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Asia - Fixed Telecommunications Infrastructure


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Asia’s fixed infrastructure underpins its booming mobile and broadband sectors

The governments of Asian nations have long recognised – some earlier than others – that there needed to be some encouragement of private sector investment to meet the demand for the all-important capital needed in the telecom sector. At the same time, it was also generally well recognised that this strategy could not rely on local investment alone, and would inevitably mean a substantial level of foreign investment. Of course, despite this recognition, there has inevitably been some resistance within governments to opening up the telecom sector to foreign investors and as a consequence the level of ‘encouragement’ has been variable.

The changing nature of the telecom market has also had a major impact on the approach to investment in infrastructure. With shifting revenue patterns across the market segments and falling ARPUs on many services, operators have been more selective about what they actually invest in. Telecom operators throughout Asia have been increasing investment levels on the back of carefully considered investment strategies. This has seen companies shifting business focus, looking for new ways to add value to existing revenue streams; it has also seen a strong desire to leverage new value from infrastructure that is already in place. This has especially been the case with mobile network moving increasingly to support mobile broadband services and newer generations of mobile technologies.

The initial round of substantial investment in telecom infrastructure in Asia was in fixed telephone networks. Over a number of decades the regional economies were progressively building their often quite substantial fixed-line national networks. These fixed networks were in time followed by the building of mobile networks. In many of the developing nations of the region, the building of fixed-line infrastructure was not far advanced before it was overwhelmed by the introduction of mobile infrastructure. This created the phenomenon of ‘substitution’ in many of the markets of Asia (where mobile services perform the function of the non-existent fixed services.) Nevertheless, despite the unevenness in disposition, fixed infrastructure remained an important component in the overall development of the region’s telecom sector. Coming into 2012 there were around 580 million fixed-line subscribers in Asia; this compared with close to 3 billion mobile subscribers. Most importantly, the fixed-line numbers have only been increasing marginally in recent years, with a significant number of countries in Asia starting to see a decline in fixed-line numbers.

The focus of infrastructure building has been shifting. There has been a major push to upgrade domestic telecoms networks to Next Generation Networks (NGNs). This process is seeing large scale investment by Asia’s leading telecoms markets in new-generation IP-based telecommunications networks. At the same time there has been a major surge in infrastructure building as mostly developed economies roll out National Broadband Networks (NBNs). These networks come in various ‘shapes and sizes’ as governments work with operators to tackle the strategic challenge of delivering high speed to the nation. Not surprisingly the NBNs rely heavily upon fibre; in some cases it is Fibre to the Premises (FttP), while in others it might be Fibre to the Node (FttN). And the cost varies accordingly. Those countries that have government backing for NBN roll-out are the ones that are setting the pace.

In addition to the national networks, international connectivity remains central to the overall effectiveness of the region’s telecommunications services. Submarine cable routes criss-cross the Asia Pacific area, providing both intra-regional and inter-regional networks. This sector of the market has been characterised by widely fluctuating supply and demand, which in turn has seen somewhat erratic investment strategies. . Submarine projects are subject to this boom and bust market phenomena, with planned projects commonly being delayed or abandoned, consortia being reshaped, etc. In fact, over-supply of capacity has been common in the Asian market. More recently investments have been less speculative and more focused on predicted growth. In the meantime, new submarine cable projects continue being proposed and the cables installed throughout the region. As Asia’s broadband usage surged, a major effort has gone into managing the shortfall in capacity between Asia and the US.

As the demand for wholesale services continues to rise in Asia, still driven in the short term by voice, but in the longer term by data, there has been a boom in IP-based services, with the volume of international Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) traffic into and out of Asia having increased at a rapid rate at the expense of the traditional International Direct Dial (IDD) traffic. The industry will watch closely to see how this settles into a pattern of more predictable growth in demand.

