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The Asian American Market


Attention: There is an updated edition available for this report.

This report takes an in-depth look at Asian Americans, the fastest growing and most affluent ethnic segment in an increasingly diverse America. It includes a comprehensive analysis of key demographic features of Asian Americans, an assessment of the current size and projected growth of the market through 2004, and an analysis of shopping behavior and buying patterns. The report profiles the immigration patterns, geographic distribution, economic status, and social and cultural attributes of the main groups within the Asian American community. Discover why direct mail and telemarketing work well with Asian American households.


Scope and Methodology

Scope of Report

This report assesses the market represented by the Asian American population of the United States. Demographic data on Asian Americans are reported by the U.S. Census Bureau under the category entitled “Asians and Pacific Islanders (API).” This term refers to persons who identify themselves as having ethnic origins in “any of the original peoples of the Far East, Southeast Asia, the Indian Subcontinent, or the Pacific Islands.”

In the 1990 Census, Pacific Islanders accounted for approximately 5% of all individuals falling within the API classification, and Asians made up 95% of those within the API category. This Packaged Facts report focuses exclusively on Asians in America and highlights the ethnic groups that comprise the vast majority of the Asian American population: Chinese, Filipinos, Japanese, South Asians, Koreans, Vietnamese, and other Indochinese.

Methodology

The report is based on information collected through interviews with marketing and advertising executives as well as an extensive survey of published materials. These include data from the U.S. Census Bureau, National Telecommunications and Information Administration, and other federal government agencies. Other sources include a wide range of journals covering the demographic, marketing, and advertising fields, corporate and Asian American-oriented Web sites, and news reports on demographic, social, and economic trends within the Asian American community.

Categories Covered:

  • Demographic Information
    • Population Growth
    • Regional Dispersion
    • Six Ethnic Sub-Groups (Chinese, Filipino, South Asian, Korean, Japanese, Vietnamese)
    • Social and Economic Characteristics of Each Subgroup
    • Immigration
    • Household Income
    • Religious/Political Affiliations
  • The Market
    • Current and Projected Market Growth
    • Geographic Segmentation
    • Key Customer Segments
    • Factors Affecting Market Growth
  • Consumer Behavior
  • Perceived Importance of Price
  • Emphasis on Quality of Service
  • Family/Peer Influence
  • ATM/Credit Card Activity
  • Shopping Patterns (food, healthcare, etc.)
  • Spending Trends
  • Internet Expenditures
  • Marketing/Advertising/Promotional Strategies
    • Language Issues
    • Cultural Perceptions
    • Emphasis on family ties, children, traditions

    Highlights:

    • Projected Asian American Population Growth to 2004
    • U.S. Ethnic Mix: 1999 vs. 2008
    • States with Largest Asian American Population
    • Geographic Distribution of Asian American Population
    • Median Household Income
    • Projected Asian American Market Growth to 2004
    • Percentage of U.S. Persons by Race Who Own a Computer

    Sample Information Sources*:

    • March 1998 Current Population Survey, U.S. Census Board
    • Asian Media Reference Guide, 2000
    • Luxe, Winter 1999
    • Progressive Grocer, August 1999
    • Goldsea.com, December 1999
    • Amerasia Journal, 1999
    • Children’s Business, July 1999
    • Photo Marketing Association International, June 1999
    • Debit Card News, May 1999
    • Journal of American Ethnic History, Spring 1999
    • Hollywood Reporter, April 1999
    • Professional Builder, March 1999
    • Wall Street Journal, March 1999
    • National Telecommunications and Information Administration Survey, 1999
    • Simmons Research
    • Filipinas
    • A. Magazine
    • American Demographics
    • Target Marketing
    • Brandweek/Adweek/Advertising Age
    • Interviewing Service of America/KTSF-TV (San Francisco)
    • Americans’ Use of Time Surveys
    • Hispanic and Asian Marketing Communication Research, Inc.
    • Imada Wong Communications Group
    • U.S. Small Business Administration
    • Selig Center for Economic Growth
    • New America Marketbasket Index
    • Chinese New Home Buyer’s Guide

