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2008 Africa - Telecoms, Mobile and Broadband in Western Region

This report provides a comprehensive overview of the trends and developments in the telecommunications markets of eleven West African countries: Benin, Burkina Faso, Cote d’Ivoire, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Liberia, Mali, Nigeria, Senegal and Sierra Leone. Subjects covered include:

  • Key statistics;
  • Market and industry overviews;
  • Regulatory environment and structural reform;
  • Major players (fixed, mobile and broadband);
  • Infrastructure development;
  • Mobile voice and data markets;
  • Average Revenue per User (ARPU) trends;
  • Internet, including broadband development;
  • Convergence (voice/data, fixed/wireless/mobile).


Telecommunications in West Africa is expected to receive a major boost from the arrival of new submarine fibre optic cables in 2008 and 2009 which will bring direct access to fibre-based international bandwidth to many countries in the region for the first time. In others, the new fibre links will finally create competition to SAT-3/WASC, the only international fibre currently serving the African West coast. At the same time, extensive national fibre optic backbone networks are being rolled out.

Nigeria overtook South Africa in early 2008 to become the continent’s largest telecom market with over 44 million mobile subscribers. While growth prospects in the region’s mobile voice market are still excellent, declining ARPU levels are forcing the operators to transform themselves into providers of converged fixed, mobile and broadband services. Continuing liberalisation of VoIP is creating new opportunities for wireless broadband access networks that are set to replace the extremely underdeveloped copper fixed-line networks and ultimately compete in the mobile sector as well.

While some countries in the region are struggling to clean up disorderly regulatory regimes left behind by corrupt previous governments, foreign investors from Europe, the Middle East and South Africa continue to keep a keen eye on every takeover opportunity or new operator licence being tendered.

A dispute about licence fees between the government of Benin and leading mobile network operators in the country in 2007 led to an only temporary dent in investor confidence. A newly licensed fifth mobile network successfully launched services in June 2008. Growth prospects are excellent, with penetration rates in all market sectors well below African averages. The Internet and broadband market is underdeveloped due to the poor national fixed-line infrastructure and high cost of international connectivity. A planned new international fibre link is expected to lead to significantly lower prices from 2008/09. However, for the market potential to fully unfold, several key policy decisions by the government are required.

Following the majority-privatisation of Burkina Faso’s incumbent telco, Onatel, fresh investment and new technologies have accelerated the development of the national network infrastructure. The landlocked country will not benefit directly from the new submarine fibre optic cable systems reaching the region in 2008/09, but it will gain additional connectivity options through several of its neighbouring countries. Mobile telephony has experienced outstanding growth, with subscribers to the three digital networks now outnumbering fixed lines in the country by more than 15:1. With market penetration well below African averages, the growth potential in all market sectors is excellent.

A peace agreement signed in 2007 gives hope for a normalisation of affairs in Cote d’Ivoire which was once the economic powerhouse of the region. The economic turnaround is supported by offshore oil and gas production which has now replaced cocoa as the country’s main income earner. However, most segments of the telecommunications market have continued to flourish during the crisis which started in 1999. The recent aggressive launch of a third and a fourth GSM network has accelerated the already fast growth of the mobile sector where market penetration is above the African average. Cote d’Ivoire has a relatively well developed infrastructure that supports ADSL broadband services with speeds of up to 8Mb/s. An auction of WiMAX spectrum is expected in the near future, while the first commercial service using this technology is already available. At least two of the new international fibre links planned for the region will have landing points in Cote d’Ivoire, creating competition with the existing SAT-3/WASC cable.

Gambia has a relatively well developed national backbone network, but fixed-line penetration has remained low at around 3%, which in turn has hindered Internet usage. The introduction of wireless systems is beginning to accelerate developments in both of these market sectors. ADSL broadband services have been available in the country since 2006. Gambia is set to get its first own international fibre landing point which will eliminate the country’s dependence on neighbouring Senegal for international bandwidth. Mobile penetration is well above the African average and is expected to be driven further by the recent launch of a third network and the licensing of a fourth. The recent privatisation of fixed-line incumbent, Gamtel, and the new Telecommunications Bill, including new guidelines on VoIP, are expected to lead to new opportunities for additional market players.