Asia – key developments in infrastructure

Asia’s networks and infrastructure supported a total of more than 3.5 billion telephone subscribers coming into 2012; of these, an estimated 580 million were fixed-line subscribers and 2.9 billion were mobile subscribers;

Asia’s developed markets had built or were building their NGNs, with IP shaping as the primary delivery platform for telecom services across the region;

After annual growth of 20%-30% in the region’s mobile market during the 2005/2010 period, 2011 saw growth fall to around 10%, with looking likely to continue for the next few years;

Most tellingly, coming into 2012 Asia claimed 49% of the world’s total mobile subscriber base;

In the meantime, the operators were expanding infrastructure to support their still growing subscriber bases and usage patterns, and especially the push into mobile broadband;

By early 2012 Asia had a mobile broadband penetration of 11%; this represented 460 million mobile broadband subscribers in the region;

Two of Asia’s markets – South Korea and Singapore – had more mobile broadband subscribers than population by end 2011; Japan was not far behind on 90% mobile broadband penetration at the time;

While mobile broadband was expanding rapidly, fixed (wired) broadband remained a key component of the infrastructure in Asia; in 2011 30 million fixed (wired) broadband subscriptions were added in China alone, this being about half of total such subscribers added worldwide;

Asia’s all-important submarine cable market continues to attract interest from investors anticipating an increased demand for bandwidth that will put pressure on capacity;

With a series of system outages drawing attention to the highly vulnerable nature of these key systems, redundancy has become a critical issue for submarine cable systems in the region and provides further incentive for investment in this type of infrastructure;

The region continues to see a steady run of new satellite launches with further such launches already scheduled for the coming year or two.

Asia: - Key telecom indicators – 2011 – 2012

Category | 2011 | 2012 (e)

5Fixed-line services: | |

Total No. of subscribers | 580 million | 590 million

Fixed broadband services: | |

Total No. of subscribers | 270 million | 315 million

Mobile services: | |

Total No. of subscribers | 2.9 billion | 3.2 billion

Mobile broadband services: | |

Total No. of subscribers | 460 million | 550 million
(Source: BuddeComm)


