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2008 Asia - Telecoms, Mobile & Broadband in Central Asia

This report provides a comprehensive overview of the trends and developments in telecommunications and digital media markets in 11 countries in Central Asia.

Subjects covered include:

  • Key Statistics;
  • Market and Industry Overviews;
  • Regulatory Environment;
  • Major Players (fixed and mobile);
  • Infrastructure;
  • Mobile Voice and Data Markets;
  • Internet, VoIP, IPTV and Broadband development.
  • Researchers:- Peter Evans and Lisa Hulme-Jones


This annual publication looks at 11 of the developing telecom markets of Asia: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Bhutan, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Mongolia, Nepal, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan.

Armenia

Armenia’s telecom sector is small but growing. With over 600,000 fixed-line subscribers for a population of around 3.5 million, the level of investment in infrastructure and new services has begun to increase. There are, however, major structural issues to be addressed in the sector. In 2004, amid growing dissatisfaction over the performance of the telecoms network, the government reached a compromise with national telecom provider, ArmenTel, ending its exclusive rights as a service provider in exchange for various other concessions, including that only one alternative mobile operator would be allowed to operate in Armenia until 2009. ArmenTel was allowed to retain sole rights to Internet telephony and the use of fibre optic cables. Previously, it had been granted exclusive rights to provide all telecom services in Armenia until 2013 (apart from data). The mobile market grew by around 75% in 2007, with K-Telecom, Armenia’s second mobile operator having a big impact on the market. Plans to award a third mobile operator licence were announced in late 2007.

Azerbaijan

Azerbaijan’s GDP growth was running at an estimated 30% coming into 2008, largely due to a rapid increase in capital investment. Much of this is foreign capital and has mainly been directed towards major oil and gas developments. On the telecommunications front, the country has been making steady progress in developing its telecom sector, but it still faces numerous problems, including poor quality infrastructure; still only around half the country’s telephone lines are digital. The monopoly held by the Ministry of Communications remains problematic. As well as being a commercial operator through its role in incumbent AzTelecom, the ministry is both policy-maker and regulator for the telecoms sector.

Bhutan

Bhutan, which for a long time preferred to remain isolated from the world, has very recently started to improve its telecoms capability. The tiny country proceeded to invest heavily - to the tune of around US$27 million - in telecom infrastructure between 1996 and 2002, providing a modern fixed-line network. To do so it has had to overcome its mountainous landscape. A mobile service launched in late 2003 by Bhutan Telecom had signed up more than 150,000 subscribers by end-2007, equivalent to about 7% penetration. A second national mobile licence was awarded in November 2006 to local industrial conglomerate, the Tashi Group. Tashi launched its mobile operations in April 2008. Accurate statistical information on Bhutan is especially difficult to obtain. In the meantime, Bhutan has moved towards adopting a democratic system of government, the King having been actively involved in this process.

Georgia

There has been an upward trend in Georgia’s telecom market over the past few years, with rising revenues and increased investment in infrastructure. Although steadily improving, Georgia’s telecom infrastructure remains outmoded and inadequate as a result of gradual under-investment over decades. Mobile telephone systems have become increasingly important because the fixed-line infrastructure is outdated and a mobile phone represents the only effective means of communication. MagtiCom was awarded the country’s first 3G licence in 2005. Then, in a significant move in 2006, the regulator awarded another 3G licence. This was followed by a third licence going to Telecom Invest Georgia. In the four years to end-2007, mobile penetration increased fourfold to reach a remarkable 50% penetration in what was a truly booming market.

Kazakhstan

Kazakhstan’s telecoms market has been growing on a broad front. One of the few central Asian countries that has a substantial fixed-line network (almost 20% penetration), the dynamic nature of the market is seeing the rapid introduction of new infrastructure and the upgrade of old equipment. Legislation enacted in 2004 started the liberalisation process and ended Kazakhtelecom’s sector monopoly. By April 2005, four companies had been licensed to provide international and long-distance services and by year-end, over 1,000 licences had been issued to provide a range of telecom services. Rapid development in the mobile market has seen mobile penetration surge to over 75% in early 2008. By contrast, Internet penetration remains low, however. Supported by a strong economy and a GDP per capita estimated at nearly US$9,000 in 2008, further vigorous expansion of the telecom sector in Kazakhstan looks highly likely.

