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Global Water Market 2017

Global Water Market 2017

The new edition of Global Water Market 2017 is the most expansive yet. The scope of the report has been extended beyond the geographical focus of previous editions and now includes 100 country profiles, the main players in each market space and data, analysis and forecasts for key markets including, technologies, equipment, services, networks, public private partnerships and engineering and procurement.

This report is the ultimate business development tool, offering the most complete survey of opportunities and activities in the international water sector ever attempted. It is a must have resource for any water company looking to grow their business or bankers and consultants advising on deals in the water sector.

This is delivered as a Zip file due to size.


VOLUME 1: COMPANIES AND MARKETS
PUBLICATION INFORMATION
Unit conversion factors used in this publication:
Exchange rates used in this publication:
Indicators of utility service coverage:
Indicators of water service coverage
Indicators of wastewater service coverage
Icons used in this publication:
Icons representing market sectors
Icons representing technology categories
Icons representing technology applications
Icons representing sector structure responsibilities
Icons representing the scope of private sector participation (PSP) projects
Icons representing significance/prevalence
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
The big picture
Market drivers and constraints
The regional picture
North America
Latin America/Caribbean
Capital expenditure by region, 2013–2020
Europe/Former Soviet Union
The top 40 global water markets by total spend, 2016—2020
China
India
Other Asia Pacific
Middle East/Africa
2,000 pages In 100 words
Global water market map
1. WATER MARKET OVERVIEW
1.1 What is the water market?
1.1.1 Defining the water market
1.1.2 By end-user type: utility/industrial/commercial/agricultural
Figure 1.1 The global water market, 2016
1.1.3 By spending type: capex/opex
Figure 1.2 The global water market: opex and capex, 2016
1.1.4 Capital expenditure on water
Figure 1.3 Global water capex, 2016
1.1.5 Operating expenditure on water
Figure 1.4 Global water opex, 2016
1.2 Market drivers
1.2.1 Scarcity and global warming
Figure 1.5 Water stress by region
Figure 1.6 Seasonal variability by region
Figure 1.7 Drought severity by region
1.2.1.1 Demand management
Figure 1.8 The dynamics of water use, 1900–2025
1.2.2 Urbanisation and access to water
1.2.2.1 Water access
Figure 1.9 Global access to drinking water
Figure 1.10 Global access to sanitation
1.2.3 Regulation
1.2.3.1 Major regulatory changes
1.2.3.2 European Union water regulation
Figure 1.11 List of water-related EU directives
1.2.4 Corporate water risk
Figure 1.12 CDP Water Project 2015 survey responses
1.3 Market restraints
1.3.1 Overview
1.3.1.1 Capital intensity
Figure 1.13 Capital intensity of utility services
1.3.2 Paying for water
1.3.2.1 Water tariffs
Figure 1.14 What makes a water tariff?