Ghana led the way in telecommunications liberalisation and deregulation in Africa when it privatised Ghana Telecom as early as 1996. Following the exit of the investor in 2007, the company is currently being re-privatised. Similarly, the second national operator, Westel, was re-privatised in 2007. An IPO is expected from both companies in the near future. The highly competitive bidding for both companies (which also hold mobile licences) indicates the huge potential that is seen in the market despite the already intense competition between four operating mobile networks. A sixth mobile licence was issued in mid-2008. The new submarine fibre optic cables set to reach the country in 2009 will create competition with the current monopoly provider of international bandwidth and support the ongoing convergence of technologies and services. Other key developments that will drive the market going forward are the expected full liberalisation of VoIP telephony and allocation of WiMAX spectrum.

Guinea has vast mineral resources and is yet one of the poorest countries in the world. Penetration rates in its telecommunications and Internet market are well below African averages. The mobile sector now has five players competing for customers and is showing very healthy growth, while the fixed-line and Internet markets are virtually untapped. A new strategic investor may soon be sought for the incumbent telco, Sotelgui. The recent entry of two world-class international operators, MTN and Orange, with investments of hundreds of millions of US$, is expected to drive the market forward through convergence between fixed and mobile, voice and data services. The planned arrival of two international submarine cable systems to the country’s shores in 2008/09 promises to bring fibre-based bandwidth to Guinea for the first time which should help to lower prices and stimulate the market.

Five years into peace, following more than a decade of civil war which destroyed much of its infrastructure, Liberia became a prime example of an almost entirely wireless telecommunications market. Four mobile operators are competing for customers while the virtually non-operational fixed-line incumbent is rolling out a wireless CDMA system with a view to possibly also entering the mobile market as a fifth player. Internet services are available from a number of wireless ISPs and the mobile networks using GPRS, EDGE and WiMAX technology. Despite the expensive operating environment due to the lack of basic infrastructure in the country, competition has led to some of the lowest call prices in Africa. However, penetration rates are still well below African averages in all market segments. Without even a functioning satellite earth station, the country will particularly benefit from the arrival of a new international submarine fibre link in 2009.

Home to one of the world’s most isolated cities, the fabled Timbuktu, and a generally challenging geography for the provision of telecom services, penetration rates in Mali are still below African averages in all market segments, including mobile. France Telecom was extremely successful when it entered the market as the second player in 2003 and quickly amassed more than 80% market share. With privatisation of the incumbent telco Sotelma planned for 2008, its mobile subsidiary Malitel has made great efforts to improve its coverage and services, which has lead to annual growth in excess of 130%. The government is planning to license a third mobile operator. The introduction of ADSL, WiMAX and mobile data services has started to accelerate growth in the Internet and broadband market. Like Burkina Faso, Mali is landlocked, but it will gain additional connectivity options through several of its neighbouring countries from the arrival of the new international fibre systems to the region in 2008/09.

Nigeria overtook South Africa in early 2008 to become the continent’s largest telecom market with over 44 million mobile subscribers. New customers are currently signing up at a rate of almost one per second, and yet market penetration is still at relatively low levels. However, declining ARPU levels are forcing the operators to introduce new services and transform themselves into providers of converged fixed, mobile and broadband services. Far reaching liberalisation has led to hundreds of companies providing virtually all kinds of telecom and value-added services. The mobile sector has been joined by a number of additional players under a new unified licensing regime which is expected to also boost the country’s underdeveloped Internet and broadband sector. A fifth GSM operator was licensed in 2007 and 3G mobile services launched in early 2008. The new market entrants are receiving hundreds of millions of US$ in investments from local and foreign investors while Nitel, the recently privatised but still ailing incumbent telco, is looking for an additional strategic investor and new business models to turn the company around.

Senegal has developed one of Africa’s most extensive and modern telecommunications infrastructures. The national telco, Sonatel, is partially privatised and highly profitable. A second national operator and third mobile operator licensed in 2007 is expected to launch services in 2008. Since the introduction of competition in the mobile sector in 1999, the number of mobile subscribers has risen dramatically, now representing around 95% of all telephone lines. Senegal was one of the first African countries to introduce ADSL broadband service in 2003 which has almost completely replaced dial-up as the Internet access method of choice. The country has been a successful reseller of international bandwidth from its SAT-3/WASC landing station to other countries and will be able to expand this business with the new international fibre links, the first of which has already reached its shores. Overall penetration in all sectors of Senegal’s telecom market is still low, resulting in attractive opportunities for new entrants.

