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The U.S. African American Market

This new Packaged Facts report provides an up-to-date assessment of the African American consumer market, which includes more than 36.4 million Americans who identified as African Americans in Census 2000. The report uses Census 2000 data and a wide variety of other current research to analyze key demographic variables, such as income levels, family structure, employment patterns, educational achievement, and social values. Factors affecting the growth of the African American market, such as increasing income and educational attainment levels, are assessed. The report provides estimates of the current and projected buying power of African Americans and offers an analysis of the size of the market for key consumer products and services among African Americans. The report then analyzes the offline and online shopping behavior and buying patterns of African American consumers and provides a review of African American media, including television, radio, print, and online media. Marketing, promotional, and advertising strategies of major companies operating in the African American market are reviewed, and case studies of African American marketing strategies are presented. Appendices include resources that can be used by companies interested in the African American market and examples of advertisements targeting the market.

Census 2000 found that during the previous decade the number of African Americans grew six times as fast as the non-Hispanic white population. Even more significant, Census data show that the mean income of African American households grew 25.8% between 1990 and 2000, more than four times as fast as that of non-Hispanic white households. As a result, 3.7 million African American households have annual incomes of $50,000 or more. Moreover, there are 1.4 million upper-income African American households with an annual income of $75,000 or more. Growing numbers of these increasingly affluent African American families are living in the suburbs.

Tap into the growing buying power of affluent African American suburban families. Discover the potential in underserved market segments such as African American Baby Boomers. Get the latest research available about the online behavior of African Americans. Find out how media usage among African Americans differs from other market segments.


Scope And Methodology

"African American" Defined

The U.S. Census Bureau uses "Black" and "African American" to refer to people having origins in any of the Black race groups of Africa. The terms are used interchangeably by the Census Bureau and by this Packaged Facts report.

African American Market Defined More Narrowly

The African American population counted by Census 2000 consists of individuals who identified as "Black alone" and people who reported one or more races in combination with Black (the "Black in combination" population). This Packaged Facts report defines the African American population as including the entire universe of individuals who identify entirely or partially as Black. For purposes of the market projections in this report, Packaged Facts defines the African American market as consisting of the purchasing power of people who identified in the Census 2000 as "Black alone."

Methodology

This report is based upon information collected from advertising agencies, marketing firms, and media specializing in the African American market, a comprehensive review of print media and Web sites geared toward African Americans, and a thorough analysis of relevant trade and professional journals. Primary sources include Spring 2001 data from Simmons Market Research Bureau and data from a survey of various ethnic groups published in August 2001 by the Kaiser Family Foundation, Santa Monica, California.

Census data used in this Packaged Facts report include the latest data available from Census 2000 and data from the March 2000 and March 2001 Current Population Survey. Other U.S. Government sources include the Consumer Expenditure Survey of the Bureau of Labor Statistics and data from the National Telecommunications and Information Administration.

Press Release

Total buying power of African Americans expected to reach $682 billion by 2006

New York, November 21/PRNewswire - The buying power of African Americans in the United States is expected to increase nearly 30% to $682 billion in the next 5 years, according to The U.S. African American Market, a new research report published by Packaged Facts and available through MarketResearch.com. The publication outlines several factors that will propel this explosive growth, and also provides details about demographic features and consumer behavior of the African American market.

According to the new report, the female and affluent segments of the African American demographic are of particular import to marketers and retailers looking to establish or maintain a foothold within this demographic. In the African American population there are 14.1% more women than men, and nearly half of the households within this demographic are headed by women, giving females a far more prominent role in consumer decisions than women in other ethnic population segments. The U.S African American Market also provides extensive insight into the buying patterns of the 3.7 million affluent African Americans who are projected to have a combined buying power of $292.4 billion by 2006, and the marketing strategies employed to attract them.

“Marketers have identified significant successes in targeting both the female and affluent segments of the African American population,” said Meg Hargreaves, VP of Research Publishing for MarketResearch.com. “Luxury car makers and food and beverage manufacturers alike have focused their efforts on these market segments given the overwhelming influence they have in the market as a whole.”