Figure 1.15 Evolution of water and wastewater tariffs by region, 2011–2015
Figure 1.16 GWI 2015 Water Tariff Survey
Figure 1.17 Standard connection charges by region
1.3.2.2 Operating expenditure
Figure 1.18 Revenues versus operating costs in selected countries
Figure 1.19 Utility water and wastewater costs and revenues per cubic metre sold
Figure 1.20 Operating cost recovery by region
1.3.2.3 Utility incorporation
Figure 1.21 The corporate structure of utilities
1.3.3 Capital spending
1.3.3.1 Debt finance
1.3.3.2 International financial institutions
Figure 1.22 Multilateral support to the water sector, 2014
1.3.4 Financing trends
Figure 1.23 Sources of finance for water and wastewater infrastructure 2006–2020
1.3.5 Reaching the market
Figure 1.24 Water and economic development
1.4 Market forecast
Figure 1.25 Structure of forecast model in Global Water Market 2017
1.4.1 Utility capital and operating expenditure
1.4.1.1 Changes and corrections
1.4.2 Industrial capital expenditure
1.4.3 Industrial operating expenditure
1.4.4 Seawater and brackish water desalination
1.4.5 Technologies forecast
Figure 1.26 Description of application categories
Figure 1.27 Description of treatment technology categories
1.4.6 Equipment forecast
1.4.7 Chemicals forecast
1.4.8 Global market forecast summary
Figure 1.28 Market forecast, 2013–2020
Figure 1.29 Market forecast breakdown, 2016
Figure 1.30 Market forecast data, 2013–2020
1.5 The water market
1.5.1 Market structure and dynamics
1.5.1.1 The utility market
Figure 1.31 The top 30 global water utilities
1.5.1.2 The industrial water market
Figure 1.32 Water usage by industry sector
Figure 1.33 Top 50 industrial water users by estimated water consumption
1.5.1.3 The supply chain
Figure 1.34 The water sector supply chain
1.5.1.4 Major players
Figure 1.35 Top 50 global water companies
21.5.2 Engineering & contracting
1.5.2.1 Contracting models
1.5.2.2 Quality control
1.5.2.3 Risk management
1.5.2.4 The engineering and systems integration market
Figure 1.36 Top 50 engineers and systems integrators
1.5.2.5 Market trends
1.5.2.6 Engineering and systems integration market forecast
Figure 1.37 Engineering and systems integration market forecast by region, 2013–2020
1.5.3 The DBO market
1.5.3.1 DBO description
Figure 1.38 DBO project structure
1.5.3.2 DBO market development
1.5.3.3 DBO market forecast
Figure 1.39 DBO market forecast: Capital and operating expenditure, 2013–2020
Figure 1.40 DBO market forecast: Capital expenditure by asset type, 2013–2020
Figure 1.41 DBO market forecast: Operating expenditure by asset type, 2013–2020
Figure 1.42 DBO market forecast: Capital expenditure by region, 2013–2020
Figure 1.43 DBO market forecast: Operating expenditure by region, 2013–2020
1.5.4 The BOT/BOO market
1.5.4.1 BOT/BOO description
Figure 1.44 Basic BOT project structure
Figure 1.45 Salalah IWPP contractual framework
1.5.4.2 BOT market development
1.5.4.3 Brownfield BOT and TOT
1.5.4.4 BOT market forecast
Figure 1.46 BOO/BOT market forecast: Capital and operating expenditure, 2013–2020
Figure 1.47 BOO/BOT market forecast: Capital expenditure by asset type, 2013–2020
Figure 1.48 BOO/BOT market forecast: Operating expenditure by asset type, 2013–2020
Figure 1.49 BOO/BOT market forecast: Capital expenditure by region, 2013–2020
Figure 1.50 BOO/BOT market forecast: Operating expenditure by region, 2013–2020
1.5.5 Utility outsourcing
1.5.5.1 Overview of outsourcing models
1.5.5.2 Investor-owned utility models
1.5.5.3 The UK regulatory model
1.5.5.4 Investor-owned utilities in the US
1.5.5.5 Investor-owned utilities in Chile