Kyrgyzstan

Kyrgyzstan has progressed further and faster than other Commonwealth of Independent States to liberalise its economy. It was the first Central Asian Republic to join the WTO, despite being one of the least developed countries in the region. Even though much has been done to modernise its telecom network, a number of key obstacles including geographical conditions, a high incidence of poverty and a still developing legal and regulatory framework limit Kyrgystan’s ability to expand its telecom operations. The telecom market has been opened up to both foreign and domestic investors; an independent regulator has been established to oversee the sector. Not surprisingly there is a high level of interest among foreign investors, as well as the offer of considerable economic and technical assistance of various types. Although progress has been slow, the national operator Kyrgyztelecom has been steadily working at upgrading its outdated and poorly distributed network. Following the launch of a second GSM network by MegaCom in 2006, KT Mobile, the non-operational mobile subsidiary of Kyrgyztelecom, was granted frequencies in December 2006 for GSM 900 and GSM 1800 mobile services. With a mobile penetration of around 35% in late 2007, the market still has plenty of room to grow.

Mongolia

Since the government’s telecom reform program in the mid-1990s, there has been effective liberalisation of all market segments, partial privatisation of the fixed-line incumbent operator, Mongolia Telecom, and establishment of an independent regulator. Competition is in place for both fixed and mobile telephony, including local, long-distance, and international, Internet, VoIP, and VSATs. While the fixed-line network has been expanding slowly, the mobile phone market has undergone a remarkable boom, with the number of subscribers growing at an average rate of close to 50% year-on-year for a number of years. Two additional mobile licences were awarded in 2005/06 to Unitel (GSM) and rural mobile operator G-Mobile (CDMA), with both networks well founded for growth going into 2008. Although GDP has grown substantially, 36% of the population still lives below the international poverty line of US$0.75c per day, while the average monthly wage is US$70. Despite this, mobile penetration of less than 40% indicates that there is still room to grow, particularly in the rural areas.

Nepal

Nepal is among the poorest and least developed countries in the world. Amid what has been an unsettled political climate, the country has surprisingly been able to move towards a more liberalised telecom market. Positive regulatory changes have been implemented, including the incumbent telco losing its monopoly status. By 2006, over 170 operators had been authorised to provide a wide range of telecom services, including two for basic telephony and two for mobile telephony. The expansion of telephone services has not been able to keep up with the growing demand; the biggest challenge has been to provide rural services. Over 60% of telephone services are concentrated in the capital Kathmandu. Nepal Telecom has been heading up an ambitious plan to increase total telephone penetration to 20% by 2010. Nepal’s target of 15 total phone lines per 100 people by 2014 already looked set to be achieved well ahead of schedule. On the back of the combined effort by Nepal Telecom and the private operators, a figure of 25 lines per 100 people by 2014 was being considered feasible - significantly higher than the 11% penetration (3% fixed; 8% mobile) at end-2007; in comparison, by end-2005 the combined penetration figure was just 1%.

Tajikistan

With a telecom network that was near total collapse when the Soviet Union fell, Tajikistan’s government started on the daunting task of bringing it up to modern standards. The telecom network was arguably the least developed of all the countries that emerged from the former Soviet Union. The basic fixed network remains tiny, providing service to barely 5% of the population coming into 2008; and a large proportion of the network has not yet been converted to digital. A gradual process of liberalisation is under way and over the last decade a significant number of private operators have been allowed to enter the telecom market, notably in the mobile and Internet sectors. Privatisation of state-owned Tajiktelecom was expected to be achieved by end-2007. The highly competitive mobile sector experienced a major growth surge in 2006 and 2007, the subscriber base jumping by around 200% over this two year period; this expansion looks set to continue. Interestingly, Tajikistan was the first of the CIS countries to launch a 3G network.