  • Executive Summary
    • Introduction
      • Background
      • Overview Of Report
    • Scope And Methodology
      • "African American" Defined
      • African American Market Defined More Narrowly
      • Methodology
    • Demographic Overview
      • African American Population Tops 36.4 Million
      • Many Blacks Have Ties To Other Countries
      • Most Blacks Live In The South
      • African Americans More Urban Than General Population
      • Majority Of Black Population Found In Just Eight States
      • African Americans Younger Than Average
      • African American Women Play Key Role In Market
      • Per Capita Income Of Blacks Shows Above-Average Increase
      • Married-Couple Families Display Healthy Economic Profile
      • Nearly 3.7 Million African Americans Employed As Managers Or Professionals
      • African Americans Are Politically Liberal And Socially Conservative
    • Survey Of The African American Market
      • African American Consumer Expenditures Are Growing At Above-Average Rate
      • Affluent African American Families Total 1.8 Million
      • 1.9 Million African American Kids Live In Affluent Families
      • Black Dual-Income Married Couples Without Children Have Aggregate Income Exceeding $80 Billion
      • Black Single Moms Have Income Of $67.4 Billion
      • Mean Income Of Affluent Single Black Women Tops $61,000
      • African Americans Represent Important Market For Key Consumer Products
      • Buying Power Of Affluent African Americans Will Reach $292.4 Billion In 2006
      • Buying Power Of African American Women Totals $259.4 Billion
    • Consumer Behavior
      • Many African American Shoppers Affected By Cultural Cues
      • African Americans Highly Style Conscious
      • African American Women More Likely To Seek To Stay In Fashion
      • African American Men More Attuned To Style Than White Men
      • Impulse Buying Seen More Likely
      • Black Consumers Have Positive Views Of Advertisements
      • African American Kids Have More Influence On Parental Buying Decisions
      • African American Women Shoppers Most Influenced By Kids
      • Internet Access Doubles
      • Women Drive Growth In Black Internet Population
      • Experienced African American Internet Users Shop Online More
    • Media
      • Newspaper Readership Increases Among African Americans
      • Blacks Highly Positive Toward Magazines
      • Ad Spending In Black Consumer Magazines Defies Slowing Economy
      • African Americans Watch More Television Than Other Groups
      • But Research Suggests Blacks Less Involved With Tv
      • African Americans View Tv Advertising As Positive
      • African Americans Listen To Radio More
      • More African Americans Look To Internet As News Source
    • Overview Of Marketing, Promotional, And Advertising Strategies
      • African American Marketing Should Be Year-Round Process
      • Many African American Marketing Strategies Focus On Women
      • Proper Segmentation Of African American Women's Market Seen As Vital
      • Companies Expected To Give Back To The Community
      • Community-Based Marketing Effective
      • Street Marketing Teams Are Vital Tool
      • Black Celebrities Appear More Frequently In Ads Targeting Younger African Americans
    • Case Studies Of Companies Marketing To African Americans
      • Luxury Car Makers Target Affluent African Americans
      • Investment Firms Focus On African American Investors
      • Packaged-Foods Companies Court African American Market
      • Wrigley's Appeals To African Americans With Doublemint Campaign
      • Restaurant Promotions Target African Americans
      • Kmart Committed To African American Community
      • Greeting Card Companies Compete For African American Market
  • Demographic Overview Of The African American Population
    • Market Definition
      • "African American" Defined
      • Race Categories Of Census 2000 Create Many Issues
      • African American Population Has Multiracial Component
      • African American Market Defined More Narrowly
      • Census Data Sources Listed
    • Population Size And Growth
      • African American Population Tops 36.4 Million
        • Table Total U.S. And African American Populations: 1990 Vs. 2000
      • African Americans Accounted For 19.6% Of U.S. Population Growth
    • Blacks Comprise More Than 12% Of U.S. Population
      • Table Racial Groups As Percent Of Total U.S. Population, 1990 Vs. 2000
      • Table Hispanics And Non-Hispanics As Percent Of Total U.S. Population, 1990 Vs. 2000
      • Most African Americans Identify As Black Alone
        • Table African American Population: By Racial Category, 2000
      • African American Population Grew Faster Than Expected
        • Table Total U.S. And African American Populations: Projected Vs. Actual Census 2000 Counts
      • African American Population Expected To Reach 39.3 Million
        • Table Projected Growth Of Total U.S. And African American Populations, 2000-2006
    • National Origin