    Hours of Research: 500

    1. Executive Summary
      Introduction
        Background
        Overview of Report
      Scope and Methodology
        Scope of Report
        Methodology
      Demographics
        Asian American Population Has Grown Dramatically
        Asian Americans Grew Faster than Other Ethnic Groups
        Relative Size of Asian American Population Also Increased
        Six Ethnic Groups Account for Vast Majority of Asian American Population
        Table 1-1: Asian American Ethnic Groups
        Ethnic Composition of Asian American Population Has Changed Radically
        Social and Economic Characteristics of Asian American Subgroups Vary Widely
        Immigration Drives Asian American Population Growth
        Asian American Population Centers in Few Localities.
        Asian Americans Tend to Live in Large Family Households
        Asian Americans Have Highest Household Income
        More Than 50% of Asian American Families Have Incomes over $50,000
        Asian Americans Strong in Professional and Technical Jobs
        Asian Americans Are Most Likely to Earn a Bachelor's Degree
        Asian Values Differ Significantly from Those of Mainstream Culture
        Many Asian Americans Follow Traditional Religions but Christianity Is a Strong Force
        Political Activism Increases
      The Market
        Asian American Market Will Increase More than 40% by 2004
        Upper-Income Asian Americans Are Attractive Market
        Income of Most Affluent Asian American Households Totals More than $160 Billion
        Demographic Shifts Are Underway Many of the Largest Asian American Markets Are Not in the Pacific Region
        Asian American Market Includes Diverse Customer Segments
        Many Factors Affect Growth of Asian American Market
      Asian Americans as Consumers
        Research on Asian American Consumer Behavior Has Conflicting Findings
        Asian American Ethnic Groups Vary in Their Consumer Behavior
        Asian Americans Spend Less Time Shopping but Shop More Often for Groceries
        Asian Americans Depend on Self-Contained Commercial Developments
        Asian American Expenditure Patterns Vary
        Asian American Households Lead in PC Ownership
      Asian American Media
        Concentration of Asian American Population Eases Media Access
        Print Remains Most Popular but Radio and TV Gain Ground
        English-Language Magazines Target Younger Generation
        Obstacles Remain for Advertisers
        Internet Offers Effective Way to Reach Asian American Buyers
        Asian Americans Offer Good Direct-Mail Prospects
      Marketing to Asian Americans
        Marketers Target Individual Asian Subgroups
        Experts Emphasize In-Language Print and Electronic Media
        Bilingual Staff and In-Language Call Centers Become More Common
        Cultural Factors Affect Marketing and Selling
        Multiple Approaches Help Achieve Successful Strategy
      Examples of Advertising Targeted to Asian Americans
        Respecting and Maintaining Family Ties
        The Happiness and Prosperity of Children
        Honoring Traditions
        Celebrating Asian Festivals
        Quality and Price