1.5.5.6 Other investor-owned utilities
1.5.6 Utility leasing
1.5.6.1 Rialto, California
Figure 1.51 Rialto transaction structure
1.5.6.2 Bayonne, New Jersey
1.5.6.3 Allentown
1.5.6.4 Middletown, Pennsylvania
1.5.6.5 Utility leasing outside the US
1.5.7 Concession models
Figure 1.52 Water utility concession structure
1.5.7.1 Concession model market development
1.5.8 Operating/Affermage contracts
1.5.8.1 US contract operations
1.5.8.2 Affermage contracts
Figure 1.53 Affermage contract structure
1.5.8.3 The Spanish canon model
1.5.9 Management and performance contracts
1.5.9.1 Definition
1.5.9.2 Market development
1.5.9.3 Management contracts
1.5.9.4 Performance contracts
Performance contracts in developing countries
Figure 1.54 Internal performance contracting in Uganda
1.5.10 Utility private sector participation market forecast
Figure 1.55 Private sector participation market forecast: opex by contract type, 2013–2020
Figure 1.56 Private sector participation market forecast: capital expenditure by contract type, 2013–2020
1.6 Industrial Outsourcing
1.6.1 Overview
Figure 1.57 Global market for industrial outsourcing services by contract type, 2015
Figure 1.58 Spending on industrial outsourced service, 2013–2020
1.6.2 Outsourced operations
1.6.3 Asset ownership models
Figure 1.59 Risk-sharing by contract structure
Figure 1.60 Capital and operating expenditure under BOT/BOO contracts, 2013–2020
1.6.4 Mobile water
Figure 1.61 Spending on mobile water services by industry, 2013–2020
Figure 1.62 Spending on mobile water services by region, 2013–2020
1.6.4.1 Major players in mobile water
Figure 1.63 Major players in mobile water solutions
1.6.5 Oil and gas water management
Figure 1.64 Types of water management in the unconventional industry
Figure 1.65 Supply chain for water management services in the US unconventional industry
1.6.5.1 Major water management challenges
Figure 1.66 Outline of key water management challenges in the major US shale plays
1.6.5.2 Market forecast
Figure 1.67 Forecast of spending on oil & gas water management services in North America, 2013–2020
1.6.5.3 Main players
Figure 1.68 Selection of major water management companies in the upstream oil and gas sector
2. WATER AND WASTEWATER TREATMENT
Figure 2.1 Water and wastewater treatment functions by industry and application
2.1 Treatment by sector
Figure 2.2 Global capital expenditure by sector, 2013–2020
Figure 2.3 Global capital expenditure by industry, 2013–2020
2.1.1 Upstream oil & gas
Figure 2.4 Trends in global crude oil price, 1990–2015
Figure 2.5 Global capex at oil & gas companies
2.1.1.1 Applications
Figure 2.6 Upstream oil & gas: Capital expenditure by application, 2013–2020
2.1.1.2 Technology systems
Figure 2.7 Upstream oil & gas: Capital expenditure by technology, 2013–2020
2.1.1.3 Regions
Figure 2.8 Upstream oil & gas: Capital expenditure on water treatment in upstream oil & gas by region
Figure 2.9 Figure 1.6 Upstream oil & gas: Top country markets, 2016–2020
2.1.1.4 Key market players
Figure 2.10 Key players in the upstream oil & gas water and wastewater treatment market
Figure 2.11 A selection of the top water treatment providers in the upstream oil & gas market
2.1.2 Refining & petrochemicals
Figure 2.12 Top countries by refining capacity and number of refineries, 2015
Figure 2.13 Future additional refining capacity by country, 2015–2019
Figure 2.14 Future additional petrochemical capacity by country, 2015–2022
2.1.2.1 Applications
Figure 2.15 Refining and petrochemicals industry: Capital expenditure by application, 2013–2020