Following more than a decade of civil war, Sierra Leone has enjoyed peace and stability since 2002. The country’s traditional telecommunications infrastructure has suffered damage and neglect, but the mobile sector has experienced excellent growth with now five GSM networks competing for customers and up to three more expected to launch shortly. However, recent government intervention in some regulatory matters has created a degree of uncertainty about market growth in the medium term. At the same time, rapidly declining ARPU levels are forcing the operators to improve their services and find new revenue streams, such as Internet access via mobile data services. In this area they are competing with a large number of wireless broadband network operators that have emerged as providers of converged Internet and VoIP telephony services. Overall, penetration rates in all market segments are still well below African averages, leaving ample potential for future growth.

Key highlights:

  • New international fibre links will reduce the cost of international bandwidth by up to 90%.
  • Fixed-line, mobile and Internet market forecasts to 2010 and 2015 for Benin, Ghana, Nigeria, Senegal and Sierra Leone.
  • 3G mobile services have been launched in Nigeria and are being prepared in a number of other countries in the region.
  • ADSL and wireless broadband are rapidly replacing dial-up as the Internet access method of choice.
  • Privatisation of national telcos in the region is continuing with significant premiums over reserve prices being paid.
  • Monthly mobile ARPU has broken the US$10 barrier in most markets, but some operators are achieving up to 60% higher ARPU than their direct competitors.
  • ARPU forecast for Nigeria for 2010 and 2015.
  • Celtel Nigeria monthly ARPU - 2006 - 2008
  • Year Monthly ARPU (US$)
  • 2006 14
  • 2007 12
  • 2008 (Mar) 10
  • (Source: BuddeComm based on company data)
  • Peter Lange
  • August 2008
  • Data in this report is the latest available at the time of preparation and may not be for the current year.