    2. Demographics
      Figure 2-1: Projected Growth of Asian American Population, 1999-2004
      Figure 2-2: U.S. Ethnic Mix, 1999 vs. 2008
      Market Definition: Asian Americans
        Asian Americans Defined by U.S. Census Bureau
        Pacific Islanders Are Distinct Population Group
        Asian American Census Data Have Limitations
        Packaged Facts Analysis Focuses on Asians in America
        Description of Principal Asian American Ethnic Groups
      History of Asians in America
        Exclusionary Immigration Laws Curtailed Growth of
        Asian American Population
        Early Asian Americans Faced Severe Discrimination
        Changes in Immigration Law in 1965 Began New Era for Asian Americans
      Population Size and Growth
        Asian American Population Has Grown 44.9% Since 1990
        Table 2-1: Growth of U.S. and Asian American Populations, 1990-1999
        Asian American Population Has Tripled Since 1980
        Figure 2-3: Asian American Population Growth, 1980-1999
        Asian Americans Grew Faster than Other Ethnic Groups
        Relative Size of Asian American Population Also Increased
        Table 2-2: Past, Present, and Projected U.S. Ethnic Mix, 1990-2010
        Figure 2-4: Population Growth Rates: Asian Americans vs. Other Population Groups, 1990-1999
        Immigration Drives Asian American Growth
        Table 2-3: Country of Origin of Asian American Immigration, 1995-1998
      Geographic Distribution
        Majority of Asian Americans Live in Just Three States
        Table 2-4: States with Largest Asian American Population, 1998
        Most Asian Americans Live in the West
        Table 2-5: Geographic Distribution of Asian Americans and General Population, 1998
        Asian American Population Growth Is Concentrated in the West
        Table 2-6: Growth of Asian American and General Populations by Region, 1990 to 1998
        Northeastern States Also Have Substantial Asian American Populations
        Table 2-7: States with Highest Percentage of Asian Americans
        California Counties Lead Asian American Population Centers
        Table 2-8: Asian American Population Trends in Key Localities, 1990-1998
        Some Localities Experienced Exceptionally Rapid Growth in Asian American Population
        Table 2-9: Counties with Fastest Growing Asian American Populations, 1990-1998
        Asian Americans Cluster in Metropolitan Areas
        Table 2-10: Location of Residence: Asian Americans vs. Other Population Groups
      Age and Gender
        Asian Americans Are Younger than the General Population
        Table 2-11: Median Age of Asian Americans and Other Population Groups, 1999 and 2010
        Nearly One in Four Asian Americans Is 14 Years Old or Younger
        Table 2-12: Population by Age Group: Asian Americans vs. Other Population Groups
        Asian American Population Has Higher Percentage of Females
      Family Status
        Asian Americans Tend to Live in Family Households
        Table 2-13: Household by Type: Asian American vs. Other Households
        Married-Couple Families Predominate
        Table 2-14: Family by Type: Asian Americans vs. Other Households
        Asian American Households Are Larger than Average
        Table 2-15: Size of Household: Asian American vs. Other Population Groups
        Marriage and Divorce Patterns Differ among Asian Americans
        Table 2-16: Marital Status: Asian Americans vs. Members of Other Population Groups 15 Years Old and Over
        Asian American Children Are Most Likely to Live in Two-Parent Families
        Table 2-17: Living Arrangements of Children under 18 Years Old: Asian Americans vs. Other Population Groups
      Economic Status
        Asian Americans Have Highest Household Income
        Table 2-18: Median Household Income: Asian Americans vs. Other Population Groups
        Asian Americans Trail Non-Hispanic Whites in Per Capita Income
        Table 2-19: Per Capita Income: Asian Americans vs. Other Population Groups
        Asian American Families Have Highest Median Incomes
        Table 2-20: Median Family Income: Asian Americans vs. Other Groups
        More Than 50% of Asian American Families Have Incomes over $50,000
        Table 2-21: Family Income: Asian Americans vs. Other Families
        Asian American Households More Likely to Have Two or More Earners
        Table 2-22: Number of Earners in a Household: Asian Americans vs.
        Other Population Groups
        Nearly One-Third of Asian American Male Workers Earn $50,000 or More
        Table 2-23: Total Money Earnings of Year-Round Full-Time Workers 25 Years Old and Over: Asian Americans vs. Other Population Groups
        Education Premium of Asian Americans Is Lower
        Table 2-24: Median Earnings by Educational Attainment: Asian Americans vs. Non-Hispanic Whites
        Asian Americans Are More Likely to Be Renters
        Table 2-25: Home Ownership: Asian Americans vs. Other Households
        Asian Americans Have Average Poverty Rate
        Table 2-26: Poverty Rates of Asian Americans and Other Population Groups
        Table 2-27: Poverty Status of Asian Americans vs. Other Families
      Employment
        Asian Males Over-represented in Professional and Technical Jobs
        Table 2-28: Occupation: Asian American Males vs. Other Males
        Asian American Females Also Favor Professional and Technical Employment
        Table 2-29: Occupation: Asian American Females vs. Other Females
        Asian American Employment Patterns Mirror Those of Other Groups
        Table 2-30: Class of Worker: Asian Americans vs. Other Population Groups
        Unemployment Among Asian Americans Is Lower than Average
        Table 2-31: Unemployment Rate: Asian Americans vs. Other Population Groups
        Asian Americans Strong in Silicon Valley
        Table 2-32: H-1B Visa Holders by Country of Birth
        Profiles of Korean and Chinese American Entrepreneurs Differ
        Asian Americans Hit Barriers in Corporate America
      Educational Attainment
        Asian Americans Are Most Likely to Earn a Bachelor's Degree
        Table 2-33: Educational Attainment: Asian Americans vs. Other Population Groups, 25 Years Old and Over
        Younger Asian Americans Achieve Above-Average Educational Success
        Asian Americans Receive Disproportionate Percentage of Technical Degrees
        New Generation of Asian Americans Breaks Educational Stereotypes
        English-Language Skills Improve
      Health Status
        Asian American Health Data Can Be Misleading
        Filipino Americans Change Traditional Diet
        Unacculturated Asian American Youth Smoke Less
        Asian Americans Show Different Patterns of Alcohol Use
        Asian Americans Have Different Attitudes toward Health-Care Providers
      Social and Cultural Attributes
        Confucianism Binds Many Asian Cultures
        Asian Values Differ Significantly from Those of Mainstream Culture
        Younger Asian Americans Display Increased Pride in Asian Identity
        Asian Americans Remain Comfortable with Their Ethnic Identity
        Chinese Schools Transmit Language and Values
      Religion and Politics
        Many Asian Americans Follow Traditional Religions
        Christianity Is Strong Force among Asian Immigrants
        Korean and Chinese Christians Differ in Important Ways
        Many Denominations Represented among Asian American Christians
        Asian American Churches Experience "Silent Exodus" by Younger Generation
        Pan-Asian Churches Attract Second-Generation Asian Americans
        Political Activism Increases
        Asian Americans Exercise Increasing Political Influence in California
        Californian Chinese and Vietnamese Americans Switch to Democratic Party
        Civil Disorder in Los Angeles in 1992 Transforms Korean American Politics
      Overview of Principal Ethnic Groups
        Five Ethnic Groups Account for Almost 90% of Asian American Population
        Table 2-34: Asian American Ethnic Groups
        Ethnic Composition of Asian American Population Has Changed Dramatically
        Figure 2-5: Ethnic Origins of Asian Americans, 1980 vs. 1999
        Social and Economic Characteristics of Asian American Subgroups Vary Widely
      Population Profile: Chinese Americans
        Early Chinese Immigrants Faced Major Obstacles
        Chinese American Population Tripled in Two Decades
        Figure 2-6: Chinese American Population Growth, 1980-1999
        Chinese Americans Originate in Many Countries
        Chinese American Subgroups Display Differences
        Christianity Takes Hold among Recent Chinese Immigrants
      Population Profile: Filipino Americans
        "Pilipino" or "Filipino"?
        Filipino Americans Have Unique History
        Filipino Americans Are Second-Largest Asian American Group
        Tagalog Remains Influential Language but Most Filipino Americans Are Fluent in English
        Filipino Americans Have High Incomes and Educational Level
        Figure 2-7: Filipino American Population Growth, 1980-1999
        Filipino Americans Seen as "Invisible" Asian Americans
      Population Profile: South Asians
        South Asians in America Reflect Complexities of Indian Subcontinent
        Punjabi Farmers Pioneered in California
        South Asians Have Immigrated in Phases Since 1965
        Asian Indians Comprise Largest South Asian Group
        Asian Indians Have High Income and Educational Levels
        Asian Indian Population in the United States Includes Many Temporary High-Tech Workers
        Figure 2-8: Asian Indian Population Growth, 1980-1999
      Population Profile: Korean Americans
        Korean Immigration Has Peaked
        Korean Immigrants Have Distinct Profile
        Korean American Community Is Changing
        Christianity Remains a Strong Force
        Korean Americans Predominate in Small Retail Businesses in Urban Areas
        Korean Business Owners Seek Alternatives
        Research Data Support Hard-Working Image
        Second-Generation Korean Americans Are Culturally but Not Socially Assimilated
      Population Profile: Japanese Americans
        Japanese Americans Faced Early Discrimination
        Japanese American Population Is Divided into Four Segments
        Size of Japanese American Population Declines in Relative Terms
        Japanese Market Includes 100,000 Japanese Executives
      Population Profile: Vietnamese Americans
        Vietnamese Immigrated in Six Waves
        Vietnamese Population Has Grown Rapidly
        Vietnamese Retain Strong Hold on Culture and Language
        Figure 2-9: Vietnamese American Population Growth, 1980-1999
        Vietnamese Families Maintain Traditional Values
        Religion a Vital Part of Vietnamese American Culture
        "Family Collectivism" Plays Central Role in Vietnamese American Culture
      Population Profile: Other Indochinese
        Most Other Southeast Asians Are Indochinese Political Refugees
        Other Indochinese Experience Fewer Economic Gains
        Hmong Have Faced Severe Adjustment Problems