2.1.2.2 Technology systems
Figure 2.16 Refining and petrochemicals industry: Capital expenditure by technology, 2013–2020
2.1.2.3 Regions
Figure 2.17 Refining and petrochemicals industry: Capital expenditure by region, 2013–2020
Figure 2.18 Refining and petrochemicals industry: Top country markets, 2016–2020
2.1.2.4 Key market players
Figure 2.19 Key players in the refinery water and wastewater treatment market
Figure 2.20 A selection of the top companies in the refining & petrochemicals industry
2.1.3 Power
Figure 2.21 Top 10 countries by total installed electrical generating capacity
2.1.3.1 Applications
Figure 2.22 Power: Capital expenditure by application, 2013–2020
2.1.3.2 Technology systems
Figure 2.23 Power: Capital expenditure by technology, 2013–2020
2.1.3.3 Regions
Figure 2.24 Power: Capital expenditure by region, 2013–2020
Figure 2.25 Power: Top country markets, 2016–2020
2.1.3.4 Key market players
Figure 2.26 Key players in the power water and wastewater treatment market
Figure 2.27 A selection of the top water treatment providers in the power market
2.1.4 Mining
Figure 2.28 Production of metals and minerals by country, 2014–2015
Figure 2.29 Production of metals and minerals by commodity, 2014–2015
Figure 2.30 Selected major mining companies by commodity and production, 2014
2.1.4.1 Applications
Figure 2.31 Mining: Capital expenditure by application, 2013–2020
2.1.4.2 Technology systems
Figure 2.32 Mining: Capital expenditure by technology, 2013–2020
2.1.4.3 Regions
Figure 2.33 Mining: Capital expenditure by region, 2013–2020
Figure 2.34 Mining: Top country markets, 2016–2020
2.1.4.4 Key market players
Figure 2.35 Key players in the mining sector for water and wastewater treatment
Figure 2.36 A selection of the top water treatment providers in the mining market
2.1.5 Food & beverage
2.1.5.1 Water treatment needs
2.1.5.2 Applications
Figure 2.37 Food and beverage: Capital expenditure by application, 2013–2020
2.1.5.3 Technology systems
Figure 2.38 Food and beverage: Capital expenditure by technology, 2013–2020
2.1.5.4 Regions
Figure 2.39 Food and beverage: Capital expenditure by region, 2013–2020
Figure 2.40 Food and beverage: Top country markets, 2016–2020
2.1.5.5 Key market players
Figure 2.41 Key players in the food & beverage water and wastewater treatment market
Figure 2.42 A selection of the top water treatment providers in the food & beverage market
2.1.6 Pulp & paper
Figure 2.43 Paper and paperboard production by region, 1990–2014
Figure 2.44 Pulp for paper production by region, 1990–2014
2.1.6.1 Applications
Figure 2.45 Pulp and paper: Capital expenditure by application, 2013–2020
2.1.6.2 Technology systems
Figure 2.46 Pulp and paper: Capital expenditure by technology, 2013–2020
2.1.6.3 Regions
Figure 2.47 Pulp and paper: Capital expenditure by region, 2013–2020
Figure 2.48 Pulp and paper: Top country markets, 2016–2020
2.1.6.4 Key market players
Figure 2.49 Key players in the pulp & paper water and wastewater treatment market
Figure 2.50 A selection of the top water treatment providers in the pulp & paper market
2.1.7 Pharmaceuticals
Figure 2.51 Top 20 pharmaceutical companies by global sales, 2014
2.1.7.1 Water treatment needs
Figure 2.52 Purified water quality standards from USP, Ph. Eur. and JP pharmacopoeias
Figure 2.53 WFI quality standards from USP, Ph. Eur., and JP pharmacopoeias
2.1.7.2 Applications
Figure 2.54 Pharmaceuticals: Capital expenditure by application, 2013–2020
2.1.7.3 Technology systems
Figure 2.55 Pharmaceuticals: Capital expenditure by technology, 2013–2020
2.1.7.4 Regions