Turkmenistan

Turkmenistan is another nation that emerged from the former Soviet Union with a relatively underdeveloped telecom sector. Poor growth in telecoms services, slow progress in developing the private sector and continuing state control over most economic activities have not helped to support growth in the telecom market. Combined fixed-line and mobile teledensity was estimated at around 16% by end-2007. For almost a decade fixed-line growth has been virtually stagnant. And oddly, Turkmenistan’s mobile market, served by one private and one state-owned operator, has not taken off like its neighbours but is only growing slowly (7% mobile penetration by end-2007). The Internet has been an interesting sector to watch; government has been exercising tight control, with online activity and access severely restricted. Reports have been emerging, however, that suggest Turkmenistan is moderating its restrictions on the Internet, though it is difficult to assess the trend.

Uzbekistan

Although steadily improving, much of Uzbekistan’s telecom infrastructure remains outmoded and inadequate. The country has been struggling to bring its telecom system up to the standard found in developed countries. No doubt the government’s decision to give priority to the telecom sector has seen the situation steadily improving. Back in 1996, in what was a significant move at the time, the government was encouraging foreign telecom companies to invest in Uzbekistan. This was followed by the creation of Uzbektelekom, a holding company charged with operating the national telecom network. An upward trend in the country’s telecom market over recent years has seen rising revenues and increased investment in infrastructure. The next step is to privatise Uzbektelecom and to open the market to competition consistent with the country’s objective of joining the WTO. Combined fixed and mobile teledensity was estimated at over 23% by end-2007, the mobile sector having just surged by more than 200% in a two year period.

Key highlights:

  • Armenia’s mobile market was growing at an annual rate of 80% in late 2007, with newcomer K-Telecom passing the one million subscriber mark and grabbing two-thirds of the market;
  • The current economic boom in Azerbaijan continued (GDP growth of 29% in 2007) and mobile penetration passed 50% with growth continuing at around 40% per annum.
  • Bhutan’s telecom sector remains underdeveloped with mobile penetration still below 10%. The country moved towards a democratic system of government with elections in early 2008; the hope was that this would bring significant structural reform to all sectors of the economy;
  • In Georgia, the telecom regulator awarded a third 3G mobile licence, creating further interest in a market that had remarkably passed 50% mobile penetration by late 2007;
  • Kazakhstan’s mobile market has been characterised by a prolonged surge in subscribers, reaching 13 million (a penetration of 75%) by early 2008, up from only 1.3 million in 2003.
  • Kyrgyzstan, the first Central Asian Republic to be admitted to the WTO, continues to work on reforming the telecom sector; mobile subscriber growth exceeded 100% in 2007;
  • With the launch of two new mobile operators, Unitel and G-Mobile in 2006 and 2007 respectively, mobile subscribers in Mongolia passed 1 million going into 2008, representing an annual growth of just under 50%.
  • Nepal Telecom initiated an ambitious program in 2007 to increase total telephone penetration (fixed plus mobile) to 20% by 2010; the plan came as Nepal entered a more stable period politically; the mobile market is growing at an annual rate of around 140%;
  • With a population of just over 7 million, Tajikistan’s busy mobile sector (7 operators) continued the major growth surge that started in 2006; the subscriber base jumped by more than 100% in 2007.
  • Compared with most of the other Central Asian markets Uzbekistan’s mobile penetration of 20% towards end-2007 was modest; however the year saw subscriber growth exceed 120%.
Central Asian markets ranked by GDP per capita - mobile penetration & annual growth - September 2007
Country Penetration Annual growth GDP per capita (US$)
Kazakhstan 75% 65% 8,800
Mongolia 35% 53% 2,900
Azerbaijan 51% 40% 2,500
Armenia 54% 79% 2,300
Bhutan 6% 111% 2,000
Turkmenistan 7% 88% 1,400
Georgia 49% 25% 1,000
Uzbekistan 16% 120% 800
Kyrgyzstan 34% 120% 600
Nepal 6% 104% 400
Tajikistan 22% 119% 300
(Source: BuddeComm)
Data in this report is the latest available at the time of preparation and may not be for the current year.