1. Afghanistan
1.1 Infrastructure overview
1.1.1 Background
1.1.2 Post-2001
1.2 National infrastructure network
1.2.1 Forecasts – fixed-line market – 2015; 2020
1.2.2 Local Fixed Services Plan (LFSP)
1.2.3 Optical fibre backbone
1.2.4 Satellite services
1.2.5 Infrastructure projects
2. Armenia
2.1 National infrastructure
2.2 International infrastructure
3. Azerbaijan
3.1 National infrastructure
3.1.1 Overview
3.1.2 Next Generation Network (NGN)
3.1.3 Forecasts – fixed-line market – 2015; 2020
3.2 International infrastructure
3.2.1 Trans-Asia-Europe (TAE) cable network
3.2.2 Europe Persia Express Gateway (EPEG)
4. Bangladesh
4.1 National infrastructure
4.1.1 Overview
4.1.2 Fibre optic networks
4.1.3 Grameen Telecom’s Village Project
4.1.4 Forecasts – fixed-line market – 2015; 2020
4.2 International infrastructure
4.2.1 International Gateways
4.2.2 Satellite networks
4.2.3 Submarine cable connectivity
5. Bhutan
5.1 National infrastructure
5.1.1 Overview
5.1.2 E-Shabtog
5.1.3 Remote communities
5.1.4 Optical fibre network
5.2 International infrastructure
5.2.1 Overview
5.2.2 Very Small Aperture Terminals (VSATs)
6. Brunei Darussalam
6.1 National infrastructure
6.1.1 Overview
6.1.2 Telecommunications development project
6.1.3 Public payphones
6.1.4 GSM payphones
6.1.5 Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP)
6.1.6 Next Generation Networks (NGN)
6.2 International infrastructure
6.2.1 Trans-Borneo Optical Cable Network
6.2.2 Submarine cable networks
6.2.3 Satellite networks
7. Cambodia
7.1 National infrastructure
7.1.1 Overview
7.1.2 Forecasts – fixed-line market – 2015; 2020
7.1.3 Telecom Cambodia
7.2 International infrastructure
7.2.1 Overview
7.2.2 Greater Mekong Subregion Information Superhighway (GMS-IS)
8. China
8.1 National infrastructure
8.1.1 Overview
8.1.2 Internet networks
8.1.3 Fibre-to-the-home (FttH)
8.2 International infrastructure
8.2.1 Terrestrial and submarine cable infrastructure
8.2.2 China-USA undersea cable link
8.2.3 China-Vietnam undersea cable link
8.2.4 China-Taiwan undersea cable link
8.2.5 China-India terrestrial cable link
8.2.6 Satellite infrastructure
9. Georgia
9.1 National infrastructure
9.1.1 Overview
9.1.2 Wireless local loop (WLL)
9.1.3 Forecasts – fixed-line subscribers – 2015; 2020
9.2 International infrastructure
9.2.1 Satellites
10. Hong Kong
10.1 National infrastructure
10.1.1 Digital 21 IT Strategy
10.1.2 FttB/FttH building registration scheme
10.2 International infrastructure
10.2.1 Submarine cable networks
11. India
11.1 National infrastructure
11.1.1 Overview
11.1.2 Statistics
11.1.3 Forecasts - fixed-line services – 2015; 2020
11.1.4 Network development
11.1.5 Infrastructure sharing
11.1.6 Rural and regional networks
11.1.7 Fibre optic cable projects
11.1.8 Wireless Local Loop (WLL)
11.1.9 IP networks
11.1.10 Next Generation Networks (NGN)
11.2 International infrastructure
11.2.1 Background
11.2.2 Interconnect agreements
11.2.3 India-Pakistan
11.2.4 International service disruption
11.2.5 Submarine cable networks
11.2.6 Satellite communications
12. Indonesia
12.1 National infrastructure
12.1.1 Overview
12.1.2 Background to development
12.1.3 Fixed-line statistics
12.1.4 Forecasts – fixed-line market: 2015; 2020
12.1.5 Infrastructure development
12.1.6 Joint operating service (KSO) ventures – five-zone plan
12.1.7 Rural telephony
12.1.8 Wireless Local Loop (WLL)
12.1.9 Telecom towers
12.2 International infrastructure
12.2.1 International gateway exchanges
12.2.2 Submarine cable networks
12.2.3 Satellite networks
13. Japan
13.1 National infrastructure
13.1.1 Overview
13.1.2 Stimulus package for ICT infrastructure
13.1.3 Fixed-network market
13.1.4 High-speed fibre
13.1.5 Earthquake damage: March 2011
13.1.6 Internet exchange points
13.2 International infrastructure
13.2.1 Overview
13.2.2 Submarine cables
13.2.3 Satellite
14. Kazakhstan