      • Many Blacks Have Ties To Other Countries
        • Table African American Population: By National And Hispanic Or Latino Origin, 2000
      • Black Population Includes More Than 2 Million Foreign-Born
        • Table Foreign-Born Vs. Native-Born Populations: African Americans Vs. Other Population Groups, 2000
      • Fewer Hispanics Identify As Black
        • Table African American Population: By Racial Category And Hispanic Or Latino Origin, 2000
      • Most Non-Hispanic Black Immigrants Come From The Caribbean Region
        • Table Immigration From African And Caribbean Countries: By Region And Country, 1971-1980, 1981-1990, 1991-1998
    • Geographic Distribution
      • Most Blacks Live In The South
        • Table African American Population: By Region Of Residence, 2000
      • African Americans More Urban Than General Population
        • Table African American Population: By Location Of Residence: Metropolitan Vs. Non-Metropolitan, 2000
      • Majority Of Black Population Found In Just Eight States
        • Table States With Largest African American Populations, 2000
      • Southern States Have Highest Percent Of Blacks
        • Table States With Highest Percent Of African Americans, 2000
      • Blacks Form Higher Proportion Of Southern Population
        • Table African American Population: By Percent Of Total Population In Region Of Residence, 2000
      • Florida Gained Most African Americans
        • Table States With Largest Growth In African American Populations, 1990 Vs. 2000
      • States With Small African American Populations Show High Growth Rates
        • Table States With Fastest Growing African American Populations, 2000
      • Most Multiracial African Americans Live Outside The South
        • Table Self-Identified Multiracial African Americans: By Region Of Residence, 2000
      • Western States Have High Percent Of Multiracial People
        • Table States With Highest Percent Of Self-Identified Multiracial People In African American Population
        • Table States With Lowest Percent Of Self-Identified Multiracial People In African American Population
    • Age And Gender
      • African Americans Younger Than Average
        • Table Percent Of Population Under Age 18: African Americans Vs. Other Population Groups
        • Table Population By Age Group: African Americans Vs. Other Population Groups, 2000
      • Women Form Above-Average Percent Of African American Population
        • Table Population By Gender: African Americans Vs. Other Population Groups, 2000
    • Household And Family Structure
      • Marriage Less Common
        • Table Marital Status Of The Population 18 Years And Over: African Americans Vs. Other Population Groups, 2001
      • Single Women Key Household Type
        • Table Household Type: African Americans Vs. Other Population Groups, 2001
      • Working Wives Common
        • Table Primary Family Type: African Americans Vs. Other Population Groups, 2001
      • African American Families Larger Than Average
        • Table Size Of Family: African Americans Vs. Other Population Groups, 2001
    • Economic Status
      • Per Capita Income Of Blacks Shows Above-Average Increase
        • Table Per Capita Income: African Americans Vs. Other Population Groups, 1980-2000
        • Table Mean And Median Income Of People 15 Years And Over: African Americans Vs. Other Population Groups, 2000
      • Nearly 2 Million African Americans Earn $50,000 Or More Annually
        • Table Earnings Of Full-Time, Year-Round Workers 15 Years And Over: African Americans Vs. Other Population Groups, 2000
    • Household Income Lower Than Average
      • Table Mean Household And Family Income: African Americans Vs. Other Population Groups, 2000
      • Table Total Money Income Of Households: African Americans Vs. Other Population Groups, 2000
      • But Married-Couple Families Display Healthy Economic Profile
        • Table Total Money Income Of Families By Type: African Americans Vs. Other Population Groups, 2000
      • Majority Of Black Families Are Homeowners
        • Table Household Tenure By Household Type: African Americans Vs. Other Population Groups, 2000
    • Employment And Occupational Status
      • Blacks As Likely To Work At Full-Time Jobs
        • Table Work Experience Of The Civilian Population 15 Years And Over: By Sex: African Americans Vs. Other Population Groups, 2000
      • Employment Patterns Differ
        • Table Employment Status: Public Vs. Private Sector: African Americans Vs. Other Population Groups, 2001
      • Nearly 3.7 Million African Americans Employed As Managers Or Professionals
        • Table Occupation Of Longest Job In 2000 Of People 15 Years Old And Over: African Americans Vs. All People
    • Educational Attainment
      • More Than 40% Of African Americans Have Attended College
        • Table Educational Attainment Of The Population 25 Years And Over: African Americans Vs. Other Population Groups, 2001
      • College Enrollment Continues To Grow