1. Armenia
1.1 Key statistics
1.2 Telecommunications market
1.2.1 Overview of Armenia’s telecom market
1.3 Regulatory environment
1.3.1 Telecommunications Law 1998
1.3.2 Unconstitutional monopoly
1.4 Fixed network operators in Armenia
1.4.1 Armenia Telephone Company (ArmenTel)
1.5 Telecommunications infrastructure
1.5.1 Local and national
1.5.2 International
1.6 Internet market
1.6.1 Overview
1.6.2 Wireless Internet
1.6.3 ISP market
1.7 Mobile communications
1.7.1 Overview of Armenia’s mobile market
1.7.2 Major mobile operators
2. Azerbaijan
2.1 Key statistics
2.2 Telecommunications market
2.2.1 Overview of Azerbaijan’s telecom market
2.3 Regulatory environment
2.3.1 Overview
2.3.2 National Communication Technologies Strategy
2.4 Fixed network operators in Azerbaijan
2.4.1 Aztelekom
2.4.2 AzEuroTel
2.4.3 Terracom Inc (Fire Telecom) - EurAsiaCom
2.5 Telecommunications infrastructure
2.5.1 National telecom network
2.5.2 International infrastructure
2.5.3 Trans-Asia-Europe (TAE) cable network
2.6 Internet market
2.6.1 Overview
2.6.2 ISP market
2.6.3 Broadband market
2.7 Mobile communications
2.7.1 Overview of Azerbaijan’s mobile market
2.7.2 Mobile technologies
2.7.3 Major mobile operators
2.8 Forecasts
2.8.1 Overview
2.8.2 Forecasts - fixed-line market to 2017
2.8.3 Forecasts -mobile market to 2017
3. Bhutan
3.1 Key statistics
3.2 Telecommunications market
3.2.1 Overview of Bhutan’s telecom market
3.3 Regulatory environment
3.3.1 Bhutan Telecommunications Act 1999
3.3.2 Bhutan Information Communications and Media Act 2006
3.4 Fixed network operator in Bhutan
3.4.1 Bhutan Telecom
3.5 Telecommunications infrastructure
3.5.1 National telecom network
3.5.2 International infrastructure
3.6 Internet market
3.6.1 Overview
3.6.2 ISP market
3.7 Mobile communications
3.7.1 Overview of Bhutan’s mobile market
3.7.2 B-Mobile
3.7.3 Tashi InfoComm
3.7.4 Third Generation (3G) mobile
4. Georgia
4.1 Key statistics
4.2 Telecommunications market
4.2.1 Overview of Georgia’s telecom market
4.3 Regulatory environment
4.3.1 Regulatory authority
4.3.2 Privatisation
4.4 Fixed network operators in Georgia
4.4.1 Akhali Kselebi Ltd (NewNet Telecommunications)
4.4.2 Egrisi
4.4.3 Sakartvelos Elektrokavshiri (United Telecom of Georgia)
4.4.4 Sakartvelos Telekomi (Telecom Georgia)
4.5 Telecommunications infrastructure
4.5.1 National telecom network
4.5.2 International infrastructure
4.6 Internet market
4.6.1 Overview
4.6.2 Broadband
4.6.3 WiMAX
4.6.4 ISP market
4.7 Mobile communications
4.7.1 Overview of Georgia’s mobile market
4.7.2 Mobile technologies
4.7.3 Major mobile operators
4.8 Forecasts
4.8.1 Overview
4.8.2 Forecasts - fixed-line market to 2017
4.8.3 Forecasts - Internet services to 2017
4.8.4 Forecasts - mobile market to 2017
5. Kazakhstan
5.1 Key statistics
5.2 Telecommunications market
5.2.1 Overview of Kazakhstan’s telecom market
5.3 Regulatory environment
5.3.1 Regulatory authority
5.3.2 Liberalisation and regulatory development
5.3.3 Privatisation
5.4 Fixed network operators in Kazakhstan
5.4.1 Astel
5.4.2 Ducat (formerly Kazintel)
5.4.3 Kazakhtelecom
5.4.4 KazInformTelecom (KIT)
5.5 Telecommunications infrastructure
5.5.1 National
5.5.2 International infrastructure
5.6 Internet market
5.6.1 Overview
5.6.2 ISP market
5.6.3 Internet Protocol TV (IPTV)
5.7 Mobile communications
5.7.1 Overview of Kazakhstan’s mobile market
5.7.2 Mobile technologies
5.7.3 Major mobile operators
5.8 Forecasts
5.8.1 Overview
5.8.2 Forecasts - fixed-line market to 2017
5.8.3 Forecasts - Internet services to 2017
