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2007 Africa - Telecoms, Mobile and Broadband in Southern Region and Indian Ocean Islands


Attention: There is an updated edition available for this report.

1. ANGOLA
1.1 Key statistics
1.2 Telecommunications market
1.2.1 Overview of Angola’s telecom market
1.3 Regulatory environment
1.3.1 Historic background
1.3.2 Basic Telecommunications Law 2001
1.3.3 Department of Telecommunications
1.3.4 Regulatory authority
1.3.5 National Telecommunications Council (NTC)
1.3.6 National Commission for Information Technology
1.3.7 Universal Service Fund USF)
1.3.8 Value-added services
1.3.9 Privatisation of Angola Telecom
1.3.10 Interconnection
1.3.11 Telecom sector liberalisation in Angola
1.4 Fixed network operators in Angola
1.4.1 Angola Telecom
1.4.2 Fixed wireless operators
1.5 Telecommunications infrastructure
1.5.1 National telecom network
1.5.2 International infrastructure
1.6 Broadband and Internet market
1.6.1 Initial development
1.6.2 Overview
1.6.3 Broadband market
1.6.4 Angola’s ISP market
1.6.5 Internet access locations
1.6.6 Internet Exchange Point (IXP)
1.7 Convergence
1.7.1 Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) telephony
1.7.2 Broadcasting market
1.7.3 Radio
1.7.4 Television
1.7.5 Broadband over Cable TV (CATV)
1.8 Mobile communications
1.8.1 Overview of Angola’s mobile market
1.8.2 Mobile technologies
1.8.3 Major mobile operators
1.8.4 Mobile voice services
1.9 Forecasts
1.9.1 Notes on scenario forecasts
1.9.2 Forecasts - fixed-line services
1.9.3 Forecast - Internet services
1.9.4 Forecast - mobile services
2. BOTSWANA
2.1 Key statistics
2.2 Telecommunications market
2.2.1 Overview of Botswana’s telecom market
2.3 Regulatory environment
2.3.1 Historic background
2.3.2 Regulatory authority
2.3.3 Universal Service and Access Strategy
2.3.4 Botswana to develop its own cyber law
2.3.5 National ICT policy master plan ‘Maitlamo’
2.3.6 Telecom sector liberalisation in Botswana
2.3.7 Privatisation of Botswana Telecom
2.3.8 Interconnection
2.4 Fixed network operator in Botswana
2.4.1 Botswana Telecommunications Corporation (BTC)
2.5 Telecommunications infrastructure
2.5.1 National telecom network
2.5.2 International infrastructure
2.6 Data market
2.6.1 Managed data services
2.6.2 VSAT networks
2.7 Broadband and Internet market
2.7.1 Overview
2.7.2 Botswana’s ISP market
2.7.3 Broadband market
2.8 Convergence
2.8.1 Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) telephony
2.8.2 Next Generation Network (NGN)
2.8.3 E-commerce
2.8.4 E-government
2.8.5 Broadcasting market
2.9 Mobile communications
2.9.1 Overview of Botswana’s mobile market
2.9.2 Regulatory issues
2.9.3 Major mobile operators
2.9.4 Mobile content
3. MADAGASCAR
3.1 Key statistics
3.2 Telecommunications market
3.2.1 Overview of Madagascar’s telecom market
3.3 Regulatory environment
3.3.1 Telecommunications reform
3.3.2 National ICT Policy
3.3.3 Regulatory authority
3.3.4 Privatisation of Telecom Malagasy (Telma)
3.4 Fixed network operators in Madagascar
3.4.1 Telecom Malagasy
3.5 Telecommunications infrastructure
3.5.1 National telecom network
3.5.2 International infrastructure
3.6 Data market
