HT Mobile ownership dispute
2.9.2.2 National licences
2.9.3 Mobile technologies
2.9.3.1 Digital
2.9.4 Third Generation (3G) mobile
2.9.5 Mobile operators
2.9.5.1 GSM BiH
2.9.5.2 Mobilna Srpske
2.9.5.3 HT Mobile
2.9.6 Mobile voice services
2.9.6.1 Prepaid
2.9.7 Mobile data services
2.9.7.1 Short Message Service (SMS)
2.9.7.2 Multimedia Messaging Service (MMS)
2.9.7.3 Wireless Application Protocol (WAP)
2.9.7.4 General Packet Radio Service (GPRS)
2.9.7.5 Enhanced Data for GSM Evolution (EDGE)
3. BULGARIA
3.1 Key statistics
3.2 Telecommunications market
3.2.1 Overview of Bulgaria’s telecom market
3.3 Regulatory environment
3.3.1 Background
3.3.1.1 Electronic Communications Act 2006
3.3.2 Regulatory authority
3.3.3 Telecom sector liberalisation in Bulgaria
3.3.4 Privatisation
3.3.4.1 GSM licence problems
3.3.4.2 History
3.3.4.3 New auction process commenced 2002
3.3.4.4 Negotiations with Advent consortium
3.3.4.5 Sale to Advent abandoned and negotiations opened with Turkish consortium
3.3.4.6 Successful appeal by Advent
3.3.5 Interconnection
3.3.6 Access
3.3.7 Number portability
3.3.8 Carrier selection / carrier preselection
3.3.9 New regulatory developments
3.3.9.1.1 WiMAX licences
3.3.9.1.2 26GHz licences
3.3.9.1.3 Terrestrial Trunked Radio (TETRA)
3.4 Fixed network operators in Bulgaria
3.4.1 Overview of operators
3.4.1.1 Bulgarian Telecommunications Company (BTC)
3.4.1.2 Orbitel
3.4.1.3 xTel
3.4.1.4 SpectrumNet
3.5 Telecommunications infrastructure
3.5.1 National telecom network
3.5.2 International infrastructure
3.5.2.1 Submarine cable networks
3.5.2.2 Satellite networks
3.5.3 Infrastructure developments
3.5.3.1 Next Generation Networks (NGNs)
3.5.3.2 Fibre-to-the-Home (FttH) networks
3.5.4 Telecoms & IT
3.6 Internet market
3.6.1 Overview of the Internet in Bulgaria
3.6.1.1 Internet statistics
3.6.2 ISP market
3.6.2.1 Bol BG
3.6.2.2 Orbitel
3.7 Broadband market
3.7.1 Cable
3.7.2 Asymmetrical Digital Subscriber Line (ADSL)
3.7.3 Wireless broadband
3.8 Convergence
3.8.1 Triple play
3.8.2 Overview of broadcasting market
3.8.3 Digital TV
3.8.3.1 Broadband TV (IPTV)
3.8.3.2 Digital Terrestrial TV (DTTV)
3.8.3.3 Cable TV (CATV)
3.8.3.3.1 CableTel
3.8.3.3.2 Eurocom
3.8.3.3.3 MSAT
3.8.4 Satellite-based digital pay TV developments
3.9 Mobile communications
3.9.1 Overview of Bulgaria’s mobile market
3.9.1.1 Mobile statistics
3.9.2 Regulatory issues
3.9.2.1 Second GSM licence
3.9.2.2 Third GSM licence
3.9.2.3 Third Generation (3G) licences
3.9.3 Mobile technologies
3.9.3.1 Analogue
3.9.3.2 Digital
3.9.3.2.1 GSM
3.9.3.2.2 TETRA
3.9.3.3 Third Generation mobile (3G)
3.9.4 Major mobile operators
3.9.4.1 RTC Mobikom / Vivatel
3.9.4.2 MobilTel / M-Tel
3.9.4.3 Cosmo Bulgaria Mobile / GloBul
3.9.5 Mobile voice services
3.9.5.1 Prepaid
3.9.6 Mobile data services
3.9.6.1 Short Message Service (SMS)
3.9.6.2 Multimedia Messaging Service (MMS)
3.9.6.3 Wireless Application Protocol (WAP)
3.9.6.4 General Packet Radio Service (GPRS)
3.9.6.5 Enhanced Data for GSM Evolution (EDGE)
3.9.6.6 i-Mode
3.9.6.7 BlackBerry
3.9.6.8 Mobile TV
3.9.7 Mobile content and applications
4. CROATIA
4.1 Key statistics
4.2 Telecommunications market
4.2.1 Overview of Croatia’s telecom market
4.3 Regulatory environment
4.3.1 Background
4.3.2 Regulatory authority
4.3.3 Privatisation
4.3.4 Telecom sector liberalisation in Croatia
4.3.5 Interconnect
4.3.6 Access
4.3.7 Number portability
4.3.8 Carrier PreSelection (CPS)
4.3.9 Regulatory issues
4.4 Fixed network operators in Croatia
4.4.1 T-Hrvatski Telekom