    3. The Market
      Figure 3-1: Projected Asian American Market Growth, 1999-2004
      Market Size
        Aggregate Asian American Income Is over $220 Billion
        Purchasing Power of Asian Americans Reaches $179 Billion
        Upper-Income Asian Americans Are Attractive Market
        Table 3-1: Aggregate Earnings of Asian Americans 15 Years Old and Over
        More than 40% of Asian American Male Workers Earn at Least $40,000 Annually
        Table 3-2: Aggregate Earnings of Asian American Males 25 Years Old and Over: Year-Round, Full-Time Workers
        Nearly Half of Asian American Female Workers Earn at Least $30,000
        Table 3-3: Aggregate Earnings of Asian American Females 25 Years Old and Over: Year-Round, Full-Time Workers
        Distribution of Asian American Household Income Estimated
        Table 3-4: Aggregate Income of Asian American Households
        Income of Most Affluent Asian American Households Totals More than $160 Billion
        Asian American Income Is Heavily Skewed toward Affluent Households
        Asian American College Graduates Are High Earners
        Table 3-5: Aggregate Earnings of Asian Americans with Bachelor's Degree or More
      Geographic Segmentation
        The Asian American Market Centers on a Few States
        The Market Will Remain Concentrated
        Table 3-6: Projected Asian American Population in Selected States, 2000-2015
        Honolulu Has the Greatest Asian American Population Density
        Table 3-7: Metropolitan Areas with Highest Percentage of Asian Americans
        Most Markets with Highest Percentage of Asian Americans Are in California
        University Towns Skew Asian American Market Data
        Many of the Largest Asian American Markets Are Not in the Pacific Region
        Table 3-8: Leading Asian American Markets
        Asian American Entrepreneurs Drive Population Shifts
        Asian Americans Contribute to Changing Face of the South
      Key Customer Segments
        The 1.5 Generation Emerges
        Asian American Market Includes Diverse Customer Segments
        Asian American Entrepreneurs Are Fastest Growing Minority-Owned Business Group
        Asian American Kids Market Will Grow Fastest
      Factors Affecting Market Growth
        Asian Americans Likely to Maintain Strong Ethnic Identity
        Census 2000 Likely to Count More Asian Americans
        Asian Americans Are Considered Most Likely to Self-Identify As
        Multiracial
        Asian Americans Have High Rate of Interracial and Interethnic Marriages
        Decline in Immigration from Asia May Slow Population Growth but Increase Per Capita Income
        Figure 3-2: Number of Asian Immigrants, 1994-1998
      Projected Market Growth
        Asian American Market Will Increase More than 40% by 2004
        Table 3-9: Projected Growth of Aggregate Income of Asian Americans, 1999-2004