3.6.1 Data licensees
3.7 Broadband and Internet market
3.7.1 Overview of the Internet in Madagascar
3.7.2 Internet access locations
3.7.3 Madagascar’s ISP market
3.7.4 Broadband market
3.7.5 Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP)
3.8 Mobile communications
3.8.1 Overview of Madagascar’s mobile market
3.8.2 Major mobile operators
3.9 Broadcasting market
3.9.1 Overview
3.10 Forecasts
3.10.1 Notes on scenario forecasts
3.10.2 Forecasts - fixed-line services
3.10.3 Forecasts - Internet services
3.10.4 Forecasts - mobile services
4. MALAWI
4.1 Key statistics
4.2 Telecommunications market
4.2.1 Overview of Malawi’s telecom market
4.3 Regulatory environment
4.3.1 Malawi Communications Act 1998
4.3.2 ICT Policy
4.3.3 Regulatory authority
4.3.4 Telecom sector liberalisation in Malawi
4.3.5 Privatisation of Malawi Telecom
4.3.6 Interconnection
4.4 Fixed network operator
4.4.1 Malawi Telecommunications Ltd (MTL)
4.5 Telecommunications infrastructure
4.5.1 National telecom network
4.5.2 International infrastructure
4.6 Broadband and Internet market
4.6.1 Overview
4.6.2 Malawi’s ISP market
4.6.3 Broadband market
4.6.4 Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP)
4.7 Mobile communications
4.7.1 Overview of Malawi’s mobile market
4.7.2 Major mobile operators
4.8 Broadcasting market
5. MAURITIUS
5.1 Key statistics
5.2 Telecommunications market
5.2.1 Overview of Mauritian telecom market
5.3 Regulatory environment
5.3.1 Telecommunications Act 1998
5.3.2 Information and Communication Technology Act 2001
5.3.3 Regulatory authority
5.3.4 National Telecommunications Policy (NTP - 2003, 2004)
5.3.5 Telecom sector liberalisation in Mauritius
5.3.6 Privatisation of Mauritius Telecom
5.4 Fixed network operators in Mauritius
5.4.1 Mauritius Telecom Group
5.4.2 Mahanagar Telephone (Mauritius) Ltd
5.5 Telecommunications infrastructure
5.5.1 National telecom networks
5.5.2 International infrastructure
5.6 Data market
5.6.1 Data network infrastructure
5.7 Broadband and Internet market
5.7.1 Overview
5.7.2 Internet access locations
5.7.3 ISP market
5.7.4 Internet Exchange Point (IXP)
5.7.5 Broadband market
5.7.6 Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP)
5.8 Convergence
5.8.1 NetTV
5.8.2 Broadcasting market
5.8.3 E-commerce
5.8.4 IT incentives
5.8.5 Cyber-City Project
5.8.6 E-government project
5.9 Mobile communications
5.9.1 Overview of the Mauritian mobile market
5.9.2 Mobile technologies
5.9.3 Major mobile operators
6. MOZAMBIQUE
6.1 Key statistics
6.2 Telecommunications market
6.2.1 Overview of Mozambique’s telecom market
6.3 Regulatory environment
6.3.1 Telecommunications Law 1992
6.3.2 Draft Telecommunications Bill 2002
6.3.3 Regulatory authority
6.3.4 National Commission on Information
6.3.5 Telecom sector liberalisation in Mozambique
6.3.6 Privatisation
6.3.7 Interconnection
6.4 Fixed network operator
6.4.1 Telecomunicações De Moçambique (TDM)
6.5 Telecommunications infrastructure
6.5.1 National telecom network
6.5.2 International infrastructure
6.6 Data market
6.6.1 Overview
6.7 Broadband abd Internet market
6.7.1 Overview
6.7.2 Internet connectivity
6.7.3 Internet access locations
6.7.4 E-government