4.5 Telecommunications infrastructure
4.5.1 National telecom network
4.5.2 International infrastructure
4.5.3 Infrastructure developments
4.5.3.1 Wireless Local Loop (WLL)
4.5.3.2 IP and Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP)
4.6 Internet market
4.6.1 Overview of the Internet in Croatia
4.6.1.1 Internet statistics
4.6.2 ISP market
4.7 Broadband market
4.7.1 Overview
4.7.2 Asymmetrical Digital Subscriber Line (ADSL)
4.7.3 Cable modems
4.7.4 Fibre-to-the-Home (FttH) networks
4.7.5 Wireless broadband
4.7.5.1 WiFi
4.7.5.2 WiMAX
4.7.5.3 Internet via satellite
4.8 Convergence
4.8.1 Triple play models
4.8.2 Overview of broadcasting market
4.8.3 Regulatory issues
4.8.4 Digital TV
4.8.4.1 Broadband TV (IPTV)
4.8.4.2 Digital Terrestrial TV (DTTV)
4.8.4.3 Cable TV (CATV)
4.8.4.3.1 Digital City Media (DCM)
4.8.5 Satellite-based digital pay TV developments
4.9 Mobile communications
4.9.1 Overview of Croatia’s mobile market
4.9.1.1 Mobile statistics
4.9.2 Regulatory issues
4.9.2.1 Third GSM licence and 3G licences
4.9.2.2 Fourth GSM licence
4.9.3 Mobile technologies
4.9.3.1 Analogue
4.9.3.2 Digital
4.9.3.3 Third Generation (3G) mobile
4.9.4 Major mobile operators
4.9.4.1 T-Mobile Hrvatska
4.9.4.2 VIPnet
4.9.4.3 Tele2
4.9.5 Mobile voice services
4.9.5.1 Prepaid
4.9.6 Mobile data services
4.9.6.1 Short Message Service (SMS)
4.9.6.2 Multimedia Messaging Service (MMS)
4.9.6.3 Wireless Application Protocol (WAP)
4.9.6.4 General Packet Radio Service (GPRS)
4.9.6.5 Enhanced Data for GSM Evolution (EDGE)
4.9.6.6 BlackBerry
4.9.7 Mobile content and applications
4.9.7.1 M-Commerce
5. CYPRUS
5.1 Key statistics
5.2 Telecommunications market
5.2.1 Overview of the Cypriot telecom market
5.3 Regulatory environment
5.3.1 Background
5.3.2 Regulatory authority
5.3.3 Telecom sector liberalisation in Cyprus
5.3.4 Privatisation
5.3.5 Interconnect
5.3.6 Access
5.3.7 Number portability
5.3.8 Carrier preselection / Carrier selection
5.4 Fixed network operator in Cyprus
5.4.1 CyTA
5.4.2 OTEnet
5.4.3 PrimeTel
5.5 Telecommunications infrastructure
5.5.1 National telecom network
5.5.2 International infrastructure
5.5.2.1 Submarine cable networks
5.5.2.2 Satellite networks
5.6 Internet market
5.6.1 Overview of the Internet in Cyprus
5.6.2 Internet statistics
5.6.3 ISP market
5.7 Broadband market
5.7.1 Wireless broadband
5.7.2 Broadband forecasts to 2015
5.7.2.1 Scenario 1 - stronger broadband subscriber growth
5.7.2.2 Scenario 2 - slower broadband subscriber growth
5.8 Convergence
5.8.1 Overview of triple play models
5.8.2 Digital TV
5.8.2.1 Broadcasting market overview
5.8.2.2 Regulation
5.8.2.3 Broadband TV (IPTV)
5.8.2.4 Digital Terrestrial TV (DTTV)
5.8.2.5 Cable TV (CATV)
5.8.2.6 Satellite-based digital pay TV developments
5.9 Mobile communications
5.9.1 Overview of the Cypriot mobile market
5.9.1.1 Mobile statistics
5.9.2 Regulatory issues
5.9.2.1 Mobile tariffs
5.9.2.2 Mobile Number Portability (MNP)
5.9.2.3 Second GSM licence
5.9.3 Mobile technologies
5.9.3.1 Analogue
5.9.3.2 Digital
5.9.3.3 Third Generation (3G) mobile
5.9.4 Major mobile operators
5.9.4.1 Cytamobile-Vodafone
5.9.4.2 Scancom Cyprus / Areeba
5.9.4.3 KKTCell
5.9.5 Mobile voice services
5.9.6 Mobile data services
5.9.6.1 Short Message Service (SMS) and Multimedia Messaging Service (MMS)
5.9.6.2 General Packet Radio Service (GPRS)
5.9.6.3 Wireless Application Protocol (WAP)
5.9.6.4 Push-to-Talk (PTT)
5.9.6.5 Mobile TV
5.9.7 Mobile content and applications
6. GREECE
6.1 Key statistics