5.8.4 Forecasts - mobile market to 2017
6. Kyrgyzstan
6.1 Key statistics
6.2 Telecommunications market
6.2.1 Overview of Kyrgyzstan’s telecom market
6.2.2 Government projects
6.3 Regulatory environment
6.3.1 Regulatory authority
6.3.2 Privatisation of Kyrgyztelecom
6.4 Fixed network operators in Kyrgyzstan
6.4.1 Kyrgyztelecom
6.4.2 Others
6.5 Telecommunications infrastructure
6.5.1 National telecom network
6.5.2 International infrastructure
6.6 Internet market
6.6.1 Overview
6.6.2 ISP market
6.7 Mobile communications
6.7.1 Overview of Kyrgyzstan’s mobile market
6.7.2 Major mobile operators
7. Mongolia
7.1 Key statistics
7.2 Telecommunications market
7.2.1 Overview of Mongolia’s telecom market
7.3 Regulatory environment
7.3.1 Background
7.3.2 Communications Regulatory Commission (CTC)
7.3.3 Information & Communication Technology Authority (ICTA)
7.3.4 Mongolian Information and Communications Vision 2010
7.3.5 Competitive environment
7.3.6 Interconnection
7.4 Fixed network operators in Mongolia
7.4.1 Mongolia Telecom
7.4.2 Mongolian Railways Communications (RailCom)
7.5 Telecommunications infrastructure
7.5.1 National telecom network
7.5.2 International infrastructure
7.6 Internet market
7.6.1 Overview
7.6.2 Mongolia Internet Exchange (MIX)
7.6.3 ISP market
7.7 Broadband market
7.7.1 Fibre-to-the-building (FttB) project
7.7.2 Digital Subscriber Line (DSL)
7.8 Mobile communications
7.8.1 Overview of Mongolia’s mobile market
7.8.2 Major mobile operators
8. Nepal
8.1 Key statistics
8.2 Telecommunications market
8.2.1 Overview of Nepal’s telecom market
8.2.2 Political crisis and resolution
8.3 Regulatory environment
8.3.1 Regulatory authority
8.3.2 Telecommunications Policy 1999
8.3.3 Telecommunications Policy 2004
8.3.4 Telecom sector liberalisation and licensing
8.3.5 Foreign assistance
8.3.6 Privatisation of Nepal Telecom
8.4 Basic telephone service providers in Nepal
8.4.1 Nepal Doorsanchar Co Ltd/Nepal Telecom
8.4.2 United Telecom Ltd (UTL)
8.5 Telecommunications infrastructure
8.5.1 National telecom network
8.5.2 International infrastructure
8.6 Internet market
8.6.1 Overview
8.6.2 ISP market
8.7 Mobile communications
8.7.1 Overview of Nepal’s mobile market
8.7.2 Major mobile operators
8.7.3 Satellite mobile
8.8 Forecasts
8.8.1 Overview
8.8.2 Forecasts - fixed-line market to 2017
8.8.3 Forecasts - Internet services to 2017
8.8.4 Forecasts - mobile market to 2017
9. Tajikistan
9.1 Key statistics
9.2 Telecommunications market
9.2.1 Overview of Tajikistan’s telecom market
9.3 Regulatory environment
9.3.1 Tajikistan Law on Electrical Communication
9.3.2 Regulatory authority
9.3.3 Privatisation of Tajiktelecom
9.3.4 Liberalisation
9.4 Fixed network operators in Tajikistan
9.4.1 Tajiktelecom
9.5 Telecommunications infrastructure
9.5.1 National and international
9.5.2 Infrastructure developments
9.6 Internet market
9.6.1 Overview
9.6.2 Censorship
9.7 Mobile communications
9.7.1 Overview of Tajikistan’s mobile market
9.7.2 Mobile technologies
9.7.3 Major mobile operators
10. Turkmenistan
10.1 Key statistics
10.2 Telecommunications market
10.2.1 Overview of Turkmenistan’s telecom market
10.3 Regulatory environment
10.4 Telecommunications infrastructure
10.4.1 National and international
10.5 Internet market
10.5.1 Overview
10.5.2 Censorship
10.6 Mobile communications
10.6.1 Overview of Turkmenistan’s mobile market
10.6.2 Major mobile operators
11. Uzbekistan
11.1 Key statistics
11.2 Telecommunications market
11.2.1 Overview of Uzbekistan’s telecom market
11.3 Regulatory environment
11.3.1 Overview