        • Table Enrollment Of Persons In 2-Year And 4-Year Colleges: By Race And Ethnicity, Selected Years, 1970-1999
      • Educational Attainment Shows Dramatic Improvement
        • Table Educational Attainment Of African Americans Age 25 And Over, 1970-2001
    • Health Status
      • Health Concerns Significant
        • Table Death Rates From Coronary Heart Disease And Stroke: African Americans Vs. Other Population Groups, 1998
        • Table Infant Mortality Rates: African Americans Vs. Other Population Groups, 1998
        • Table Percent Of Aids Cases Diagnosed: African Americans Vs. Other Population Groups, 1997-1999
      • Health Insurance Coverage Remains An Issue
        • Table Percentage Of Population Without Health Insurance Coverage: African Americans Vs. Other Population Groups, 1998-1999
      • Attitudes Toward Personal Health Vary
        • Table Attitudes Toward Personal Health: Non-Hispanic Blacks Vs. Non-Hispanic Whites, Spring 2001
    • Political And Social Values
      • African Americans See Selves As Politically Liberal
        • Table Political Views: Non-Hispanic Blacks Vs. Non-Hispanic Whites, Spring 2001
        • Table Political Views: African Americans Vs. Other Population Groups, 2001
      • African Americans Affiliate With Democratic Party
        • Table Party Identification: African Americans Vs. Other Population Groups, 2001
        • Table Voting Behavior: African Americans Vs. Other Population Groups, 2001
      • Blacks Ascribe To Conservative Social Values
        • Table Selected Social Values: African Americans Vs. Other Population Groups, 2001
      • African Americans Place High Value On Family
        • Table Attitudes Toward Family: African Americans Vs. Other Population Groups, 2000
      • African Americans More Religious Than Others
        • Table Importance Of Religion In Everyday Life: African Americans Vs. Other Population Groups, 2001
        • Table Attitudes Toward Religions: Non-Hispanic Blacks Vs. Non-Hispanic Whites, Spring 2001
      • Most African Americans Are Protestants
        • Table Religious Preferences: African Americans Vs. Other Population Groups, 2001
      • Evangelical Christians Large Segment Of African American Population
        • Table Affiliation With Evangelical Christianity: African Americans Vs. Other Population Groups, 2001
    • Demographic Profile Of African American Men
      • African American Men Least Likely To Be Married
        • Table Marital Status Of Males 18 Years And Over: African Americans Vs. Other Population Groups, 2001
      • Number Of College Graduates Exceeds 1.4 Million
        • Table Educational Attainment Of Males 25 Years And Over: African Americans Vs. Other Population Groups, 2001
      • Education Improves Earnings Capacity Of Black Men
        • Table Mean Earnings Of Full-Time, Year-Round Male Workers 25 Years And Over: African Americans Vs. Other Population Groups, 2001
        • Table Earnings Of Full-Time, Year-Round Male Workers 25 Years And Over: African Americans Vs. Other Population Groups, 2000
      • Full-Time Jobs Less Common
        • Table Work Experience Of The Male Civilian Population 15 Years And Over: African Americans Vs. Other Population Groups, 2000
      • African American Male Managers And Professionals Total 1.4 Million
        • Table Occupation Of Employed Males 15 Years And Over: African Americans Vs. Other Population Groups, 2000
    • Demographic Profile Of African American Women
      • Marriage Less Likely
        • Table Marital Status Of Females 18 Years And Over: African Americans Vs. Other Population Groups, 2001
      • Childbearing Patterns Differ
        • Table Distribution Of 15- To 44-Year-Old Women: By Marital Class, Number Of Children Ever Born, Age, Race, And Hispanic Origin, 2000
      • More Than 40% Of Black Women Have Attended College
        • Table Educational Attainment Of Females 25 Years And Over: African Americans Vs. Other Population Groups, 2001
      • African American College Women Outpace African American Men
        • Table Enrollment Of Persons In 2-Year And 4-Year Colleges: By Race And Ethnicity, Selected Years, 1970-1999
      • College-Educated Black Women Eliminate Earnings Gap
        • Table Mean Earnings Of Full-Time, Year-Round Female Workers 25 Years And Over: African Americans Vs. Other Population Groups, 2001
        • Table Mean Earnings Of Full-Time, Year-Round African American Workers 25 Years And Over With Bachelor's Degree Or Higher: Males Vs. Females, 2001
      • African American Women More Likely To Have Full-Time Jobs
        • Table Work Experience Of The Female Civilian Population 15 Years And Over: African Americans Vs. Other Population Groups, 2000
      • One In Four Black Women Has Managerial Or Professional Job
        • Table Occupation Of Employed Civilian Females 15 Years And Over: African Americans Vs. Other Population Groups, 2001
      • More Than One Million Black Women Earn $50,000 Or More