6.2 Telecommunications market
6.2.1 Overview of Greece’s telecom market
6.2.1.1 Statistics
6.3 Regulatory environment
6.3.1 Background
6.3.1.1 EU Regulatory Framework
6.3.1.2 Greece fails to meet the deadline
6.3.2 Regulatory authority
6.3.3 Privatisation
6.3.4 Telecom sector liberalisation in Greece
6.3.5 Interconnection
6.3.6 Access
6.3.6.1 Bitstream access
6.3.7 Number portability
6.3.8 Carrier preselection and carrier selection
6.3.9 Universal service obligations
6.4 Fixed network operators in Greece
6.4.1 Overview of operators
6.4.2 Hellenic Telecommunications Organization (OTE)
6.4.3 Tellas
6.4.4 FORTHnet
6.4.5 Teledome
6.4.6 Vivodi Telecom
6.5 Telecommunications infrastructure
6.5.1 National telecom network
6.5.1.1 OTE
6.5.1.2 Tellas
6.5.1.3 FORTHnet
6.5.1.4 Teledome
6.5.2 International
6.5.2.1 Submarine cable networks
6.5.2.2 Satellite networks
6.5.3 Infrastructure developments
6.5.4 Wholesaling
6.6 Internet market
6.6.1 Overview of the Internet in Greece
6.6.1.1 Internet statistics
6.6.2 ISP market
6.6.2.1 Major ISPs
6.6.2.1.1 FORTHnet
6.6.2.1.2 OTEnet
6.6.2.1.3 Hellas OnLine (HOL)
6.7 Broadband market
6.7.1 Overview
6.7.2 Government support
6.7.2.1 E-government infrastructure
6.7.2.2 DIODOS project
6.7.3 Broadband statistics
6.7.4 Broadband forecasts to 2015
6.7.4.1 Scenario 1 - stronger broadband subscriber growth
6.7.4.2 Scenario 2 - slower broadband subscriber growth
6.7.5 Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line (ADSL)
6.7.5.1 ADSL2+
6.7.6 Wireless broadband
6.7.6.1 Local Multipoint Distribution Service (LMDS)
6.7.6.2 WiFi
6.7.6.3 Wireless Metropolitan Area Network (MANs)
6.8 Convergence
6.8.1 Triple play
6.8.2 Overview of broadcasting market
6.8.3 Digital TV
6.8.3.1 Satellite-based digital pay TV developments
6.8.3.2 Digital Terrestrial TV (DTTV)
6.8.3.3 Broadband TV (IPTV)
6.9 Mobile communications
6.9.1 Overview of Greece’s mobile market
6.9.2 Regulatory issues
6.9.2.1 Mobile Number Portability (MNP)
6.9.2.2 Spectrum regulations and spectrum auctions
6.9.3 Mobile statistics
6.9.4 Mobile technologies
6.9.4.1 Digital
6.9.4.2 Third Generation (3G)
6.9.5 Major mobile operators
6.9.5.1 TIM Hellas
6.9.5.2 Q-Telecom
6.9.5.3 Vodafone Greece
6.9.5.4 CosmOTE
6.9.6 Mobile voice services
6.9.6.1 Prepaid
6.9.7 Mobile data services
6.9.7.1 Short Messaging Service (SMS)
6.9.7.2 Multimedia Messaging Service (MMS)
6.9.7.3 Wireless Application Protocol (WAP)
6.9.7.4 General Packet Radio Service (GPRS)
6.9.7.5 Wideband Code Division Multiple Access (WCDMA)
6.9.7.6 Mobile TV
6.9.7.7 i-Mode
6.9.7.8 BlackBerry
6.9.8 Mobile content and applications
7. MACEDONIA (FYROM)
7.1 Key statistics
7.2 Telecommunications market
7.2.1 Overview of Macedonia’s telecom market
7.3 Regulatory environment
7.3.1 Background
7.3.2 Regulatory authority
7.3.3 Telecom sector liberalisation in Macedonia
7.3.4 Privatisation
7.3.5 Interconnect
7.3.6 Access
7.3.7 Carrier selection and carrier preselection
7.3.8 Number Portability
7.4 Fixed network operator in Macedonia
7.4.1 Makedonski Telekomunikacii
7.5 Telecommunications infrastructure
7.5.1 National telecom network
7.5.2 International infrastructure
7.5.3 Infrastructure developments
7.5.3.1 Next Generation Networks (NGNs)
7.5.3.2 WiFi
7.6 Internet market
7.6.1 Overview of the Internet in Macedonia
7.6.1.1 Internet statistics
7.6.2 ISP market
7.6.2.1 MTnet
7.6.2.2 On.net
7.7 Broadband market
7.8 Convergence
7.8.1 Overview of broadcasting market
7.9 Mobile communications
7.9.1 Overview of Macedonia’s mobile market