6.7.5 Mozambique’s ISP market
6.7.6 Broadband market
6.8 Mobile communications
6.8.1 Overview of Mozambique’s mobile market
6.8.2 Major mobile operators
6.8.3 Third mobile licence
6.8.4 3G
6.9 Broadcasting
6.9.1 Overview of TV and radio broadcasting
7. NAMIBIA
7.1 Key statistics
7.2 Telecommunications market
7.2.1 Overview of Namibia’s telecom market
7.3 Regulatory environment
7.3.1 Communications division
7.3.2 Regulatory authority
7.3.3 Post and Telecommunications Bill 1999
7.3.4 Draft Communications Bill 2002
7.3.5 Telecom sector liberalisation in Namibia
7.4 Fixed network operator
7.4.1 Telecom Namibia Ltd
7.5 Telecommunications infrastructure
7.5.1 National telecom network
7.5.2 International infrastructure
7.6 Data market
7.6.1 Data services
7.6.2 Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN)
7.6.3 Teleconferencing
7.6.4 VSAT networks
7.7 Broadband and Internet market
7.7.1 Overview
7.7.2 Internet connectivity
7.7.3 Namibia’s ISP market
7.7.4 Overview of selected ISPs
7.7.5 SchoolNet Namibia
7.7.6 Broadband market
7.8 Convergence
7.8.1 Broadcasting market
7.8.2 Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP)
7.8.3 Next-Generation Network (NGN)
7.8.4 E-services
7.9 Mobile communications
7.9.1 Overview of Namibia’s mobile market
7.9.2 Mobile technologies
7.9.3 Major mobile operators
7.9.4 Mobile voice services
7.9.5 Mobile content and applications
8. ZAMBIA
8.1 Key statistics
8.2 Telecommunications market
8.2.1 Overview of Zambia’s telecom market
8.3 Regulatory environment
8.3.1 Telecommunications Act 1994
8.3.2 New ICT Policy 2007
8.3.3 Regulatory authority
8.3.4 Telecom sector liberalisation in Zambia
8.3.5 Privatisation of Zamtel
8.4 Fixed network operator
8.4.1 Zambia Telecommunications Ltd (Zamtel)
8.5 Telecommunications infrastructure
8.5.1 National telecom network
8.5.2 International infrastructure
8.6 Broadband and Internet market
8.6.1 Overview
8.6.2 Internet access locations
8.6.3 Broadband market
8.6.4 Zambia’s ISP market
8.7 Mobile communications
8.7.1 Overview of Zambia’s mobile market
8.7.2 Major mobile operators
8.7.3 Mobile voice services
8.8 Broadcasting market
8.8.1 Overview
8.8.2 Regulatory issues
9. ZIMBABWE
9.1 Key statistics
9.2 Telecommunications market
9.2.1 Overview of Zimbabwe’s telecom market
9.3 Regulatory environment
9.3.1 Sector Reform Policy 1996
9.3.2 Posts and Telecommunications Bill 2000
9.3.3 Interception of Communications Bill
9.3.4 New ICT Policy draft 2006
9.3.5 International gateways
9.3.6 Regulatory authority
9.3.7 Telecom sector liberalisation
9.3.8 Privatisation of TelOne and NetOne
9.4 Fixed network operators in Zimbabwe
9.4.1 TelOne
9.4.2 TeleAccess Zimbabwe (Pvt) Ltd
9.4.3 Afritell
9.5 Telecommunications infrastructure
9.5.1 National telecom network
9.5.2 International infrastructure
9.6 Data communications
9.6.1 Data licensees
9.7 Broadband and Internet market
9.7.1 Overview
9.7.2 Internet initiatives
9.7.3 Zimbabwe’s ISP market
9.7.4 Overview of selected ISPs
9.7.5 Broadband market
9.8 Mobile communications
9.8.1 Overview of Zimbabwe’s mobile market
9.8.2 Mobile technologies
9.8.3 Major mobile operators
9.8.4 Mobile voice services
10. GLOSSARY OF ABBREVIATIONS