        • Table Earnings Of Full-Time, Year-Round Female Workers 25 Years And Over: African Americans Vs. Other Population Groups, 2000
  • Survey Of The African American Market
    • Market Trends
      • African American Consumer Expenditures Are Growing At Above-Average Rate
        • Table Growth In Aggregate Annual Expenditures: African American Vs. Non-Hispanic White Consumer Units, 1995-1999
      • African American Market Remains An Urban Market
        • Table Metropolitan Areas With Largest African American Populations, 2000 (In Thousands)
      • South Increasingly a Magnet For Northern Blacks
        • Table African American Population: By Region Of Residence, 2000 (In Thousands)
      • African Americans Continue To Move To Suburbs
        • Table African American Population: Metropolitan Vs. Non-Metropolitan Residence, 1990-2000
        • Table Growth In African American Population: Metropolitan Vs. Non-Metropolitan Residence, 1990-2000
    • Affluent African American Market Segment
      • Affluent African Americans Represent Major Market
        • Table Aggregate Income Of African American Males 15 Years And Over With Incomes Of $40,000 Or More, 2000
        • Table Aggregate Income Of African American Females 15 Years And Over With Incomes Of $40,000 Or More, 2000
        • Table Aggregate Income Of African Americans 15 Years And Over With Incomes Of $40,000 Or More, 2000
      • Income Of Affluent African American Families Nears $200 Billion
        • Table Aggregate Income Of African American Families With Incomes Of $65,000 Or More, 2000
      • Nearly All Affluent Families Live In Metropolitan Areas
        • Table African American Families With Incomes Of $65,000 Or More: By Urban Vs. Rural Location Of Residence, 2000
      • Central Cities Claim Many Affluent Black Families
        • Table African American Families With Incomes Of $65,000 And Over Residing In Metropolitan Areas: Inside Vs. Outside Central Cities, 2000
      • African American Boomers Head Most Affluent Families
        • Table African American Families With Incomes Of $65,000 And Over: By Age Group, 2000
      • Dual-Income, Married-Couple Families Predominate
        • Table African American Families With Incomes Of $65,000 And Over:By Type Of Family, 2000
      • Children Less Common In Affluent Families
        • Table African American Families With Incomes Of $65,000 And Over: By Presence Of Related Children Under 18 Years, 2000
      • Affluent Families With Children Same Size As Lower-Income Families
        • Table African American Families With Incomes Of $65,000 And Over With Children Under 18 Years, 2000
      • But Majority Of High-Income Black Couples Have Children
        • Table African American Couples With Incomes Of $65,000 And Over: By Marital Status And Presence Of Children Under 18 Years, 2000
      • 1.9 Million African American Kids Live In Affluent Families
        • Table African American Families With Incomes Of $65,000 Or More: By Number Of Children Under 18 And Size Of Family: 2000
      • Dual-Income Couples With Children Represent Major Market
        • Table Dual-Income African American Married Couples With Children Under 18 Years: By Work Experience And Mean Income Level, 2000
        • Table Dual-Income African American Married Couples With Children Under 18 Years: By Number Of Children, Work Experience And Mean Income Level, 2000
      • Black Dual-Income Married Couples Without Children Have Aggregate Income Exceeding $80 Billion
        • Table Dual-Income African American Married Couples Without Children Under 18 Years: By Work Experience And Mean Income Level, 2000
      • Income Of Black Managers And Professionals Nears $150 Billion
        • Table Aggregate Income Of African Americans With High-Paying Occupations: By Occupation, 2000
      • Affluent Black Suburban Families Earn Over $100 Billion Annually
        • Table Mean And Aggregate Income Of Suburban African American Families With Incomes Of $65,000: By Size Of Metropolitan Area And Income Level, 2000
      • High-Income Central City African American Families Have Substantial Aggregate Income
        • Table Mean And Aggregate Income Of Central-City African American Families With Incomes Of $65,000: By Size Of Metropolitan Area And Income Level, 2000
      • Income Of Affluent Black Singles Exceeds $40 Billion
        • Table Aggregate Income Of African Americans Living Alone With Incomes Of $40,000 Or More, 2000
      • Most Affluent Black Singles Are In Their 30s And 40s
        • Table African Americans Living Alone With Incomes Of $40,000 Or More: By Age Group, 2000
    • African American Women Market Segment
      • Black Single Moms Have Income Of $67.4 Billion
        • Table Aggregate Income Of African American Single Mothers: By Number And Age Of Children, 2000
      • Young Black Single Women Represent Prime Consumer Market
        • Table Aggregate Income Of African American Women Living Alone: By Age Group, 2000 (In Thousands)
      • Mean Income Of Affluent Single Black Women Tops $61,000