11.3.2 Privatisation of Uzbektelecom
11.4 Fixed network operators in Uzbekistan
11.4.1 Uzbektelecom
11.4.2 Buzton
11.4.3 East Telecom
11.5 Telecommunications infrastructure
11.5.1 National telecom network
11.5.2 Satellite communications
11.6 Internet market
11.6.1 Overview
11.6.2 ISP market
11.7 Mobile communications
11.7.1 Overview of Uzbekistan’s mobile market
11.7.2 Major mobile operators
11.7.3 Other mobile operators
11.8 Forecasts
11.8.1 Overview
11.8.2 Forecasts - fixed-line market to 2017
11.8.3 Forecasts - Internet services to 2017
11.8.4 Forecasts - mobile market to 2017
12. Glossary of Abbreviations
List of Tables and Exhibites
Table 1 - Country statistics Armenia - 2008
Table 2 - Telecom revenue and investment statistics - 2005
Table 3 - Telephone network statistics - 2007
Table 4 - Internet user statistics - 2007
Table 5 - Mobile statistics - September 2007
Table 6 - National telecommunications authorities
Table 7 - Fixed lines in service and teledensity - 1991 - 2007
Table 8 - Internet users - 1994 - 2007
Table 9 - Internet subscribers - 2000 - 2007
Table 10 - Internet bandwidth capacity - 2001 - 2006
Table 11 - Mobile operators, subscribers and annual change - September 2007
Table 12 - Mobile subscribers - 1996 - 2007
Table 13 - Country statistics Azerbaijan - 2008
Table 14 - Telecom revenue and investment statistics - 2005
Table 15 - Telephone network statistics - 2007
Table 16 - Internet user statistics - 2007
Table 17 - Mobile statistics - June 2007
Table 18 - National telecommunications authority
Table 19 - Fixed lines in service and teledensity - 1995 - 2007
Table 20 - Internet users - 1995 - 2007
Table 21 - Internet subscribers - 1997 - 2007
Table 22 - Internet bandwidth capacity - 2001 - 2007
Table 23 - Broadband subscriber growth - 2003 - 2007
Table 24 - Mobile operators, subscribers and annual change - September 2007
Table 25 - Mobile subscribers - 1994 - 2007
Table 26 - Forecast fixed-line growth - lower market scenario - 2007; 2012; 2017
Table 27 - Forecast fixed-line growth - higher market scenario - 2007; 2012; 2017
Table 28 - Forecast Internet growth - lower market scenario - 2007; 2012; 2017
Table 29 - Forecast Internet growth - higher market scenario - 2007; 2012; 2017
Table 30 - Forecast mobile growth - lower market scenario - 2007; 2012; 2017
Table 31 - Forecast mobile growth - higher market scenario - 2007; 2012; 2017
Table 32 - Country statistics Bhutan - 2008
Table 33 - Telecom revenue and investment statistics - 2006
Table 34 - Telephone network statistics - 2007
Table 35 - Internet user statistics - 2007
Table 36 - Mobile statistics - 2007
Table 37 - National telecommunications authorities
Table 38 - Fixed lines in service and teledensity - 1995 - 2007
Table 39 - Internet users and penetration - 1999 - 2007
Table 40 - Internet subscribers - 2003 - 2007
Table 41 - Mobile subscribers - 2003 - 2007
Table 42 - B-Mobile’s subscribers - 2003 - 2007
Table 43 - Country statistics Georgia - 2008
Table 44 - Telecom revenue and investment statistics - 2006
Table 45 - Telephone network statistics - 2007
Table 46 - Internet user statistics - 2007
Table 47 - Mobile statistics - September 2007
Table 48 - National telecommunications authority
Table 49 - Fixed lines in service and teledensity - 1995 - 2007
Table 50 - Internet users and penetration - 1996 - 2007
Table 51 - Internet subscribers - 2001 - 2006
Table 52 - Broadband subscribers - 2001 - 2007
Table 53 - Mobile subscribers and penetration - 1995 - 2007
Table 54 - Mobile operators, subscribers and annual change - September 2007