Figure 2.56 Pharmaceuticals: Capital expenditure by region, 2013–2020
Figure 2.57 Pharmaceuticals: Top country markets, 2016–2020
2.1.7.5 Key market players
Figure 2.58 Key players in the pharmaceuticals water and wastewater treatment market
Figure 2.59 A selection of the top water treatment providers in the pharmaceuticals market
2.1.8 Microelectronics
Figure 2.60 Worldwide semiconductor sales by region, 2015–2016
2.1.8.1 Applications
Figure 2.61 Microelectronics: Capital expenditure by application, 2013–2020
2.1.8.2 Technology systems
Figure 2.62 Microelectronics: Capital expenditure by technology, 2013–2020
2.1.8.3 Regions
Figure 2.63 Microelectronics: Capital expenditure by region, 2013–2020
Figure 2.64 Microelectronics: Top country markets, 2016–2020
2.1.8.4 Key market players
Figure 2.65 Key players in the microelectronics water and wastewater treatment market
Figure 2.66 A selection of the top water treatment providers in the microelectronics market
2.1.9 Utilities
Figure 2.67 Municipal water cycle
Figure 2.68 Utility spending by sector, 2013–2020
2.1.9.1 Drinking water
Figure 2.69 Drinking water treatment train
Figure 2.70 Capital expenditure on drinking water treatment by technology, 2013–2020
Figure 2.71 Capital expenditure on drinking water treatment by region, 2013–2020
2.1.9.2 Wastewater
Figure 2.72 Municipal wastewater treatment steps
Wastewater reuse
Figure 2.73 New contracted capacity of municipal water reuse vs desalination, 1990–2030
Figure 2.74 Capital expenditure on wastewater treatment by technology, 2013–2020
Figure 2.75 Capital expenditure on wastewater treatment by region, 2013–2020
2.1.9.3 Seawater and brackish water desalination
Figure 2.76 Annual and cumulative contracted desalination capacity, 1990–2014
Figure 2.77 Annual contracted desalination capacity by feedwater, 1990–2014
Technology trends
Figure 2.78 Awarded membrane and thermal desalination capacity, 1990–2014
Figure 2.79 Time evolution of membrane versus thermal technologies
Figure 2.80 Annual contracted global capacity by technology, 2013–2020
Figure 2.81 Capital expenditure on seawater and brackish water desalination by technology, 2013–2020
Regional trends
Figure 2.82 Annual global contracted capacity by region, 2013–2020
Figure 2.83 Capital expenditure on seawater and brackish water desalination by region, 2013–2020
Figure 2.84 Annual global capacity by feedwater, 2013–2020
Key market players
Figure 2.85 Top 20 plant suppliers by awarded capacity, 2006–2015
Figure 2.86 Top 20 plant suppliers by awarded capacity, 2014–2015
2.2 Treatment by technology system
Figure 2.87 Gobal capital expenditure by technology, 2013–2020
2.2.1 Oil/water separation
Figure 2.88 Maturity of technologies versus applicability to the oil & gas industry
2.2.1.1 Market drivers and restraints
Drivers
Restraints
Figure 2.89 Market forces for oil/water separation
2.2.1.2 Sectors
Figure 2.90 Capital expenditure on oil/water separation technology by sector, 2013–2020
Figure 2.91 Capital expenditure on oil/water separation technology by industry, 2013–2020
2.2.1.3 Applications
Figure 2.92 Capital expenditure on oil/water separation technology by application, 2013–2020
2.2.1.4 Regions
Figure 2.93 Capital expenditure on oil/water separation technology by region, 2013–2020
2.2.1.5 Key market players
Figure 2.94 Key players in the oil/water separation technology market
2.2.2 Suspended solids removal
Figure 2.95 Maturity of suspended solids removal technologies versus applicability
2.2.2.1 Market drivers and restraints
Drivers
Restraints
Figure 2.96 Market forces for suspended solids removal