        • Table Aggregate Income Of African American Women Living Alone With Incomes Of $40,000 Or More, 2000
      • Younger Single Black Women Succeed Faster
        • Table African American Women Living Alone With Incomes Of $40,000 Or More: By Age Group, 2000
      • Black Female Managers And Professionals Have Aggregate Income Of $71.3 Billion
        • Table Aggregate Income Of African American Women With High-Paying Occupations: By Occupation, 2000
    • Size Of The Market
      • Buying Power Used To Assess African American Market
      • African Americans Represent $57 Billion Food-And-Beverage Market
        • Table Estimated Annual Expenditures For Food And Beverages By African American Consumer Units, 2001 (In Millions Of Dollars)
      • Expenditures For Household Furnishings And Equipment Near $14 Billion
        • Table Estimated Annual Expenditures For Household Furnishings And Equipment By African American Consumer Units, 2001
      • African Americans Spend $13.4 Billion On Telephone Services
        • Table Estimated Annual Expenditures For Selected Categories Of Household Operations And Housekeeping Supplies By African American Consumer Units, 2001
      • African Americans Buy More Than $32 Billion Worth Of Apparel And Footwear
        • Table Estimated Annual Expenditures For Apparel And Footwear By African American Consumer Units, 2001
      • Auto Sales To African Americans Exceed $33 Billion
        • Table Estimated Annual Expenditures For Transportation By African American Consumer Units, 2001
      • Drugs And Medical Supplies Equal $4 Billion Market
        • Table Estimated Annual Expenditures For Health Care By African American Consumer Units, 2001
      • Blacks Key Segment Of Market For Personal-Care Products
        • Table Estimated Annual Expenditures For Selected Personal Products And Services By African American Consumer Units, 2000
      • African Americans Major Buyers Of Home Electronics
        • Table Estimated Annual Expenditures For Entertainment By African American Consumer Units, 2001
    • Growth Of The Market
      • Buying Power Of Affluent African Americans Will Reach $292.4 Billion In 2006
        • Table Projected Growth In Buying Power Of Affluent African Americans, 2001-2006
      • Buying Power Of African American Women Totals $259.4 Billion
        • Table Projected Growth In Buying Power Of African American Women, 2001-2006
      • African American Market Will Total $682.5 Billion
        • Table Projected Growth In Buying Power Of African Americans, 2001-2006
  • Consumer Behavior
    • Shopping Behavior And Buying Style
      • African American Shoppers Have Distinct Profile
        • Table Shopper Profiles: Non-Hispanic Blacks Vs. Non-Hispanic Whites, Spring 2001
      • Research Suggests African Americans Count On Brands
      • Many African American Shoppers Affected By Cultural Cues
      • African Americans Highly Style Conscious
        • Table Importance Of Keeping In Style: Non-Hispanic Blacks Vs. Non-Hispanic Whites, Spring 2001
      • African American Women More Likely To Seek To Stay In Fashion
        • Table Importance Of Keeping In Style: Non-Hispanic Black Men And Women Vs. Non-Hispanic White Men And Women, Spring 2001
      • African American Men More Attuned To Style Than White Men
      • Impulse Buying Seen More Likely
        • Table Spur-Of-The-Moment Buying: Non-Hispanic Blacks Vs. Non-Hispanic Whites, Spring 2001
      • African American Women More Likely To Buy On Spur Of Moment
        • Table Spur-Of-The-Moment Buying: Non-Hispanic Black Men And Women Vs. Non-Hispanic White Men And Women, Spring 2001
      • Study Shows Black Shoppers Read Supermarket Shelf Labels More Carefully
      • Black Consumers Have Positive Views Of Advertisements
        • Table Attitudes Toward Advertising: Non-Hispanic Blacks Vs. Non-Hispanic Whites, Spring 2001
        • Table Advertising Receptivity: Non-Hispanic Blacks Vs. Non-Hispanic Whites, Spring 2001
      • Ads Influence Black Grocery Shoppers More
      • African American Kids Have More Influence On Parental Buying Decisions
        • Table Influence Of Kids On Family Buying Decisions: Non-Hispanic Blacks Vs. Non-Hispanic Whites, Spring 2001
      • African American Women Shoppers Most Influenced By Kids
        • Table Influence Of Kids On Family Buying Decisions: Non-Hispanic Black Men And Women Vs. Non-Hispanic White Men And Women, Spring 2001
      • African American Moms Shop Alone
    • Consumer Expenditure Patterns
      • African American Consumer Units Have Distinct Characteristics
        • Table Characteristics Of Consumer Units: African American Vs. Other Consumer Units, 1999
      • Consumer Expenditure Patterns Reviewed
        • Table Annual Expenditures Of Consumer Units: African American Vs. Non-Hispanic White: By Percent Of Total Expenditures Allocated To Selected Expenditure Categories
      • African American Consumers Favor Meat And Fish
        • Table Annual Expenditures For Food And Beverages: African American Vs. Other Consumer Units, 1999