Table 55 - Mobile subscribers and market share per operator - September 2007
Table 56 - Forecast fixed-line growth - lower market scenario - 2007; 2012; 2017
Table 57 - Forecast fixed-line growth - higher market scenario - 2007; 2012; 2017
Table 58 - Forecast Internet growth - lower market scenario - 2007; 2012; 2017
Table 59 - Forecast Internet growth - higher market scenario - 2007; 2012; 2017
Table 60 - Forecast mobile growth - lower market scenario - 2007; 2012; 2017
Table 61 - Forecast mobile growth - higher market scenario - 2007; 2012; 2017
Table 62 - Country statistics Kazakhstan - 2008
Table 63 - Telephone network statistics - 2007
Table 64 - Internet user statistics - 2007
Table 65 - Mobile statistics - September 2007
Table 66 - National telecommunications authorities
Table 67 - Kazakhtelecom urban and rural fixed-line subscribers - August 2006
Table 68 - Fixed lines in service and teledensity - 1995 - 2007
Table 69 - Internet bandwidth capacity - 2002; 2005 - 2006
Table 70 - Internet users - 1996 - 2008
Table 71 - Internet subscribers - 1996 - 2007
Table 72 - Broadband subscribers - 2003 - 2007
Table 73 - Mobile operators, subscribers and annual change - September 2007
Table 74 - Mobile subscribers and annual change - 1996 - 2007
Table 75 - Forecast fixed line growth - lower market scenario - 2007; 2012; 2017
Table 76 - Forecast fixed line growth - higher market scenario - 2007; 2012; 2017
Table 77 - Forecast Internet growth - lower market scenario - 2007; 2012; 2017
Table 78 - Forecast Internet growth - higher market scenario - 2007; 2012; 2017
Table 79 - Forecast mobile growth - lower market scenario - 2007; 2012; 2017
Table 80 - Forecast mobile growth - higher market scenario - 2007; 2012; 2017
Table 81 - Country statistics Kyrgyzstan - 2008
Table 82 - Telecom revenue and investment statistics - 2007
Table 83 - Telephone network statistics - 2007
Table 84 - Internet user statistics - 2007
Table 85 - Mobile statistics - September 2007
Table 86 - National telecommunications authorities
Table 87 - Fixed lines in service and teledensity - 1991 - 2007
Table 88 - Internet users - 1998 - 2007
Table 89 - Internet subscribers - 1998 - 2007
Table 90 - Broadband subscribers - 2003 - 2007
Table 91 - Mobile operators, subscribers and annual change - September 2007
Table 92 - Mobile subscribers, annual change and penetration - 1998 - 2007
Table 93 - Country statistics Mongolia - 2008
Table 94 - Telecom revenue and investment statistics - 2007
Table 95 - Telephone network statistics - 2007
Table 96 - Internet user statistics - 2007
Table 97 - Mobile statistics - 2007
Table 98 - National telecommunications authorities
Table 99 - Fixed lines in service and teledensity - 1994 - 2007
Table 100 - Internet users - 1996 - 2007
Table 101 - Internet subscribers - 1998 - 2007
Table 102 - International bandwidth - 2000 - 2005
Table 103 - Mobile subscribers, annual change and penetration - 1996 - 2007
Table 104 - Mobile operators, subscribers and annual change - 2007
Table 105 - Mobile operators’ market share - 2007
Table 106 - Country statistics Nepal - 2008
Table 107 - Telecom revenue and investment statistics - 2007
Table 108 - Telephone network statistics -2007
Table 109 - Internet user statistics - 2007
Table 110 - Mobile statistics - 2007
Table 111 - National telecommunications authorities
Table 112 - ARPU by market segment - January 2008
Table 113 - Rural penetration levels by region and operator - July 2007
Table 114 - Licences issued for telecom services - March 2008