2.2.2.2 Sectors
Figure 2.97 Capital expenditure on suspended solids removal by sector, 2013–2020
Figure 2.98 Capital expenditure on suspended solids removal by industry, 2013–2020
2.2.2.3 Applications
Figure 2.99 Capital expenditure on suspended solids removal by application, 2013–2020
2.2.2.4 Regions
Figure 2.100 Capital expenditure on suspended solids removal by region, 2013–2020
2.2.2.5 Key market players
Figure 2.101 Technology by effluent particle size and players
2.2.3 Dissolved solids removal
Figure 2.102 Maturity of dissolved solids removal technologies versus application
Figure 2.103 Dissolved solids removal techniques
2.2.3.1 Market drivers and restraints
Drivers
Restraints
Figure 2.104 Market forces for dissolved solids removal
2.2.3.2 Sectors
Figure 2.105 Capital expenditure on dissolved solids removal by sector, 2013–2020
Figure 2.106 Capital expenditure on dissolved solids removal by industry, 2013–2020
2.2.3.3 Applications
Figure 2.107 Capital expenditure on dissolved solids removal by application, 2013–2020
2.2.3.4 Regions
Figure 2.108 Capital expenditure on dissolved solids removal by region, 2013–2020
2.2.3.5 Key market players
Figure 2.109 Key players in the dissolved solids technology market
2.2.4 Biological treatment
Figure 2.110 Biological treatment technologies
Figure 2.111 Maturity of biological treatment technologies versus application
2.2.4.1 Market drivers and restraints
Drivers
Restraints
Figure 2.112 Market forces for biological treatment
2.2.4.2 Sectors
Figure 2.113 Capital expenditure on biological treatment by sector, 2013–2020
Figure 2.114 Capital expenditure on biological treatment by industry, 2013–2020
2.2.4.3 Applications
Figure 2.115 Capital expenditure on biological treatment by application, 2013–2020
2.2.4.4 Regions
Figure 2.116 Capital expenditure on biological treatment by region, 2013–2020
2.2.4.5 Key market players
Figure 2.117 Key players in the biological treatment technology market
2.2.5 Disinfection/oxidation
Figure 2.118 Maturity of technologies versus application
2.2.5.1 Market drivers and restraints
Drivers
Restraints
Figure 2.119 Market forces for disinfection
2.2.5.2 Sectors
Figure 2.120 Capital expenditure on disinfection by sector, 2013–2020
Figure 2.121 Capital expenditure on disinfection by industry, 2013–2020
2.2.5.3 Applications
Figure 2.122 Capital expenditure on disinfection by application, 2013–2020
2.2.5.4 Regions
Figure 2.123 Capital expenditure on disinfection by region, 2013–2020
2.2.5.5 Key market players
Figure 2.124 Key players in the disinfection technology market
2.2.6 Sludge management
Sources of sludge
Sludge management methods
Figure 2.125 Progression of sludge management selection in developed nations, 1970-present
Sludge treatment technologies
Figure 2.126 Key sludge treatment technologies and management methods
2.2.6.1 Market drivers and restraints
Drivers
Restraints
Figure 2.127 Market forces for sludge management
2.2.6.2 Sectors
Figure 2.128 Capital expenditure on sludge management by sector, 2013–2020
Figure 2.129 Capital expenditure on sludge management by industry, 2013–2020
2.2.6.3 Applications
Figure 2.130 Capital expenditure on sludge management by application, 2013–2020
2.2.6.4 Regions
Figure 2.131 Capital expenditure on sludge management by region, 2013–2020
2.2.6.5 Key market players
Figure 2.132 Key companies active in the sludge treatment market
2.3 Water treatment equipment
2.3.1 High pressure membranes
2.3.1.1 Market trends
2.3.1.2 Membrane research directions
Figure 2.133 Current high pressure membrane research and development projects