  • 1. Benin
    1.1 Key statistics
    1.2 Overview of Benin’s telecom market
    1.3 Regulatory environment
    1.3.1 Overview
    1.3.2 The big ‘clean-up’ 2007
    1.3.3 West African common regulatory framework 2005
    1.4 Fixed-line operators in Benin
    1.4.1 Benin Telecoms
    1.5 Telecommunications infrastructure
    1.5.1 National telecom network
    1.5.2 International infrastructure
    1.6 Broadband & Internet market
    1.6.1 Overview
    1.6.2 Internet access locations
    1.6.3 ISP market
    1.6.4 Broadband market
    1.6.5 Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP)
    1.7 Mobile communications
    1.7.1 Overview of Benin’s mobile market
    1.7.2 Major mobile operators
    1.7.3 Government confrontation with MTN and Moov
    1.7.4 Satellite mobile
    1.8 Forecasts
    1.8.1 Forecasts - fixed-line market to 2015
    1.8.2 Forecasts - Internet market to 2015
    1.8.3 Forecasts - mobile market to 2015
    2. Burkina Faso
    2.1 Key statistics
    2.2 Overview of Burkina Faso’s telecom market
    2.3 Regulatory environment
    2.3.1 Historic background
    2.3.2 Regulatory authority
    2.3.3 NICI development plan
    2.3.4 Market liberalisation
    2.4 Fixed network operators in Burkina Faso
    2.4.1 Onatel
    2.5 Telecommunications infrastructure
    2.5.1 National telecom network
    2.5.2 International infrastructure
    2.6 Internet market
    2.6.1 Overview
    2.6.2 Internet projects
    2.6.3 ISP market
    2.6.4 Broadband
    2.6.5 Internet via satellite
    2.6.6 E-Government
    2.7 Mobile communications
    2.7.1 Overview of Burkina Faso’s mobile market
    2.7.2 Major mobile operators
    2.7.3 Mobile data services
    3. Cote d’Ivoire
    3.1 Key statistics
    3.2 Country overview
    3.3 Overview of Côte d’Ivoire’s telecom market
    3.4 Regulatory environment
    3.4.1 Regulatory authorities
    3.4.2 Telecom sector liberalisation
    3.4.3 Universal service fund
    3.5 Fixed network operators in Côte d’Ivoire
    3.5.1 Fixed-line statistics
    3.5.2 CI-Telecom
    3.5.3 Arobase Telecom
    3.6 International infrastructure
    3.7 Broadband and Internet market
    3.7.1 Overview
    3.7.2 Internet access locations
    3.7.3 ISP market
    3.7.4 Major ISPs
    3.7.5 Internet via satellite
    3.7.6 Broadband
    3.7.7 Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP)
    3.7.8 E-Commerce
    3.8 Mobile communications
    3.8.1 Overview of Côte d’Ivoire’s mobile market
    3.8.2 Major mobile operators
    3.8.3 CORA de Comstar and Aircomm CI
    3.8.4 Mobile data services
    3.8.5 Satellite mobile
    4. Gambia
    4.1 Key statistics
    4.2 Country overview
    4.3 Overview of Gambia’s telecom market
    4.4 Regulatory environment
    4.4.1 National Communications and Information Policy (NACIP)
    4.4.2 Regulatory authority
    4.4.3 New Telecommunications Bill
    4.4.4 Interconnect
    4.4.5 Universal Access Fund (UAF)
    4.4.6 Telecom sector liberalisation
    4.5 Fixed network operators in Gambia
    4.5.1 Gambia Telecommunications Co Ltd (Gamtel)
    4.6 Telecommunications infrastructure
    4.6.1 National telecom network
    4.6.2 International infrastructure
    4.7 Broadband and Internet market
    4.7.1 Internet overview
    4.7.2 Internet connectivity
    4.7.3 ISP market
    4.7.4 Internet Exchange Point (IXP)
    4.7.5 Broadband market
    4.8 Convergence
    4.8.1 VoIP telephony
    4.8.2 E-Government
    4.8.3 Triple play
    4.9 Mobile communications
    4.9.1 Overview of Gambia’s mobile market
    4.9.2 Major mobile operators
    4.9.3 Mobile voice services
    4.9.4 Mobile data services
    5. Ghana
    5.1 Key statistics
    5.2 Overview of Ghana’s telecom market
    5.3 Regulatory environment
    5.3.1 Regulatory authority
    5.3.2 New competition framework 2006
    5.3.3 Electronic Communications Bill
    5.3.4 Electronic Transaction Bill
    5.3.5 Universal service
    5.3.6 Telecom sector liberalisation
    5.3.7 Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP)
    5.3.8 Fixed-line licence conditions
    5.4 Fixed network operators in Ghana
    5.4.1 Ghana Telecom
    5.4.2 Western Telesystems Ghana Ltd (Westel, Celtel)
    5.4.3 Capital Telecom Ltd
    5.5 Telecommunications infrastructure
    5.5.1 National telecom network