7.9.1.1 Mobile statistics
7.9.2 Regulatory issues
7.9.2.1 Expressions of interest for GSM 900/1800 and UMTS 2100 frequencies
7.9.2.2 Radiofrequency fee dispute
7.9.3 Mobile technologies
7.9.4 Mobile operators
7.9.4.1 Mobimak
7.9.4.2 Cosmofon
7.9.5 Mobile voice services
7.9.5.1 Prepaid
7.9.6 Mobile data services
7.9.7 Mobile content and applications
8. ROMANIA
8.1 Key statistics
8.2 Telecommunications market
8.2.1 Overview of Romania’s telecom market
8.3 Regulatory environment
8.3.1 Background
8.3.2 Regulatory authority
8.3.3 Privatisation
8.3.4 Telecom sector liberalisation in Romania
8.3.5 Access
8.3.6 Interconnection
8.3.7 Carrier selection and carrier preselection
8.4 Fixed network operators in Romania
8.4.1 Overview of operators
8.4.2 Romtelecom
8.4.3 Alternative operators
8.4.3.1 RCS&RDS
8.4.3.2 Atlas Telecom
8.4.3.3 SN Radiocomunicatii
8.5 Telecommunications infrastructure
8.5.1 National telecom network
8.5.2 International infrastructure
8.5.3 Infrastructure developments
8.5.3.1 Next Generation Networks (NGNs)
8.5.4 Telecoms & IT
8.6 Internet market
8.6.1 Overview of the Internet in Romania
8.6.1.1 Internet statistics
8.6.1 ISP market
8.7 Broadband market
8.7.1 Market overview
8.7.2 Broadband forecasts to 2015
8.7.2.1 Scenario 1 - stronger broadband subscriber growth
8.7.2.2 Scenario 2 - slower broadband subscriber growth
8.7.3 Cable modems
8.7.4 Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line (ADSL)
8.7.5 LAN
8.7.6 Fibre-to-the-Home (FttH) networks
8.7.7 Broadband Powerline (BPL)
8.7.8 Wireless broadband
8.7.8.1 WiFi
8.7.8.2 Internet via satellite
8.8 Convergence
8.8.1 Triple play
8.8.2 Overview of broadcasting market
8.8.2.1 Broadcasting statistics
8.8.2.2 Romanian Television Company (TVR)
8.8.2.3 Commercial broadcasters
8.8.3 Digital TV
8.8.3.1 Digital Terrestrial TV (DTTV)
8.8.3.2 Broadband TV (IPTV)
8.8.3.3 Cable TV (CATV)
8.8.3.3.1 UPC Romania
8.8.3.3.2 Astral
8.8.3.3.3 RCS&RDS
8.8.3.4 Satellite-based digital pay TV developments
8.8.3.4.1 DigiTV
8.8.3.4.2 Focus Sat
8.8.3.4.3 DCS / Max TV
8.8.3.4.4 DTH Television Group / Boom TV
8.9 Mobile communications
8.9.1 Overview & analysis of Romania’s mobile market
8.9.1.1 Mobile Virtual Network Operators (MVNOs)
8.9.1.2 Mobile statistics
8.9.2 Regulatory issues
8.9.2.1 Third Generation (3G) licences
8.9.2.2 Additional 3G licences awarded
8.9.2.3 Interconnection tariffs
8.9.3 Mobile technologies
8.9.3.1 Analogue
8.9.3.2 Digital
8.9.3.3 Third Generation (3G) mobile
8.9.3.3.1 Vodafone
8.9.3.3.2 Orange Romania
8.9.4 Major mobile operators
8.9.4.1 Telemobil / Zapp
8.9.4.2 Vodafone
8.9.4.3 Mobil Rom / Orange Romania
8.9.4.4 Cosmote Romania
8.9.5 Mobile voice services
8.9.5.1 Prepaid services
8.9.6 Mobile data services
8.9.6.1 Short Message Service (SMS)
8.9.6.2 Multimedia Messaging Service (MMS)
8.9.6.3 Wireless Applications Protocol (WAP)
8.9.6.4 General Packet Radio Service (GPRS)
8.9.6.5 Enhanced Data for GSM Evolution (EDGE)
8.9.6.6 Broadband wireless data service (1x EVDO)
8.9.6.7 WCDMA/HSDPA
8.9.6.8 Mobile TV
8.9.6.9 BlackBerry
8.9.7 Mobile content and applications
9. SERBIA AND MONTENEGRO
9.1 Key statistics
9.2 Telecommunications market
9.2.1 Overview of Serbia and Montenegro’s telecom market
9.3 Regulatory environment
9.3.1 Background
9.3.1.1 Serbia
9.3.1.1.1 Telecommunications law of 1997
9.3.1.1.2 Telecommunications law of 2003
9.3.1.2 Montenegro
9.3.2 Regulatory authorities
9.3.2.1 Serbia
9.3.2.2 Montenegro
9.3.2.3 Kosovo
9.3.3 Telecom sector liberalisation in Serbia and Montenegro