List of Exhibits


Exhibit 1 - Telecommunications licences in Mauritius - 2007
Exhibit 2 - Vodacom’s in and out of Zambia


List of Tables


Table 1 - Country statistics Angola - 2006
Table 2 - Telephone network statistics - 2006
Table 3 - Internet provider statistics - 2006
Table 4 - Internet user statistics - 2006
Table 5 - Mobile statistics - 2006
Table 6 - National telecommunications authorities
Table 7 - Fixed lines in service and teledensity - 1996 - 2006
Table 8 - Internet users and penetration - 1997 - 2006
Table 9 - Mobile operators, technology, subscribers and annual growth - 2006
Table 10 - Mobile subscribers and penetration - 1995 - 2006
Table 11 - Forecast fixed-line and fixed-wireless subscribers growth - 2010; 2015
Table 12 - Forecast Internet user growth - 2010; 2015
Table 13 - Forecast mobile subscriber growth - 2010; 2015
Table 14 - Country statistics Botswana - 2006
Table 15 - Telephone network statistics - March 2006
Table 16 - Internet provider statistics - 2006
Table 17 - Internet user statistics - 2006
Table 18 - Mobile statistics - 2006
Table 19 - National telecommunications authorities
Table 20 - Fixed lines in service and teledensity - 1995 - 2006
Table 21 - Internet users and penetration - 1998 - 2006
Table 22 - Mobile operators, technology, subscribers and annual growth - 2006
Table 23 - Mobile subscribers and penetration - 1998 - 2006
Table 24 - Country statistics Madagascar - 2006
Table 25 - Telephone network statistics - 2006
Table 26 - Internet provider statistics - 2006
Table 27 - Internet user statistics - 2006
Table 28 - Mobile statistics - 2006
Table 29 - National telecommunications authorities
Table 30 - Fixed lines, teledensity and subscribers, public payphones, traffic and revenue - 1998 - 2006
Table 31 - Internet users, penetration, subscribers, hosts, traffic, and revenue - 1996; 1998 - 2006
Table 32 - Mobile operators, technology, subscribers and annual growth - 2006
Table 33 - Mobile subscribers, penetration, traffic and revenue - 1998 - 2006
Table 34 - Forecast fixed-line and fixed-wireless subscriber growth - 2010; 2015
Table 35 - Forecast Internet user growth - 2010; 2015
Table 36 - Forecast mobile subscriber growth - 2010; 2015
Table 37 - Country statistics Malawi - 2006
Table 38 - Telephone network statistics - 2006
Table 39 - Internet provider statistics - 2006
Table 40 - Internet user statistics - 2006
Table 41 - Mobile statistics - 2006
Table 42 - National telecommunications authorities
Table 43 - Fixed lines in service and teledensity - 1995 - 2006
Table 44 - Internet users and penetration - 1997 - 2006
Table 45 - Mobile operators, technology, subscribers and annual growth - 2006
Table 46 - Mobile subscribers and penetration - 1995 - 2006
Table 47 - Country statistics Mauritius - 2006
Table 48 - Telephone network statistics - 2006
Table 49 - Internet provider statistics - 2006
Table 50 - Internet user statistics - 2006
Table 51 - Mobile statistics - 2006
Table 52 - National telecommunications authorities
Table 53 - Fixed lines in service and teledensity - 1995 - 2006
Table 54 - Internet users and penetration - 1996 - 2006
Table 55 - Dial-up Internet subscribers - 2000 - 2005
Table 56 - Mobile operators, technology, subscribers and annual growth - 2006
Table 57 - Mobile subscribers and penetration - 1995 - 2006
Table 58 - Country statistics Mozambique - 2006
Table 59 - Telephone network statistics - 2006
Table 60 - Internet provider statistics - 2006
Table 61 - Internet user statistics - 2006
Table 62 - Mobile statistics - 2006
Table 63 - National telecommunications authorities
Table 64 - Fixed lines in service and teledensity - 1995 - 2006
Table 65 - Internet users and penetration - 1996 - 2006
Table 66 - Mobile operators, technology, subscribers and annual growth - 2006
Table 67 - Mobile subscribers and penetration - 1997 - 2006
Table 68 - Country statistics Namibia - 2006
Table 69 - Telephone network statistics - 2006
Table 70 - Internet provider statistics - 2006
Table 71 - Internet user statistics - 2006
Table 72 - Mobile statistics - 2006
Table 73 - National telecommunications authorities
Table 74 - Fixed lines in service and teledensity - 1995 - 2006
Table 75 - Internet users and penetration- 1996 - 2006
Table 76 - Mobile subscribers and penetration - 1995 - 2006
Table 77 - Country statistics Zambia - 2006
Table 78 - Telephone network statistics - 2006
Table 79 - Internet provider statistics - 2007
Table 80 - Internet user statistics - 2006
Table 81 - Mobile statistics - 2006
Table 82 - National telecommunications authorities
Table 83 - Fixed lines in service and teledensity - 1995 - 2006
Table 84 - Internet users and penetration - 1995 - 2006
Table 85 - Mobile operators, technology, subscribers and annual growth - 2006
Table 86 - Mobile subscribers and penetration - 1995 - 2006
Table 87 - Country statistics Zimbabwe - 2006
Table 88 - Telephone network statistics - 2006
Table 89 - Internet provider statistics - 2006
Table 90 - Internet user statistics - 2006
Table 91 - Mobile statistics - 2006
Table 92 - National telecommunications authorities
Table 93 - Fixed lines in service and teledensity - 1995 - 2006
Table 94 - Internet users and penetration - 1996 - 2006
Table 95 - Mobile operators, technology, subscribers and annual growth - 2006
Table 96 - Mobile subscribers and penetration - 1997 - 2006