    5.5.2 International infrastructure
    5.5.3 Domestic backbone network infrastructure
    5.5.4 International bandwidth
    5.5.5 Other international fibre projects
    5.6 Internet market
    5.6.1 Overview
    5.6.2 Internet access locations
    5.6.3 ISP market
    5.6.4 Dial-up
    5.7 Broadband market
    5.7.1 Overview
    5.7.2 Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line (ADSL)
    5.7.3 Wireless broadband
    5.7.4 Powerline Communication (PLC)
    5.7.5 Internet via satellite
    5.8 Convergence
    5.8.1 VoIP telephony
    5.8.2 Broadband TV (IPTV)
    5.8.3 E-Commerce
    5.8.4 E-Government
    5.8.5 Distance learning
    5.9 Mobile communications
    5.9.1 Overview of Ghana’s mobile market
    5.9.2 Regulatory issues
    5.9.3 Mobile technologies
    5.9.4 Major mobile operators
    5.9.5 Mobile voice services
    5.9.6 Mobile data services
    5.9.7 Mobile content and applications
    5.10 Forecasts
    5.10.1 Forecasts - fixed-line market to 2015
    5.10.2 Forecasts - Internet market to 2015
    5.10.3 Forecasts - broadband market to 2015
    5.10.4 Forecasts - mobile market to 2015
    6. Guinea
    6.1 Key statistics
    6.2 Country overview
    6.3 Overview of Guinea’s telecom market
    6.4 Regulatory environment
    6.4.1 Background
    6.4.2 Regulatory authority
    6.5 Fixed network operators in Guinea
    6.5.1 Société des Télécommunications de Guinée (Sotelgui)
    6.6 Telecommunications infrastructure
    6.6.1 National telecom network
    6.6.2 International infrastructure
    6.7 Internet market
    6.7.1 Overview
    6.7.2 ISP market
    6.7.3 VoIP
    6.8 Broadband market
    6.8.1 Overview
    6.8.2 SchoolWeb WiFi Network
    6.9 Mobile communications
    6.9.1 Overview of Guinea’s mobile market
    6.9.2 Regulatory issues
    6.9.3 Major mobile operators
    6.9.4 Mobile voice services
    6.9.5 Mobile data services
    7. Liberia
    7.1 Key statistics
    7.2 Country overview
    7.3 Overview of Liberia’s telecom market
    7.4 Regulatory environment
    7.4.1 Regulatory background
    7.4.2 Liberia Telecommunications Act of 2007
    7.4.3 Regulatory authority
    7.4.4 Regulatory direction 2008
    7.5 Fixed-line operator in Liberia
    7.5.1 Liberia Telecommunication Corporation (LTC, Libtelco)
    7.6 Telecommunications infrastructure
    7.6.1 National telecom network
    7.6.2 International infrastructure
    7.7 Internet market
    7.7.1 Overview
    7.7.2 ISP market
    7.7.3 Internet banking
    7.8 Broadband market
    7.8.1 Overview
    7.8.2 WiMAX
    7.9 Mobile communications
    7.9.1 Overview of Liberia’s mobile market
    7.9.2 Regulatory issues
    7.9.3 Major mobile operators
    7.9.4 Mobile data services
    8. Mali
    8.1 Key statistics
    8.2 Country overview
    8.3 Overview of Mali’s telecom market
    8.4 Regulatory environment
    8.4.1 Background
    8.4.2 Regulatory authority
    8.4.3 Liberalisation of Mali’s telecom sector
    8.4.4 Privatisation
    8.4.5 Interconnection
    8.5 Fixed network operators in Mali
    8.5.1 Société des télécommunications du Mali (Sotelma)
    8.5.2 Orange Mali
    8.6 Telecommunications infrastructure
    8.6.1 National telecom network
    8.6.2 International infrastructure
    8.6.3 Wireless Local Loop (WLL)
    8.7 Internet market
    8.7.1 Overview
    8.7.2 Internet cafes
    8.7.3 Multipurpose Community Telecentres (MCTs)
    8.7.4 The Cybertigi project
    8.7.5 ISP market
    8.7.6 Sotelma
    8.7.7 Orange Mali
    8.7.8 Afribone
    8.7.9 CEFIB
    8.7.10 Datatech
    8.8 Broadband market
    8.8.1 Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line (ADSL)
    8.8.2 Wireless broadband
    8.9 Convergence
    8.9.1 VoIP telephony
    8.9.2 E-Health
    8.9.3 Tele-education
    8.10 Mobile communications
    8.10.1 Overview of Mali’s mobile market
    8.10.2 Major mobile operators
    8.10.3 Mobile data services
    9. Nigeria
    9.1 Key statistics
    9.2 Overview of Nigeria’s telecom market
    9.2.1 Telecom investments
    9.3 Regulatory environment
    9.3.1 Nigerian Communications Commission Decree (NCCD) 1992
    9.3.2 National Telecommunications Policy (NTP) 1999, 2000
    9.3.3 Nigerian Communications Act 2003
    9.3.4 Class Licence policy extension 2007
    9.3.5 Regulatory authority