    4. Asian Americans as Consumers
      Shopping Patterns
        Surveys Reveal Distinct Profile of Asian American Consumers
        Research on Asian American Consumer Behavior Has Conflicting Findings
        Asian American Ethnic Groups Vary in Their Consumer Behavior
        Quality of Service Is Key
        Perceived Importance of Price Varies
        Young Asian Americans Are Loyal to Brands and Are Status Conscious
        Top Brands of Chinese Americans Revealed
        Asian Americans Spend Less Time Shopping
        But Asians Shop Often for Groceries
        Asian Americans Depend on Self-Contained Commercial Developments
        Specialized Mall Attracts Asian American Shoppers
        Koreans Spend More at Malls
      Spending on Consumer Products and Services
        Asian Americans Spend More on Education and Restaurant Meals
        Personal-Care Purchasing Patterns of Asian Americans Differ
        Meat Purchases Vary
        Chinese Consumers Demand Whole Chickens
        Asian Americans Prefer Fresh Produce
        Traditional Foods Help Maintain Cultural Identity
        Asian Americans Most Likely to Buy New Cars
        Telecommunications Providers See Rapid Growth among Asian Americans
        Asian Travelers Focus on Asia
        Chinese Homebuyers Rely onFeng Shui
        Asian Americans Are Above-Average Film Processors
        ATM Cards Are Popular
        Asian Americans Less Likely to Carry a Credit Card Balance
        Asian American Savers Become Investors .
        Asian American Investors Trade More Often
      Asian American Consumers and the Internet
        Asian American Households Lead in PC Ownership
        Table 4-1: Percentage of U.S. Households with a Computer: by Race and Place of Residence
        More Asian American Households Have PCs, Regardless of Income
        Table 4-2: Percentage of U.S. Households with a Computer: by Race and Income
        Asian Americans Are Heavy Users of the Internet
        Table 4-3: Percentage of U.S.Persons Using the Internet: by Race/Hispanic Origin and Location of Use
        Urban Asian Americans Use Internet the Most
        Table 4-4: Percentage of U.S.Persons Using the Internet from Any Location: by Race/Hispanic Origin and Location of Residence
        Asian American Households Show Highest Use of Internet
        Table 4-5: Percentage of U.S.Households Using the Internet: by Race and Location of Residence
        Asian Americans Use Internet at Work and in Higher Education
        Table 4-6: Percentage of U.S. Persons Using the Internet outside the Home: by Selected Places and by Race/Hispanic Origin
        Internet Used Most for E-Mail and Information Search
        Table 4-7: Percentage of U.S. Persons Using the Internet at Home: by Type of Use and by Race/Hispanic Origin
        Asian Americans More Likely to Use E-Mail at Home for Education
        Table 4-8: Percentage of U.S. Persons E-Mail at Home: by Subject Matter and by Race/Hispanic Origin
        Asian Americans Less Concerned about Internet Confidentiality
        Figure 4-1: Percentage of U.S. Households "Very Concerned" or "Somewhat Concerned" about Internet Confidentiality: Asian American vs. Non-Hispanic White
        Asian Americans Are Most Experienced Internet Users
        Asian Americans Most Likely to Conduct Financial Transactions Online