The diversity among the countries in this group is immense, ranging from the small Indian Ocean island nation of Mauritius, sporting some of the best telecoms market indicators of the continent, to some of the poorest countries in the world like Malawi and the island of Madagascar, as well as countries which have emerged from decades-long civil wars like Angola and Mozambique and which are consequently at a very low level of development. In between are relatively wealthy nations like Botswana and Namibia which benefit from their close ties with South Africa. In its deep political and economic crisis, neighbouring Zimbabwe is demonstrating how telecoms markets in Africa survive even the most difficult of operating conditions.

Angola
Angola is the second-largest producer of oil in sub-Saharan Africa, and the recent rise of oil prices may push GDP growth as high as 35% in 2007. With peace restored in 2002 after almost 30 years of civil war, foreign investment has multiplied. However, Angola Telecom’s fixed-line network still serves less than 1% of the population. The licensing of four new fixed-wireless operators in 2002 has introduced competition to this sector, using 3G wireless technologies and WiMAX to provide advanced services. A national fibre optic backbone network is being implemented. Privatisation of Angola Telecom and the licensing of a third mobile operator are expected in the not too distant future. For the country overview, see chapter 1, page 1.

Botswana
Botswana is one of the continent’s wealthiest nations with a thriving economy mainly based on diamond exploitation and tourism. Major steps were taken in 2006 towards full liberalisation of the already competitive telecommunications sector. Mobile penetration has passed the 50% mark which is more than twice the African average, while the government-owned national operator BTC has seen a continued decline in the number fixed-line connections despite the introduction of ADSL broadband services. The government is in the process of privatising BTC which, through a new service-neutral licence, is now also enabled to compete in the mobile sector. For the country overview, see chapter 2, page 20.

Madagascar
The new private owners of Madagascar’s incumbent telco, Telma, have managed to almost double the number of fixed line customers in 2006 alone after years of stagnation, albeit from a very low base. They also entered the mobile market successfully as the country’s third player. Penetration rates in both sectors are still extremely low, promising excellent growth potential. Pent-up demand for Internet access and broadband capabilities, resulting from the traditionally underdeveloped fixed network, will continue driving both market sectors. With one of the lowest GDPs per capita in the world, there will be limits to the growth of Madagascar’s telecoms market, but plans to exploit and export crude oil and natural gas reserves may deliver a boost to the economy. For the country overview, see chapter 3, page 40.

Malawi
Malawi’s incumbent telco, MTL, was finally privatised in 2006 following several unsuccessful attempts. A second national operator was licensed in May 2007 and the county’s third mobile licence is expected later in the year. Malawi’s telecommunications sector is among the least developed in Africa with a fixed-line penetration rate below 1%, despite more than doubling the number of fixed-line connections in the past five years. The mobile sector has grown more than ten-fold during the same period, but market penetration is still very low in this sub-sector as well, around 5%. Several ISPs are rolling out wireless broadband networks, and the planned liberalisation of Internet telephony (VoIP) should create further opportunities. For the country overview, see chapter 4, page 52.

Mauritius
The island nation of Mauritius sports some of the best telecommunication market indicators in Africa and has been the first with many innovations: It launched Africa’s first cellular system in 1989, the first commercial 3G mobile service in November 2004, and the world’s first nationwide high-speed wireless broadband network based on the WiMAX standard in 2005. Mauritius is actively pursuing a policy to make telecommunications the fifth pillar of its economy after sugar, textiles, tourism and financial services, and to become a regional telecom hub with Singapore as a role model. The incumbent telco has been partially privatised and all sectors of the market are open to competition. A second fixed-line and third mobile operator launched services in 2006, giving additional impetus to the market moving into 2007. For the country overview, see chapter 5, page 64.