14.1 National infrastructure
14.1.1 Overview
14.1.2 Forecasts – fixed-line market – 2015; 2020
14.1.3 IP-based services
14.1.4 Next Generation Network (NGN) development
14.1.5 Wireless Local Loop (WLL)
14.2 International infrastructure
14.2.1 Trans Asia-Europe (TAE)
14.2.2 Satellite networks
14.2.3 KazSat satellite series
15. Kyrgyzstan
15.1 National infrastructure
15.1.1 Overview
15.2 International infrastructure
15.2.1 Satellites
15.2.2 Optical fibre cable systems
16. Laos
16.1 National infrastructure
16.1.1 Overview
16.1.2 Fixed-line statistics
16.1.3 Forecasts – fixed-line market - 2015; 2020
16.2 International infrastructure
16.2.1 Terrestrial cable links
16.2.2 Asian Development Bank Backbone Telecommunications Network
16.2.3 Proposed satellite system
17. Macau
17.1 National and international infrastructure
18. Malaysia
18.1 National infrastructure
18.1.1 Overview
18.1.2 Fixed-line networks
18.1.3 Forecasts – fixed-line subscribers – 2015; 2020
18.1.4 Sharing of infrastructure
18.1.5 Fibre optic backbones
18.1.6 Next Generation Networks (NGNs)
18.1.7 High-Speed Broadband (HSBB) network
18.2 International infrastructure
18.2.1 International gateways
18.2.2 Malaysia-Thailand
18.2.3 Submarine cable networks
18.2.4 Proposed submarine cable networks
18.2.5 Satellite networks
19. Maldives
19.1 National infrastructure
19.1.1 Overview
19.1.2 Domestic satellite service
19.2 International infrastructure
19.2.1 Satellite networks
19.2.2 Submarine cable networks
20. Mongolia
20.1 National infrastructure
20.1.1 Overview
20.1.2 Rural services
20.2 International infrastructure
20.2.1 Overview
20.2.2 Satellite program
20.2.3 Chronological data of ICT developments in Mongolia
21. Myanmar (Burma)
21.1 National infrastructure
21.1.1 Overview
21.1.2 Wireless Local Loop (WLL)
21.2 International infrastructure
21.2.1 Overview
21.2.2 Satellite networks
22. Nepal
22.1 National infrastructure
22.1.1 Overview
22.1.2 Forecasts – fixed-line market – 2015; 2020
22.1.3 Nepal East West SDH project
22.1.4 Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP)
22.2 International infrastructure
22.2.1 Overview
23. North Korea
23.1 National infrastructure
23.1.1 Overview
23.1.2 North-South connections
23.2 International infrastructure
23.2.1 Overview
23.2.2 Satellite networks
24. Pakistan
24.1 National infrastructure
24.1.1 Overview
24.1.2 Fixed line statistics
24.1.3 Forecast – fixed line market – 2015; 2020
24.1.4 Opening up of market
24.1.5 Rural services
24.1.6 Universal Service Fund (USF)
24.1.7 Fibre optic networks
24.1.8 Broadband networks
24.1.9 Wireless Local Loop (WLL)
24.1.10 Next Generation Networks (NGNs)
24.1.11 Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP)
24.2 International infrastructure
24.2.1 International gateways
24.2.2 Pakistan-India link
24.2.3 Submarine cable networks
24.2.4 Satellite networks and systems
25. Philippines
25.1 National infrastructure
25.1.1 Overview
25.1.2 Fixed-line statistics
25.1.3 Forecasts – fixed-line market – 2015; 2020
25.1.4 Globe Telecom’s national fixed-line licence
25.1.5 Background: Service Area Scheme (SAS)
25.1.6 National fibre optic networks
25.1.7 Next Generation Networks (NGNs)
25.1.8 Wireless Local Loop (WLL)
25.1.9 Very Small Aperture Terminal (VSAT) services
25.2 International infrastructure
25.2.1 International gateways
25.2.2 Submarine cable networks
25.2.3 Satellite systems
26. Singapore
26.1 National infrastructure
26.1.1 Overview
26.1.2 Fixed-mobile convergence (FMC)
26.1.3 Next Generation National Infocomm Infrastructure (Next Gen NII)
26.1.4 Analysis – Singapore’s national broadband network
26.1.5 Infrastructure developments
26.2 International infrastructure
26.2.1 Submarine cable networks
26.2.2 Submarine cable systems under construction
26.2.3 Satellite networks
27. South Korea
27.1 National infrastructure
27.1.1 National submarine cable infrastructure