    5. Asian American Media
      Overview
        Major Markets Offer Complete Range of Asian American Media
        Concentration of Asian American Population Eases Media Access
        Print Still Most Popular but Radio and TV Gain Ground
        Media Costs Remain Low
        Obstacles Remain for Advertisers
        Asian American Subgroups Differ in Response to Media
        Mainstream Media Neglect Asian American Community
      Television
        Asian Americans Spend the Least Time Watching TV
        National Cable Outlets Target Major Asian American Subgroups
        Local TV Stations Predominate in Major Markets
        International Channel Networks
        Asia-Based TV Programmers Eye U.S. Market
        Ethnic-American Broadcasting Company
        ITV Offers South Asian Programming
      Radio
        Radio Has Substantial Reach among Asian Americans
        Asian American Radio Now Offers 24-Hour Coverage
        Radio Reflects Relative Importance of Local Asian American Population Segments
        New Asian American Radio Programming Proliferates at Grassroots Level
        Local Radio Stations Serve as Community Centers for Asian American Groups
      Print
        Asian American Print Media Show Rapid Growth
        Newspapers Are Popular
        Chinese American Print Media Expand
        Knight Ridder Launches Vietnamese Weekly
        Asian American Newspapers Turn toLos Angeles Timesto Strengthen Distribution in California
        Asian Americans Favor Certain Magazine Categories
        A. Magazine Succeeds with Young Asian Americans
        Zarposh InternationalCaptures Affluent South Asian Readers
        Filipinas Establishes Niche among Filipinos as General-Interest Magazine
        Giant Robot Speaks to Asian American Youth
      New Media
        Internet Offers Effective Way to Reach Asian American Buyers
        AsianAvenue.com Expands Rapidly
        Some Internet Portals Target Asians and Asian Americans
        JADE Offers Online Content to Young Asian Women
        YolkTargets "GeneraAsian X"
        jun Launches Online Magazine
      Direct Marketing
        Direct Marketers Overlook Asian American Consumers
        Asian Americans Offer Good Direct Mail Prospects
        Asian Consumer Lists Need Validation
        Bell Atlantic Uses Telemarketing
        American Express Telemarkets to Asian-Owned Businesses