      • Spending On Laundry And Cleaning Supplies Higher Than Average
        • Table Annual Expenditures For Household Supplies, Furnishings, And Equipment: African American Vs. Other Consumer Units, 1999
      • African Americans Spend The Most On Telephone Services
        • Table Annual Expenditures On Telephone Services: African American Vs. Other Consumer Units, 1999
      • African Americans Lead Consumer Spending On Footwear
        • Table Annual Expenditures For Apparel: African American Vs. Other Consumer Units, 1999
      • Black Women Include More Big Spenders On Apparel
      • More Spent On Used Vehicles
        • Table Annual Expenditures For Transportation: African American Vs. Other Consumer Units, 1999
      • Health-Care Expenditures Lag
        • Table Annual Expenditures For Health Care: African American Vs. Other Consumer Units, 1999
      • Personal-Care Products Spending Matches National Average
        • Table Annual Expenditures For Personal-Care And Other Personal Products And Services: African American Vs. Other Consumer Units, 1999
      • Personal Electronics Equipment Has High Priority For Black Consumers
        • Table Annual Expenditures For Entertainment: African American Vs. Other Consumer Units, 1999
        • Table Electronics Equipment Purchasing Decisions: Non-Hispanic Blacks Vs. Non-Hispanic Whites, Spring 2001
      • Interest In Stocks On The Rise
      • Book Purchases Increase
      • Travel By African Americans Registers Sharp Gain
    • African Americans And The Internet
      • Computer Ownership By African Americans Increases At Above-Average Rate
        • Table Percent Of U.S. Households With a Computer: By Race And Hispanic Origin, December 1998 Vs. August 2000
      • Internet Access Doubles
        • Table Percentage Of U.S. Households With Internet Access: By Race And Hispanic Origin, December 1998 Vs. August 2000
      • Number Of African American Internet Users Nears 10 Million
        • Table Internet Use By Individuals Age 3 And Over: African Americans Vs. Other Population Groups, December 1998 Vs. August 2000
      • Black Online Population Younger Than Average
        • Table Internet Use By Age Group: African Americans Vs. Other Population Groups, December 1998 Vs. August 2000
      • Women Drive Growth In Black Internet Population
      • African Americans See Internet As Key To Children's Future
        • Table Internet Use By 3- To 8-Year-Olds: African Americans Vs. Other Population Groups, December 1998 Vs. August 2000
        • Table Internet Use By 9- To 17-Year-Olds: African Americans Vs. Other Population Groups, December 1998 Vs. August 2000
      • African American Internet Users Expected To Continue To Grow
        • Table Access To Online Services: Non-Hispanic Blacks Vs. Non-Hispanic Whites, Spring 2001
      • Blacks More Likely To Access Internet Outside The Home
      • Other Research Sources Confirm This Pattern. These Include The Following:
        • Table Usage Of Online Services: By Location Of Access: Non-Hispanic Blacks Vs. Non-Hispanic Whites, Spring 2001
      • African Americans Less Likely To Be Heavy Internet Users
      • Online Shopping Has Low Priority For Most African American Internet Users
        • Table Use Of Online Services: By Type Of Use: Non-Hispanic Blacks Vs. Non-Hispanic Whites, Spring 2001
      • But Experienced African American Internet Users Shop Online More
      • African Americans Prefer Specialized Web Sites
  • Media
    • Print
      • Newspaper Readership Increases Among African Americans
      • African Americans Look To Magazines
        • Table Magazine Involvement: Non-Hispanic Blacks Vs. Non-Hispanic Whites, Spring 2001
      • Blacks Highly Positive Toward Magazines
        • Table Attitudes Toward Magazines: Non-Hispanic Blacks Vs. Non-Hispanic Whites, Spring 2001
      • Ad Spending In Black Consumer Magazines Defies Slowing Economy
      • Essence Expands Brand
      • Heart & Soul And Honey Take On Essence
      • Black Enterprise Serves African American Executives
      • Time Targets African Americans
      • Savoy Aims At Affluent African Americans
    • Television
      • African Americans Watch More Television Than Other Groups
      • Black Cable Subscribers Subscribe More To Premium Cable Services
      • Research Suggests Blacks Less Involved With Tv
        • Table Television Involvement: Non-Hispanic Blacks Vs. Non-Hispanic Whites, Spring 2001
        • Table Attitudes Toward Television Programming: Non-Hispanic Blacks Vs. Non-Hispanic Whites, Spring 2001
      • Daytime Tv Favored
        • Table Network Television Viewed: By Time Of Day: Non-Hispanic Blacks Vs. Non-Hispanic Whites, Spring 2001
      • Wide Variety Of Shows Viewed
        • Table Types Of Network Primetime Shows Viewed: Non-Hispanic Blacks Vs. Non-Hispanic Whites, Spring 2001
        • Table Types Of Syndicated Shows Viewed: Non-Hispanic Blacks Vs. Non-Hispanic Whites, Spring 2001