9.3.4 Privatisation
9.3.4.1 Serbia
9.3.4.1.1 Mobi 63
9.3.4.2 Montenegro
9.3.4.3 Kosovo
9.3.5 Interconnect
9.4 Fixed network operators in Serbia and Montenegro
9.4.1 Crnogorski Telekom (Telekom Montenegro)
9.4.2 Telekom Srbija (Telekom Serbia)
9.4.3 Post and Telecom of Kosovo (PTK)
9.5 Telecommunications infrastructure
9.5.1 National telecom network and international infrastructure
9.5.1.1 Serbia
9.5.1.2 Montenegro
9.5.1.3 Kosovo
9.5.2 International infrastructure
9.5.2.1 Satellite networks
9.5.3 Infrastructure developments
9.5.3.1 Wireless Local Loop (WLL)
9.5.3.2 Next Generation Networks (NGNs)
9.5.3.3 WiMAX
9.6 Internet market
9.6.1 Overview of the Internet in Serbia and Montenegro
9.6.1.1 Internet statistics
9.6.2 Internet access locations
9.6.3 ISP market
9.6.3.1 Serbia
9.6.3.2 Montenegro
9.7 Broadband market
9.7.1 Overview
9.8 Convergence
9.8.1 Overview of broadcasting market
9.8.1.1 Serbia
9.8.1.2 Montenegro
9.8.2 Regulatory issues
9.8.2.1 Serbia
9.8.2.2 Kosovo
9.8.3 Digital TV
9.8.3.1 Cable TV (CATV)
9.8.3.2 Satellite-based digital pay TV developments
9.9 Mobile communications
9.9.1 Overview of Serbia and Montenegro’s mobile market
9.9.1.1 Mobile statistics
9.9.2 Regulatory issues
9.9.2.1 First mobile licence for Kosovo
9.9.2.2 Second mobile licence for Kosovo
9.9.2.3 Third mobile licence for Serbia
9.9.2.4 Mobtel ownership dispute
9.9.3 Mobile technologies
9.9.3.1 Analogue
9.9.3.2 Digital
9.9.3.3 Third Generation (3G) mobile
9.9.4 Major mobile operators
9.9.4.1 Mobtel/Mobi 63 (Serbia)
9.9.4.2 Telekom Srbija / Mobilna Telefonija Srbija (MTS) (Serbia)
9.9.4.3 ProMonte (Montenegro)
9.9.4.4 Monet (Montenegro)
9.9.4.5 Vala900 (Kosovo)
9.9.4.6 Mobikos (Kosovo)
9.9.5 Mobile voice services
9.9.5.1 Prepaid
9.9.6 Mobile data services
9.9.6.1 Short Message Service (SMS)
9.9.6.2 Multimedia Messaging Service (MMS)
9.9.6.3 Wireless Application Protocol (WAP)
9.9.6.4 General Packet Radio Service (GPRS)
9.9.6.5 Enhanced Data for GSM Evolution (EDGE)
10. GLOSSARY OF ABBREVIATIONS


LIST OF TABLES


Table 1 - Country statistics Albania - 2005
Table 2 - Telecom revenue and investment statistics - 2002
Table 3 - Telephone network statistics - 2005
Table 4 - Internet provider statistics - 2005
Table 5 - Internet user statistics - 2005
Table 6 - Mobile statistics - June 2006
Table 7 - National telecommunications authority
Table 8 - Fixed lines in service and teledensity - 1995 - 2005
Table 9 - Internet users and penetration - 1995 - 2004
Table 10 - Internet host computers - 1995 - 2005
Table 11 - Mobile subscribers by operator and annual change - June 2006
Table 12 - Mobile subscriber growth and penetration - 1996 - 2006
Table 13 - Country statistics Bosnia-Herzegovina - 2005
Table 14 - Telecom revenue and investment statistics - 2004
Table 15 - Telephone network statistics - 2005
Table 16 - Internet provider statistics - 2005
Table 17 - Internet user statistics - 2005
Table 18 - Mobile statistics - June 2006
Table 19 - National telecommunications authorities
Table 20 - Fixed line subscribers by operator - 2001 - 2005
Table 21 - BH Telecom - main revenue by service - 2004 - 2005
Table 22 - Fixed lines in service and teledensity - 1995 - 2005
Table 23 - Internet users and penetration - 1999 - 2005
Table 24 - Internet host computers - 1999 - 2005
Table 25 - Internet subscribers by access type and annual change - 2004 - 2005
Table 26 - Mobile subscribers by operator and annual growth - June 2006
Table 27 - Mobile subscriber growth and penetration - 1998 - 2006