    6. Marketing to Asian Americans
      Marketing Fundamentals
        Marketers Target Individual Asian Subgroups
        Lack of Data Inhibits Targeted Marketing
        Asian American Personnel Are Critical to Marketing Strategy
        Loyalty Programs with Tangible Rewards Are Effective with Chinese and Korean American Customers
        Asian Americans Prefer Written Marketing Materials
        Event Marketing Is Important
      Language Issues
        In-Language Marketing Is Vital
        Experts Emphasize In-Language Print and Electronic Media
        Basic In-Language Marketing Program Described
        Experts Advise on Language Choice
        Good Translations Are Not Always Easy
        Recent Asian Indian Immigrants Are Exception to Language Rule
        English-Language 800-Numbers May Not Succeed
        Citibank Outsources In-Language Customer Service
        Bilingual Staffing Helps Banks Get and Keep Asian American
        Customers
        Life Insurance Companies Recruit Bilingual Agents
      Cultural Considerations
        Cultural Factors Affect Market Research Studies
        Colors Can Have Different Meanings for Different Groups
        Wrong Numbers in Advertising Can Cause Trouble
        Retailers Set Back by Cultural Perceptions
        Sales Approach Should Acknowledge Cultural Differences
        Northwest Airlines Takes Asian Culture into Account
        Packaging Matters
        Asian Festivals Serve as Centerpiece for Marketing Programs
      Advertising Strategies
        Advertising Expenditures Concentrated in Print Outlets
        National Advertising Campaigns Still Limited
        Successful Advertisements Reflect Universal Asian American Values
        Ads Leverage Shared Asian Values
        Firms Target the Largest Asian Groups
        Ford Creates Advertising for Three Asian American Segments in California
        Internet Extends Reach of Advertisers within Asian American Community
        Multinationals May Use Ads Designed for Asia
        Some Firms Coordinate General-Market and Asian American Advertising Themes
        Hyundai Advertising Targets Recent Chinese Immigrants
      Promotional Strategies
        Telecommunications Services Companies Focus on
        Asian Americans
        Bell Atlantic Markets to Asian Americans in the Northeast
        Financial Services Firms Open Dedicated Branch Offices
        Some Banks Specialize in Asian American Market
        Bank of America Pursues Comprehensive Asian American Marketing Program
        California Bank & Trust Responds to Asian American Market
        Citibank Anchors Promotional Program with Premiums
        John Hancock Taps into Growth Market among Chinese Americans
        MetLife Strengthens In-Language Marketing Capability
        State Farm Teams withA. Magazine
        Local Auto Dealers Change with Their Communities
        Supermarkets Customize Products and Displays
        Supermarkets Find General-Market Profits in Asian American Products
        Cosmetics Companies Address Preferences of Asian Women
        Asian American Expo Offers Venue for Grassroots Marketing
      Online Marketing
        Financial Services Firms Launch In-Language Web Sites
        Internet Portals View Chinese Americans as Part of Global Market
        Fannie Mae Markets Online

    7. Examples of Advertising Targeted to Asian Americans
      Overview of Advertising Themes
        Respecting and Maintaining Family Ties
        The Happiness and Prosperity of Children
        Honoring Traditions
        Celebrating Asian Festivals
        Quality and Price
      Telecommunications
        GTE Builds Relationships with Asian Americans
        AT&T Markets to Asian Americans
      Financial Services
        MetLife Markets to Asian Americans
        Western Union Serves the Asian American Community
      Travel and Entertainment
        Disneyland Advertises to Asian Americans
        Hollywood Park Casino Appeals to Young Asian Americans
        Northwest Airlines Cultivates Japanese American Business Travelers
      Food and Beverage
        Maggi Stresses Convenience for Tradition-Minded Asian American
        Women
        Fast-Food Chains Use Subtitles to Reach Asian Americans
        Hennessy Ads Have Lunar New Year Theme
      Other Sectors
        JCPenney Appeals to Chinese American Families
        The Gas Company Relates to Chinese Americans
        California Sponsors Anti-Smoking Ads for Asian Americans

      Appendix I: Examples of Consumer AdvertisingThis appendix appears in bound editions only.
      Appendix II: Addresses of Selected Asian American Market Resources

        Advertising and Public Relations Agencies
        Market Research Companies/Marketing Consultants
        Asian American Publications
        Internet Sites
        Organizations

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