Table 115 - Fixed-lines in service and teledensity - 1995 - 2007
Table 116 - Internet users - 1997 - 2008
Table 117 - Internet subscribers - 1999 - 2007
Table 118 - Subscribers and market share of major ISPs - April 2007
Table 119 - Mobile operators, subscribers and annual change - 2007
Table 120 - Mobile subscribers, annual change and penetration - 1999 - 2007
Table 121 - Mobile prepaid versus postpaid subscribers - January 2008
Table 122 - Forecast fixed-line growth - lower market scenario - 2007; 2012; 2017
Table 123 - Forecast fixed-line growth - higher market scenario - 2007; 2012; 2017
Table 124 - Forecast Internet subscribers - lower market scenario - 2007; 2012; 2017
Table 125 - Forecast Internet subscribers - higher market scenario - 2007; 2012; 2017
Table 126 - Forecast mobile subscriber growth - lower market scenario - 2007; 2012; 2017
Table 127 - Forecast mobile subscriber growth - higher market scenario - 2007; 2012; 2017
Table 128 - Country statistics Tajikistan - 2008
Table 129 - Telecom revenue and investment statistics - 2005
Table 130 - Telephone network statistics - 2007
Table 131 - Internet user statistics - 2007
Table 132 - Mobile statistics - September 2007
Table 133 - National telecommunications authorities
Table 134 - Fixed lines in service and teledensity - 1995 - 2007
Table 135 - Internet users - 1999 - 2007
Table 136 - Internet subscribers - 1999 - 2007
Table 137 - Mobile operators, technology, subscribers and annual change - September 2007
Table 138 - Mobile subscribers and annual change - 1996 - 2007
Table 139 - Country statistics Turkmenistan - 2008
Table 140 - Telephone network statistics - 2007
Table 141 - Internet user statistics - 2007
Table 142 - Mobile statistics - September 2007
Table 143 - National telecommunications authority
Table 144 - Fixed lines in service and teledensity - 1991 - 2007
Table 145 - Internet users - 1999 - 2007
Table 146 - Mobile operators, subscribers and annual change - September 2007
Table 147 - Mobile subscribers and penetration - 1997 - 2007
Table 148 - Country statistics Uzbekistan - 2008
Table 149 - Telephone network statistics - 2007
Table 150 - Internet user statistics - 2007
Table 151 - Mobile statistics - September 2007
Table 152 - National telecommunications authority
Table 153 - Fixed lines in service and teledensity - 1991 - 2007
Table 154 - Internet users - 1999 - 2007
Table 155 - Internet subscribers - 1999 - 2007
Table 156 - Broadband subscribers - 2003 - 2007
Table 157 - Mobile operators, technology, subscribers and annual change - September 2007
Table 158 - Mobile subscribers, annual change and penetration - 1995 - 2007
Table 159 - Uzdunrobita mobile subscribers - 1998 - 2007
Table 160 - Unitel subscribers - 1998 - 2007
Table 161 - Forecast fixed-line growth - lower market scenario - 2007; 2012; 2017
Table 162 - Forecast fixed-line growth - higher market scenario - 2007; 2012; 2017
Table 163 - Forecast Internet growth - lower market scenario - 2007; 2012; 2017
Table 164 - Forecast Internet growth - higher market scenario - 2007; 2012; 2017
Table 165 - Forecast mobile growth - lower market scenario - 2007; 2012; 2017
Table 166 - Forecast mobile growth - higher market scenario - 2007; 2012; 2017
Exhibit 1 - Level of competition by market segment - 2007
Exhibit 2 - Sakartvelos Elektrokavshiri’s Tbilisi network infrastructure
Exhibit 3 - Kazakhtelecom’s modernisation program for telecommunications - 2004 - 2007
Exhibit 4 - Construction of the National Information Highway (NIH) backbone

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