    9.3.6 Key regulatory issues
    9.3.7 Telecom sector liberalisation
    9.3.8 Privatisation of Nitel
    9.4 Fixed network operators in Nigeria
    9.4.1 Market analysis - 2008
    9.4.2 Fixed-line statistics
    9.4.3 Nigerian Telecommunications Ltd (Nitel)
    9.4.4 Globacom Ltd
    9.4.5 VGC Communications
    9.4.6 National Long-Distance Operators (LDOs)
    9.5 Private fixed-wireless operators
    9.5.1 MTS First Wireless
    9.5.2 Mobitel Nigeria Ltd
    9.5.3 Prestel
    9.5.4 Regional FWA operators
    9.6 Telecommunications infrastructure
    9.6.1 National Rural Telephony Program (NRTP)
    9.6.2 National backbone infrastructure
    9.6.3 Next Generation Networks (NGN), Triple play
    9.6.4 International infrastructure
    9.7 Internet market
    9.7.1 Market analysis - 2008
    9.7.2 Internet statistics
    9.7.3 Internet access locations
    9.7.4 Limited availability of PCs
    9.7.5 Internet Exchange Points (IXP)
    9.7.6 ISP market
    9.8 Broadband market
    9.8.1 Overview
    9.8.2 Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line (ADSL)
    9.8.3 Wireless broadband
    9.8.4 WiFi
    9.8.5 WiMAX
    9.8.6 Internet via satellite
    9.8.7 Broadband over Powerlines (BPL)
    9.9 Convergence
    9.9.1 Next Generation Networks (NGN), triple play
    9.9.2 VoIP telephony
    9.9.3 Cable TV
    9.9.4 Internet TV
    9.9.5 E-Commerce, E-Payment
    9.9.6 E-Government
    9.10 Mobile communications
    9.10.1 Overview of Nigeria’s mobile market
    9.10.2 Regulatory issues
    9.10.3 Mobile technologies
    9.10.4 Major mobile operators
    9.10.5 Mobile voice services
    9.10.6 Mobile data services
    9.11 Forecasts
    9.11.1 Forecasts - fixed-line market to 2015
    9.11.2 Forecasts - Internet market to 2015
    9.11.3 Forecasts - mobile services to 2015
    10. Senegal
    10.1 Key statistics
    10.2 Overview of Senegal’s telecom market
    10.3 Regulatory environment
    10.3.1 Telecom sector reform
    10.3.2 Telecommunications Act 2001
    10.3.3 Universal Development Fund (UDF)
    10.3.4 Regulatory authority
    10.3.5 Electronic Transactions Bill
    10.3.6 Telecom sector liberalisation
    10.4 Fixed network operators in Senegal
    10.4.1 Sonatel (Orange)
    10.5 Telecommunications infrastructure
    10.5.1 National telecom network
    10.5.2 International infrastructure
    10.6 Internet market
    10.6.1 Overview
    10.6.2 Internet connectivity
    10.6.3 ISP market
    10.7 Broadband market
    10.7.1 Asymmetrical Digital Subscriber Line (ADSL)
    10.7.2 WiFi
    10.8 Convergence
    10.8.1 VoIP telephony
    10.8.2 Internet Protocol Television (IPTV)
    10.8.3 E-Health
    10.8.4 E-Government
    10.9 Mobile communications
    10.9.1 Overview of Senegal’s mobile market
    10.9.2 Regulatory issues
    10.9.3 Mobile technologies
    10.9.4 Major mobile operators
    10.9.5 Mobile data services
    10.9.6 Mobile content and applications
    10.10 Forecasts
    10.10.1 Forecasts - fixed-line market to 2015
    10.10.2 Forecasts - Internet market to 2015
    10.10.3 Forecasts - mobile market to 2015
    11. Sierra Leone
    11.1 Key statistics
    11.2 Country overview
    11.3 Overview of Sierra Leone’s telecom market
    11.4 Regulatory environment
    11.4.1 Background
    11.4.2 Regulatory authority
    11.4.3 Regulatory direction 2008
    11.4.4 Telecom sector liberalisation
    11.5 Fixed network operators in Sierra Leone
    11.5.1 Sierra Leone Telecommunications Company (Sierratel)
    11.5.2 Other operators
    11.5.3 Fixed-line statistics
    11.6 International infrastructure
    11.6.1 International gateways, grey market
    11.7 Internet and broadband market
    11.7.1 Overview
    11.7.2 VoIP Internet telephony
    11.7.3 Broadband market
    11.7.4 ISPs and converged service providers
    11.8 Mobile communications
    11.8.1 Overview of Sierra Leone’s mobile market
    11.8.2 Mobile licence awards
    11.8.3 Mobile statistics
    11.8.4 Major mobile operators
    11.8.5 Mobile voice services
    11.8.6 Mobile data services
    11.9 Forecasts
    11.9.1 Forecasts - fixed-line market to 2015
    11.9.2 Forecasts - Internet users to 2015
    11.9.3 Forecasts - mobile market to 2015
    12. Glossary of Abbreviations

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