Table 28 - Prepaid subscribers by operator - 2003 - 2005
Table 29 - Country statistics Bulgaria - 2005
Table 30 - Telephone network statistics - 2005
Table 31 - Internet provider statistics - 2005
Table 32 - Internet user statistics - 2005
Table 33 - Mobile statistics - June 2006
Table 34 - National telecommunications authority
Table 35 - Telecom revenue statistics & breakdown by service provided - 2001 - 2005
Table 36 - BTC - Financials and annual change - 2003 - 2005
Table 37 - BTC tariff rebalancing - May 2004 - April 2005
Table 38 - Fixed lines in service and teledensity - 1995 - 2005
Table 39 - Household fixed line penetration - 2002 - 2005
Table 40 - Internet user growth and penetration - 1995 - 2005
Table 41 - Internet host computers - 1994 - 2005
Table 42 - Internet access speeds - 2005
Table 43 - Mobile subscribers by operator and annual growth - June 2006
Table 44 - Mobile subscribers and penetration - 1995 - 2006
Table 45 - Mobile operator market share by revenue - 2003 - 2005
Table 46 - Total mobile sector revenue by service - 2003 - 2005
Table 47 - Geographic and population coverage by operator - 2005
Table 48 - GloBul - financial figures and annual change - 2004 - 2005
Table 49 - Ratio of prepaid to postpaid subscribers - 2000 - 2005
Table 50 - Total SMS sent and annual change - 2003 - 2005
Table 51 - Total MMS sent and annual change - 2003 - 2005
Table 52 - Country statistics Croatia - 2005
Table 53 - Telephone network statistics - 2005
Table 54 - Internet provider statistics - 2006
Table 55 - Internet user statistics - 2005
Table 56 - T-HT ADSL subscribers - June 2006
Table 57 - Mobile statistics - June 2006
Table 58 - National telecommunications authorities
Table 59 - T-HT revenue breakdown - 2005
Table 60 - Fixed lines in service and teledensity - 1995 - 2005
Table 61 - Internet users and penetration - 1995 - 2005
Table 62 - Internet host computers - 1995 - 2004
Table 63 - T-HT dial-up subscribers - 2003 - 2005
Table 64 - T-HT Internet subscribers - 2005
Table 65 - T-HT ADSL subscribers - 2003 - 2006
Table 66 - Audience share by broadcaster - Prime time - 2004 - 2006
Table 67 - Audience share by broadcaster - All day - 2004 - 2006
Table 68 - Mobile subscribers by operator and annual change - June 2006
Table 69 - Mobile subscriber growth and penetration - 1995 - 2006
Table 70 - T-Mobile Hrvatska prepaid subscribers - 2000 - 2005
Table 71 - Country statistics Cyprus - 2005*
Table 72 - Telephone network statistics - 2005
Table 73 - Internet provider statistics - 2005
Table 74 - Internet user statistics - 2005
Table 75 - Broadband statistics - 2005
Table 76 - Mobile statistics - June 2006
Table 77 - National telecommunications authority
Table 78 - CyTA financials: operating, assets, cash flow and capital expenditure - 2001 - 2005
Table 79 - CyTA operating income by source and annual change - 2004 - 2005
Table 80 - Fixed lines in service and teledensity - 1995 - 2005
Table 81 - Internet users and penetration - 1995 - 2005
Table 82 - Internet host computers - 1995 - 2005
Table 83 - Dial-up subscribers and annual change - 2003 - 2005
Table 84 - CyTA ADSL subscribers and annual change - 2003 - 2005
Table 85 - Broadband subscriber growth - stronger market growth scenario - 2006 - 2010; 2015
Table 86 - Broadband subscriber growth - weaker market growth scenario - 2006 - 2010; 2015
Table 87 - Mobile subscribers by operator and annual change - June 2006
Table 88 - Mobile subscriber growth and penetration - 1995 - 2006