        • Table Types Of Network Daytime Shows Viewed: Non-Hispanic Blacks Vs. Non-Hispanic Whites, Spring 2001
      • African Americans View Tv Advertising As Positive
        • Table Attitudes Toward Television Advertising: Non-Hispanic Blacks Vs. Non-Hispanic Whites, Spring 2001
      • Upn And Wb Are Favorite Primetime Networks
        • Table Networks Viewed In Primetime: Non-Hispanic Blacks Vs. Non-Hispanic Whites, Spring 2001
      • Viacom Buys Into African American Cable Tv Market
      • Start-Ups Fail To Topple Bet From Cable Dominance
    • Radio
      • African Americans Listen To Radio More
        • Table Attitudes Toward Radio: African Americans Vs. Non-Hispanic Whites, Spring 2001
      • African Americans Prefer Specific Radio Formats
        • Table Preferred Radio Formats: Non-Hispanic Blacks Vs. Non-Hispanic Whites, Spring 2001
      • Urban Radio Format Gains New Respect From Advertisers
      • Radio One Builds National Platform
      • Abc Radio Teams With Radio One To Expand Reach Of Urban Advantage Network
    • New Media
      • More African Americans Look To Internet As News Source
      • African Americans Seek Sense Of Community Online
      • Blackvoices.Com Provides Virtual Community For African Americans
      • Netnoir Connects People To African American Culture And Lifestyle
      • Blackplanet.Com Offers Community Experience
      • Niaonline Speaks To African American Women
  • Overview Of Marketing, Promotional, And Advertising Strategies
    • Marketing Fundamentals
      • African American Marketing Should Be Year-Round Process
      • Strong Internal Review Process Recommended
      • Many African American Marketing Strategies Focus On Women
      • Proper Segmentation Of African American Women's Market Seen As Vital
      • African American Men Require Special Marketing Approach
      • Black Boomers Respond To Different Marketing Messages
      • Marketers Advised To Pay Attention To Affluent African Americans
      • Urbanites At Core Of African American Market
      • Affluent Black Suburbanites Maintain Urban Orientation
    • Marketing And Promotional Approaches
      • Community-Based Marketing Important
      • Successful Marketing Programs Give Back To The African American Community
      • Marketers Turn To Black Churches
      • Street Marketing Teams Are Vital Component Of Strategies
      • Coupons Work When Customized To Black Consumers
      • Retailers Adjust Inventory To Attract African American Shoppers
      • Research Offers Suggestions To Grocery Chains On Marketing To African Americans
    • Advertising Strategies And Campaigns
      • Research Shows African American Adults Prefer Ordinary People In Ads
      • But Black Celebrities Appear More Frequently In Ads Targeting Younger African Americans
      • Bud Light Joins With Cedric "The Entertainer"
      • Kobe Bryant Featured In Mcdonald's Ad Campaign
      • Doublemint Campaign Features Williams Sisters
      • Spike Lee Targets Affluent African Americans For Jaguar
      • Daimlerchrysler Campaign Directed At African American Moms
      • State Farm Reaches Out To African Americans
      • Southwest Airlines Ads Target African Americans And General Market
  • Case Studies Of Companies Marketing To African Americans
    • Alcoholic Beverages
      • Heineken And Corona Compete For African American Market
      • Coors Looks To African American Market
      • Paul Masson Brandy Relates To Both Black And White Consumers
    • Automotive
      • Jaguar Reaches Out To Affluent African Americans
      • Other Luxury Car Makers Target Affluent African Americans
      • Daimlerchrysler Takes Steps To Attract African Americans
    • Financial Services
      • Bank Of America Looks To African Americans In Ethnic Marketing Campaign
      • Investment Firms Focus On African American Investors
    • Food And Beverages
      • Packaged-Foods Companies Court African American Market
      • Wrigley's Appeals To African Americans With Doublemint Campaign
      • Pepsi Develops Inner-City Market
    • Restaurants
      • Restaurant Promotions Target African Americans
      • Mcdonald's Reaches Out To African Americans All Year Long
      • Afc Launches Education Initiatives Directed At African Americans
      • Denny's Sponsors Essay Contest
      • Burger King Looks To African Americans To Succeed
    • Retail
      • Sears Caters To Urban Population
      • Kmart Committed To African American Community
    • Other
      • Telecommunications Companies Court African Americans
      • Greeting Card Companies Compete For African American Market
      • Gateway Reaches Out To African American Community
      • Major Publishers Launch Black Imprints
      • Mainstream Multinationals Acquire Stake In Ethnic Hair-Care Market
  • Addresses Of Selected U.S. African American Market Resources
    • Advertising/Marketing Agencies
    • Market Research Companies
    • Publications
    • Other Media
    • Organizations

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