27.1.2 National satellite infrastructure
27.1.3 Internet infrastructure
27.1.4 Smart cities
27.2 International infrastructure
27.2.1 Submarine cable infrastructure
28. Sri Lanka
28.1 National infrastructure
28.1.1 Fixed infrastructure
28.1.2 Overview
28.1.3 Forecasts – fixed-line market – 2015; 2020
28.1.4 Infrastructure development
28.1.5 Wireless Local Loop (WLL)
28.1.6 Fibre optic networks
28.1.7 National Backbone Network (NBN)
28.1.8 Payphones
28.1.9 Numbering plan
28.1.10 Internet Protocol (IP) networks
28.1.11 Rural communications
28.2 International infrastructure
28.2.1 Submarine cables
29. Taiwan
29.1 National infrastructure
29.1.1 Government initiatives for broadband and m-Taiwan
29.1.2 Fibre-to-the-Home (FttH)
29.2 International infrastructure
29.2.1 Submarine cable networks
29.2.2 Satellite networks
30. Tajikistan
30.1 National and international infrastructure
30.1.1 Overview
30.1.2 Next Generation Networks (NGNs)
31. Thailand
31.1 National infrastructure
31.1.1 Overview
31.1.2 Background
31.1.3 Forecasts – fixed-line subscribers – 2015; 2020
31.1.4 Public payphones
31.1.5 Next Generation Network (NGN)
31.2 International infrastructure
31.2.1 Overview
31.2.2 Submarine cable networks
31.2.3 Submarine cable systems under construction or proposed
31.2.4 Submarine cable outages
31.2.5 Satellite networks
32. Timor Leste
32.1 National infrastructure
32.1.1 Overview
32.2 International infrastructure
32.2.1 Overview
32.2.2 Satellite networks
32.2.3 Submarine cable
33. Turkmenistan
33.1 National and international infrastructure
33.1.1 Overview
33.1.2 Fibre optic networks
34. Uzbekistan
34.1 National infrastructure
34.1.1 Overview
34.1.2 Forecasts – fixed-line market – 2015; 2020
34.1.3 Fibre optic cables
34.2 International infrastructure
34.2.1 Satellite communications
35. Vietnam
35.1 National infrastructure
35.1.1 Overview
35.1.2 Background to development
35.1.3 Next Generation Networks (NGNs)
35.1.4 Wireless Local Loop (WLL)
35.1.5 Forecasts – fixed-line market – 2015; 2020
35.1.6 National infrastructure projects and equitisation
35.2 International infrastructure
35.2.1 Background to development
35.2.2 Submarine cable networks
35.2.3 Satellite networks
36. Glossary of Abbreviations
List of Tables, Charts and Exhibits
Table 1 – Fixed-line subscribers and teledensity – 1994; 2000 - 2012
Table 2 – Fixed-line subscribers - 2011
Table 3 – Forecast fixed-line subscribers – 2015; 2020
Table 4 – Fixed lines in service and teledensity – 1991 - 2012
Table 5 – Fixed lines in service, annual growth and teledensity – 1995 - 2012
Table 6 – Forecast fixed-line subscribers – 2015; 2020
Table 7 – Fixed lines in service and teledensity – 1995 - 2012
Table 8 – Bangladesh optical fibre network - 2011
Table 9 – Village Phones in Bangladesh – 1998 – 2007; 2010 - 2011
Table 10 – Forecast fixed line subscribers – 2015; 2020
Table 11 – Fixed lines in service and teledensity – 1995 - 2012
Table 12 – Fixed line subscribers and penetration rate – 1990; 1995; 2000 - 2012
Table 13 – Fixed lines in service – 1995 - 2012
Table 14 – Forecast fixed-line growth – 2015; 2020
Table 15 – China main indicators of telecommunications capacity – 2009 - 2011
Table 16 – China total international outlet bandwidth: 2006 - 2011
Table 17 – International outlet bandwidth for key networks – 2004 – 2011
Table 18 – IPv4 address resources in China and annual change – 2005 - 2011
Table 19 – Total domain names in China and annual change – 2005 - 2011
Table 20 – Classified domain names in China – 2009; 2011
Table 21 – Classified .cn domain names – 2009 - 2010
Table 22 – Growth of websites in China and annual change – 2002 – 2011
Table 23 – Growth of web pages in China and annual change – 2006 - 2011
Table 24 – FttX subscribers – 2006 - 2012
Table 25 – Fixed lines in service, annual change and penetration – 1995 - 2012