Table 89 - Market share by operator based on turnover - 2005
Table 90 - Market share by operator based on subscribers - 2005
Table 91 - Areeba - financial data and annual change - 2004 - 2005
Table 92 - SMS and MMS traffic by operator - 2005
Table 93 - Country statistics Greece - 2006
Table 94 - Telephone network statistics - June 2006
Table 95 - Internet provider statistics - 2005
Table 96 - Internet user statistics - 2005
Table 97 - Broadband statistics - March 2006
Table 98 - Mobile statistics - June 2006
Table 99 - National telecommunications authority
Table 100 - Telecoms revenue and gross profits - 1998 - 2004
Table 101 - Telecoms revenue by operators - 1998 - 2004
Table 102 - Telecoms assets by operators - 1998 - 2004
Table 103 - Unbundled loops and access lines - March 2006
Table 104 - OTE Group financial statistics and annual change - 2005 - 2006
Table 105 - OTE operating statistics and annual change - 2004 - 2005
Table 106 - OTE operating statistics and annual change - 2005 - 2006
Table 107 - OTE voice traffic statistics - calls and minutes - 2005
Table 108 - OTE voice traffic statistics - minutes and annual change - 2005 - 2006
Table 109 - FORTHnet operating statistics and annual change - 2004 - 2005
Table 110 - Teledome financial statistics - 2001 - 2005
Table 111 - Fixed lines in service and teledensity - 1995 - 2006
Table 112 - Internet usage motivation - March 2006
Table 113 - Internet users and penetration - 1995 - 2005
Table 114 - Internet host computers - 1995 - 2005
Table 115 - Total broadband subscribers per segment and penetration - 2004 - 2006
Table 116 - OTE ADSL subscribers - 2004 - 2006
Table 117 - Broadband subscriber growth - stronger market growth scenario - 2006 - 2010; 2015 106
Table 118 - Broadband subscriber growth - weaker market growth scenario - 2006 - 2010; 2015
Table 119 - Mobile subscribers by operator and annual change - June 2006
Table 120 - Mobile subscribers and penetration - 1996 - 2006
Table 121 - Mobile market share by operator - 2004 - 2005
Table 122 - Share of new subscribers by operator - Q4 2005
Table 123 - TIM Hellas operating statistics and annual change - 2004 - 2005
Table 124 - TIM Hellas voice traffic statistics - 2001 - 2005
Table 125 - CosmOTE consolidated financial statistics - 2005 - 2006
Table 126 - CosmOTE financial statistics by operator - January - June 2006
Table 127 - CosMOTE financial statistics - 2005
Table 128 - CosMOTE mobile subscribers and annual change - June 2006
Table 129 - Country statistics Macedonia - 2005
Table 130 - Telephone network statistics - 2005
Table 131 - Internet provider statistics - 2005
Table 132 - Internet user statistics - 2005
Table 133 - Mobile statistics - June 2006
Table 134 - National telecommunications authority
Table 135 - Fixed lines in service and teledensity - 1995 - 2005
Table 136 - MT residential & business lines - 2004 - 2006
Table 137 - MT payphones & ISDN channels - 2004 - 2006
Table 138 - Internet users and penetration - 1995 - 2005
Table 139 - Internet host computers - 1995 - 2005
Table 140 - MT Internet subscribers by connection type - 2004 - 2006
Table 141 - MTnet dial-up subscribers and market share - 2004 - 2006
Table 142 - Mobile subscribers and annual change - June 2006
Table 143 - Mobile subscribers and penetration - 1997 - 2006
Table 144 - Mobimak MOU and ARPU - 2004 - 2006
Table 145 - Mobimak prepaid subscribers and total subscribers - 2004 - 2006
Table 146 - Country statistics Romania - 2005
Table 147 - Telecom revenue and investment statistics - 2005