2.3.1.3 Market forecast
Figure 2.134 Spending on high pressure membranes by sector, 2013–2020
Figure 2.135 Spending on high pressure membranes by region, 2013–2020
2.3.1.4 Key market players
Figure 2.136 Selection of major high pressure membrane manufacturers
2.3.2 Low pressure membranes
2.3.2.1 Market trends
2.3.2.2 Membrane research directions
Figure 2.137 Current low-pressure membrane research and development projects
2.3.2.3 Market forecast
Figure 2.138 Total spending on low pressure membranes by sector, 2013–2020
Figure 2.139 Total spending on low pressure membranes by region, 2013–2020
2.3.2.4 Key market players
Figure 2.140 Key low pressure membrane suppliers
2.3.3 Thermal desalination equipment
2.3.3.1 Market trends
2.3.3.2 Market forecast
Figure 2.141 Total spending on thermal desalination equipment by sector, 2013–2020
Figure 2.142 Total spending on thermal desalination equipment by region, 2013–2020
3. NETWORKS AND ENVIRONMENT
3.1 Water and wastewater networks
3.1.1 Market drivers and restraints
Figure 3.1 Total water and wastewater networks capital and operating expenditure, 2016
Figure 3.2 Water network capital expenditure by equipment category, 2016
Figure 3.3 Wastewater network capital expenditure by equipment category, 2016
Figure 3.4 Typical parameters for trenchless installation techniques
3.1.2 Approaches to asset management
Figure 3.5 Plan-do-act-check cycle
Figure 3.6 Management strategies for water networks
3.1.2.1 Non-revenue water and losses
Figure 3.7 Non-revenue water rates in selected countries
Figure 3.8 IWA water balance
3.1.2.2 Pipe replacement and rehabilitation
3.1.2.3 Leak management
Figure 3.9 Types of leaks
3.1.3 Market forecast
Figure 3.10 Water and wastewater network capital expenditure, 2013-2020
Figure 3.11 Utility water network capital expenditure by region, 2013-2020
Figure 3.12 Top 10 utility water network markets, 2016-2020
Figure 3.13 Utility wastewater network capital expenditure by region, 2013-2020
Figure 3.14 Top 10 utility wastewater network markets, 2016–2020
3.1.4 Smart water networks
Figure 3.15 Smart water layers and forecast categories
3.1.4.1 Market drivers and restraints
Drivers
Restraints
Figure 3.16 Water treatment market forces in smart water networks
3.1.4.2 Challenges and opportunities
3.1.4.3 Regional trends
Figure 3.17 Split of the SWN market between early adopters and other countries, 2015 and 2020
Figure 3.18 Worldwide capital expenditure on SWNs by region, 2015–2020
Figure 3.19 Worldwide capital expenditure on SWNs by country, 2015–2020
3.1.4.4 Trends by tier and market segment
Figure 3.20 Worldwide capital expenditure on SWNs by system, 2015–2020
Figure 3.21 Worldwide capital expenditure on SWNs by tier, 2015-2020
3.1.4.5 Key market players
Figure 3.22 Companies active in the smart water network market
Figure 3.23 Companies active in the instrumentation layer
Figure 3.24 Companies active in the communications layer
Figure 3.25 Companies active in the data analysis/management layer
3.2 Resources and environment
3.2.1 Storage
Figure 3.26 Examples of water storage project costs
3.2.2 Groundwater development
Figure 3.27 Aquifer stress as studied by GRACE
Figure 3.28 Largest aquifer systems
3.2.3 Water transfer
Figure 3.29 Cost comparison by water source type
Figure 3.30 Examples of water transfer project costs
3.2.4 Watershed protection
3.3 Equipment markets
3.3.1 Pipes
Figure 3.31 Characteristics of key water and wastewater pipe materials
3.3.1.1 Market trends
Figure 3.32 Total spending on pipes by sector, 2013-2020
Figure 3.33 Total spending on pipes by region, 2013-2020