Table 26 – Fixed-line operators – subscribers and market share – 2010
Table 27 – Forecast fixed line subscribers – 2015; 2020
Table 28 – Digital 21 Strategy – key indicators – June 2012
Table 29 – External telecommunications facilities capacity of Hong Kong – 2000 - 2012
Table 30 – Fixed-line subscribers and teledensity – 2005 - 2012
Table 31 – Fixed-line subscribers and teledensity (historical) – 1995 - 2005
Table 32 – Forecast fixed line subscribers and penetration rates – 2015; 2020
Table 33 – Growth of VPT scheme – 2001 - 2011
Table 34 – PCOs in operation – 2003 - 2011
Table 35 – PCOs in operation and market share by operator – September 2011
Table 36 – Fixed WLL subscribers (historical) – 2004 - 2006
Table 37 – Fixed-line subscribers and teledensity – 1995 - 2012
Table 38 – Fixed lines subscribers and annual change by operator – 2011
Table 39 – Fixed wireless v. wireline subscribers – 2011
Table 40 – Forecast of fixed line subscribers and penetration rates – 2015; 2020
Table 41 – Planned five-year USO deployment of lines for villages – 2006 - 2010
Table 42 – Fixed-wireless (WLL) subscribers – 2003; 2007 - 2011
Table 43 – Fixed-wireless (WLL) subscribers by operator – 2011
Table 44 – PT Telkom’s fixed wireless subscribers – 2003 - 2011
Table 45 – PT Telkom – fixed wireless subscribers – 2010
Table 46 – MYLINE subscribers – 2002 - 2012
Table 47 – MYLINE operator market share – February 2012
Table 48 – International internet bandwidth – 1995 - 2010
Table 49 – Fixed lines in service and teledensity – 1995 - 2012
Table 50 – Forecast fixed line subscribers and penetration rates – 2015; 2020
Table 51 – Fixed lines in service, annual change and teledensity – 1991 - 2012
Table 52 – Fixed lines in service – 1995 - 2012
Table 53 – WLL (fixed) subscribers – 2004 - 2012
Table 54 – Forecast fixed line subscribers and penetration rates – 2015; 2020
Table 55 – Fixed-lines and teledensity – 1985 - 2013
Table 56 – Fixed lines in service and teledensity – 1995 - 2012
Table 57 – Fixed-line household penetration rate – 2000 - 2012
Table 58 – Forecast fixed-line subscribers – 2015; 2020
Table 59 – Fixed lines in service and teledensity – 1995 - 2012
Table 60 – Fixed-line subscribers by region – September 2011
Table 61 – Fixed lines in service and teledensity – 1990, 1995 – 2013
Table 62 – Local fixed-line telephone traffic – 1997 – 2009
Table 63 – Wireless local loop (WLL) lines in service – 2003 – 2011
Table 64 – L and S band usage – July 2012
Table 65 – C band usage – July 2012
Table 66 – Ku band usage – July 2012
Table 67 – Fixed lines in service – 1988, 1990, 1995 - 2012
Table 68 – Fixed-lines in service and teledensity – 1995 - 2012
Table 69 – Fixed WLL subscribers – 2006 - 2011
Table 70 – Forecast fixed line subscribers – 2015; 2020
Table 71 – Fixed lines in service and teledensity – 1990; 2000; 2005; 2010
Table 72 – Fixed lines in service and teledensity – 1991 - 2012
Table 73 – Fixed wireline subscribers – 2004 - 2011
Table 74 – Fixed wireline v. fixed wireless (WLL) subscribers – 2004 - 2012
Table 75 – Fixed wireline subscribers by operator and market share –2011
Table 76 – Forecast fixed line subscribers – 2015; 2020
Table 77 – WLL subscribers – 2005 - 2012
Table 78 – WLL subscribers by operator and market share – March 2012
Table 79 – Fixed lines in service and penetration – 1994 - 2012
Table 80 – Fixed lines – proportion of urban and residential subscribers – 2007 - 2011
Table 81 – Fixed lines installed versus lines in operation – 1995 - 2011
Table 82 – Total SAS lines installed by operators by target date
Table 83 – Forecast fixed line subscribers – 2015; 2020
Table 84 – Fixed lines in service and penetration – 1998 - 2012
Table 85 – Overview of fixed-line subscribers – 2011
Table 86 – Registered .kr domains – 1993 - 2012
Table 87 – Number of IPv4 and IPv6 addresses – 1997 - 2012
Table 88 – International bandwidth – 1997 - 2010