Mozambique
Fifteen years of peace and radical reforms have transformed Mozambique into one of the fastest-growing economies on the continent. The country was one of the first in the region to reform its telecommunications landscape, immediately after a peace accord had been reached in 1992. The mobile sub-sector has experienced excellent growth rates, and yet, market penetration is still only about half the African average. An announcement regarding the licensing of a third mobile operator is expected before the end of 2007. Internet usage is expected to receive a boost from wireless broadband networks currently being rolled out and the introduction of 3G mobile services in the second half of 2007. For the country overview, see chapter 6, page 82.

Namibia
Namibia was one of the last countries in Africa to introduce competition in the mobile communications sector when a second network finally launched in 2007. Despite this, the country had already achieved a market penetration rate above the African average. The other mobile network was partially privatised in 2006 and has launched 3G services. The fixed-line incumbent, Telecom Namibia, quietly entered the lucrative mobile market as the third player but was put on hold by the regulator until the new ICT Bill brings clarity about fixed-mobile convergence, among other issues. Several WiMAX networks currently under development will boost Internet connectivity and bring additional competition to the voice market once Internet telephony (VoIP) is deregulated. With an extensive fibre optic backbone, the country is well positioned to remain one of the most developed telecommunications markets in Africa. For the country overview, see chapter 7, page 97.

Zambia
Zambia has an independently regulated telecoms sector with three competing mobile networks and a monopoly fixed-line operator, Zamtel. While the mobile sector has experienced excellent growth, market penetration is still relatively low at little more than half the African average. The fixed-line network is at a very low level of development, which in turn has impeded growth in the Internet sector. The country’s ISPs are rolling out wireless broadband networks, positioning themselves as competitors in the telecoms sector once Internet telephony (VoIP) is fully liberalised - a key component in Zambia’s new ICT Policy which was launched in early 2007. For the country overview, see chapter 8, page.115.

Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe’s almost decade-old deep political and economic crisis has not spared the country’s telecom industry, with a dwindling local currency, hyper inflation and government interference creating a difficult operating environment. Attempts to privatise the national telco during this time have failed, as has a second national operator, unable to raise the necessary funding. Growth of the country’s three mobile networks has been slowed down temporarily, but an immense pent-up demand is now being addressed following major infrastructure upgrades, including the introduction of 3G mobile services. The country’s backbone network is being upgraded, including fibre optic links which will also improve Internet connectivity. For the country overview, see chapter 9, page 131.

Key highlights:

  • Fixed-line, mobile and Internet market forecasts to 2010 and 2015 for Angola and Madagascar, two of Africa’s most promising growth markets driven by oil revenues;
  • Privatisation of incumbent telcos expected in Angola and Botswana;
  • Successful turnaround story of Madagascar’s incumbent telco following privatisation;
  • Additional mobile licences expected in Angola, Malawi and Mozambique;
  • 3G mobile services launched in Namibia, expected in Angola, Mozambique and Zimbabwe before the end of the year;
  • WiMAX networks are operational or under development in almost every country in the region;
  • Converged Triple Play services (voice, broadband data and IPTV) launched in Mauritius;
  • Liberalisation of VoIP expected in Malawi;
  • In its almost decade-old deep political and economic crisis, Zimbabwe demonstrates how telecoms markets in Africa survive even the most difficult of operating conditions.
Mobile subscribers and penetration in Zimbabwe - 1997-2006
Year Subscribers Penetration
1997 11,300 0.09%
1998 55,000 0.45%
1999 177,000 1.53%
2000 281,000 2.42%
2001 325,400 2.81%
2002 336,500 2.89%
2003 385,100 3.28%
2004 509,800 3.92%
2005 745,600 5.74%
2006 1,001,300 8.21%

(Source: BuddeComm)
For those needing high level strategic information and objective analysis on this region, this report is essential reading and gives further information on:
  • Government policies affecting the telecoms industry;
  • Market liberalisation;
  • Telecoms operators - privatisation, acquisitions, new licences and competition;
  • Internet and broadband development and growth;
  • The fast growing mobile markets of the region;
  • Mobile application and content developments.
Data in this report is the latest available at the time of preparation and may not be for the current year.

There is an updated report available.


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