Table 148 - Telephone network statistics - June 2006
Table 149 - Internet provider statistics - 2005
Table 150 - Internet user statistics - 2005
Table 151 - Broadband statistics - 2005
Table 152 - Mobile statistics - June 2006
Table 153 - National telecommunications authorities
Table 154 - Telecom revenue by services offered and annual change - 2003 - 2004
Table 155 - Telecoms market service providers - 2005
Table 156 - Call traffic volume and annual change - 2004 - 2005
Table 157 - Number of operators offering fixed-line services - 2003 - 2005
Table 158 - Romtelecom financial statistics - half year and annual change - 2005 - 2006
Table 159 - Romtelecom financial statistics and annual change - 2003 - 2005
Table 160 - Alternative operators - subscribers and market share - 2003 - 2005
Table 161 - Fixed lines in service and teledensity - 1995 - 2006
Table 162 - Fixed line subscribers in rural and urban areas - 2002 - 2004
Table 163 - Internet user growth and penetration - 1995 - 2005
Table 164 - Internet host computers - 1994 - 2005
Table 165 - Internet connections by connection type - 2003 - 2005
Table 166 - Active ISPs by service offered - 2003 - 2005
Table 167 - Broadband subscriber growth - stronger market growth scenario - 2006 - 2010; 2015 146
Table 168 - Broadband subscriber growth - weaker market growth scenario - 2006 - 2010; 2015
Table 169 - Active broadcasters - 2003 - 2005
Table 170 - Audience share by broadcaster - Prime time - 2004 - 2006
Table 171 - Audience share by broadcaster - All day - 2004 - 2006
Table 172 - Romanian DTH subscribers - October 2006
Table 173 - DigiTV subscribers - October 2006
Table 174 - Mobile subscribers by operator and annual change - June 2006
Table 175 - Mobile subscriber growth and penetration - 1995 - 2006
Table 176 - Market share by operator - 2003 - 2006
Table 177 - Orange Romania revenue, monthly ARPU and annual change - 2003 - 2005
Table 178 - Cosmorom financial statistics and annual change - 2005 - 2006
Table 179 - SMS traffic and annual change - 2002 - 2005
Table 180 - MMS traffic and annual change - 2003 - 2005
Table 181 - WAP Internet access connections and annual change - 2003 - 2004
Table 182 - Country statistics Serbia and Montenegro - 2005
Table 183 - Telephone network statistics - 2004
Table 184 - Internet provider statistics - 2005
Table 185 - Internet user statistics - 2005
Table 186 - Mobile statistics - June 2006
Table 187 - National telecommunications authorities
Table 188 - Telekom Montenegro - PSTN and ISDN lines in service - 2005 - 2006
Table 189 - Fixed lines in service and teledensity - 1995 - 2004
Table 190 - Telekom Montenegro - payphones and ISDN channels - 2005 - 2006
Table 191 - Telekom Montenegro - Total traffic (millions of minutes) - 2005 - 2006
Table 192 - Internet users and penetration - 1998 - 2005
Table 193 - Internet host computers - 1996 - 2004
Table 194 - Serbia dial-up subscribers - 2004 - 2005
Table 195 - Internet CG - dial-up subscribers & market share - 2005 - 2006
Table 196 - Serbian broadband subscriptions by connection type - 2004 - 2005
Table 197 - Internet CG ADSL & leased line subscribers - 2005 - 2006
Table 198 - Mobile subscribers by country and operator and annual change - June 2006
Table 199 - Mobile subscriber growth and penetration - 1998 - 2006
Table 200 - Promonte prepaid subscribers - 2004 - 2006


LIST OF EXHIBITS


Exhibit 1 - 2G auction results - July 2001
Exhibit 2 - 3G auction results - July 2001

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