Table 89 – Fixed lines in service, annual change and teledensity – 1995 - 2012
Table 90 – Forecast fixed line subscribers and penetration rate – 2015; 2020
Table 91 – WLL subscribers – 1996 - 2012
Table 92 – Fixed lines in service, annual growth and teledensity – 1995 - 2012
Table 93 – Fixed lines and teledensity – 1995 - 2012
Table 94 – Estimated fixed-line subscribers by operator – 2011
Table 95 – Estimated fixed-line subscribers – metro vs provincial – 2011
Table 96 – Forecast fixed-line subscribers and penetration rate – 2015; 2020
Table 97 – Public payphones in service – 2004 - 2011
Table 98 – Public payphones by provider – 2011
Table 99 – Fixed line subscribers, annual change and penetration – 1995; 1998 - 2000; 2003 - 2012
Table 100 – Fixed lines in service and teledensity – 1991 - 2012
Table 101 – Fixed lines in service, annual growth and teledensity – 1991 - 2012
Table 102 – Forecast fixed-line subscribers and penetration rates – 2015; 2020
Table 103 – Fixed lines in service and teledensity – 1990 - 2012
Table 104 – Forecast fixed line subscribers and penetration rates – 2015; 2020
Chart 1 – Fixed lines in service and teledensity – 2001 - 2012
Chart 2 – Bangladesh fixed-line subscribers and penetration - 2001 - 2012
Chart 3 – China total international outlet bandwidth – 2006 - 2011
Chart 4 – IPv4 address resources in China and annual change– 2006 - 2011
Chart 5 – Websites in China and annual change– 2002 - 2011
Chart 6 – Web pages in China and annual change– 2006 - 2011
Chart 7 – Fixed and mobile subscribers in Georgia – 2000 - 2011
Chart 8 - Fixed-line subscribers and teledensity – 2005 - 2012
Chart 9 - Fixed-line subscribers and teledensity (historical) – 1995 - 2005
Chart 10 - Fixed-line subscribers and teledensity – 1995 - 2012
Chart 11 – International bandwidth – 2005 - 2010
Chart 12: Fixed and mobile subscribers: 2000 - 2013
Chart 13 - Fixed lines in service and teledensity - 2000 – 2012(e)
Chart 14 – Fixed lines in service and teledensity- 1998 – 2013
Chart 15 – Fixed and mobile subscribers – 1999 - 2010
Chart 16 - Fixed lines in service, annual growth and teledensity – 2001 - 2012
Chart 17 – Fixed line subscribers and annual change – 2001 - 2012
Exhibit 1 – Major submarine cables with landing points in Brunei - 2011
Exhibit 2 – Regional/international fibre optic cable networks
Exhibit 3 – Selected Chinese satellite service providers and satellites
Exhibit 4 – China Satcom satellite fleet
Exhibit 5 – Major submarine cables with landing points in Hong Kong – 2012
Exhibit 6 – International submarine cable systems with landing points in India - 2011
Exhibit 7 – ISRO satellite network – May 2011
Exhibit 8 – Palapa Ring Project – specification of rings
Exhibit 9 – Indonesian satellites – 2011
Exhibit 10 – Major members of MYLINE Carriers Association – February 2012
Exhibit 11 – Major global/regional submarine cables with landing point in Japan - 2010
Exhibit 12 – Construction of the National Information Highway (NIH) backbone
Exhibit 13 – International submarine cable systems with landing points in Malaysia - 2011
Exhibit 14 – Chronological events of ICT developments in Mongolia: 1921 – 2011
Exhibit 15 – Major submarine cables with landing points in the Philippines - 2011
Exhibit 16 – Structure of National Broadband Network
Exhibit 17 – International submarine cable systems with landing points in Singapore – 2011
Exhibit 18 – National submarine fibre optic cables overview in South Korea
Exhibit 19 – KOREASAT satellite status
Exhibit 20 – Interconnection status by IX - 2011
Exhibit 21 – International submarine fibre optic cables overview in South Korea
Exhibit 22 – Major global/regional submarine cables with landing point in Taiwan – 2011
Exhibit 23 – Submarine cable networks - 2011
Exhibit 24 – Thaicom’s satellite network – 2011

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