3.3.1.2 Key market players
Figure 3.34 A selection of major water and wastewater pipe suppliers
3.3.2 Pumps
3.3.2.1 Market trends
Figure 3.35 Total spending on pumps by sector, 2013-2020
Figure 3.36 Total spending on pumps by region, 2013-2020
3.3.2.2 Key market players
Figure 3.37 A selection of major international water pump manufacturers
3.3.3 Valves
Figure 3.38 Main valve types used in the water sector
3.3.3.1 Market trends
Figure 3.39 Total spending on valves by sector, 2013-2020
Figure 3.40 Total spending on valves by region, 2013-2020
3.3.3.2 Key market players
Figure 3.41 A selection of major water valve manufacturers
4. CHEMICALS & CONSUMABLES
4.1 Chemicals
Figure 4.1 Outline of major water treatment chemicals and their applicability
Figure 4.2 Global spending on commodity and specialty chemicals, 2013-2020
4.1.1 Market forecast
4.1.1.1 Sectors
Figure 4.3 Global spending on water treatment chemicals by sector, 2013-2020
Figure 4.4 Global spending on water treatment chemicals by industry, 2013-2020
4.1.1.2 Chemical type
Figure 4.5 Global spending by chemical type, 2013-2020
4.1.1.3 Applications
Figure 4.6 Global spending on water treatment chemicals by application, 2013-2020
4.1.1.4 Regions
Figure 4.7 Global spending on water treatment chemicals by region, 2013-2020
4.1.2 Key market players
Figure 4.8 Major chemical suppliers and service companies
4.2 Consumables & Services
4.2.1 Ion exchange resins
4.2.2 Filtration
4.2.3 Activated carbon

VOLUME 2: THE AMERICAS


5. ARGENTINA
6. BOLIVIA
7. BRAZIL
8. CANADA
9. CHILE
10. COLOMBIA
11. COSTA RICA
12. DOMINICAN REPUBLIC
13. ECUADOR
14. EL SALVADOR
15. GUATEMALA
16. HONDURAS
17. MEXICO
18. PANAMA
19. PARAGUAY
20. PERU
21. TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO
22. UNITED STATES
23. URUGUAY
24. VENEZUELA

VOLUME 3: EUROPE
25. AUSTRIA
26. AZERBAIJAN
27. BELARUS
28. BELGIUM
29. BULGARIA
30. CROATIA
31. CYPRUS
32. CZECH REPUBLIC
33. DENMARK
34. ESTONIA
35. FINLAND
36. FRANCE
37. GERMANY
38. GREECE
39. HUNGARY
40. IRELAND
41. ITALY
42. KAZAKHSTAN
43. LATVIA
44. LITHUANIA
45. LUXEMBOURG
46. NETHERLANDS
47. NORWAY
48. POLAND
49. PORTUGAL
50. ROMANIA
51. RUSSIAN FEDERATION
52. SERBIA
53. SLOVAKIA
54. SLOVENIA
55. SPAIN
56. SWEDEN
57. SWITZERLAND
58. UKRAINE
59. UNITED KINGDOM

VOLUME 4: MIDDLE EAST AND AFRICA

60. ALGERIA
61. ANGOLA
62. BAHRAIN
63. CAMEROON
64. CÔTE D’IVOIRE
65. EGYPT
66. ETHIOPIA
67. GHANA
68. IRAN
69. IRAQ
70. ISRAEL
71. JORDAN
72. KENYA
73. KUWAIT
74. LEBANON
75. MOROCCO
76. NAMIBIA
77. NIGERIA
78. OMAN
79. QATAR
80. RWANDA
81. SAUDI ARABIA
82. SOUTH AFRICA
83. TANZANIA
84. TUNISIA
85. TURKEY
86. UGANDA
87. UNITED ARAB EMIRATES

VOLUME 5: ASIA PACIFIC

88. AUSTRALIA
89. BANGLADESH
90. CHINA
91. HONG KONG
92. INDIA
93. INDONESIA
94. JAPAN
95. MALAYSIA
96. NEW ZEALAND
97. PAKISTAN
98. PHILIPPINES
99. SINGAPORE
100. SOUTH KOREA
101. SRI LANKA
102. TAIWAN
103. THAILAND
104. VIETNAM
INTERVIEWEES
REFERENCES

VOLUME 2: THE AMERICAS
PUBLICATION INFORMATION II
Unit conversion factors used in this publication:
Exchange rates used in this publication:
Indicators of utility service coverage:
Indicators of water service coverage
Indicators of wastewater service coverage
Icons used in this publication:
Icons representing market sectors
Icons representing technology categories
Icons representing technology applications
Icons representing sector structure responsibilities
Icons representing the scope of private sector participation (PSP) projects
Icons representing significance/prevalence
5. ARGENTINA
5.1 Water availability and demand
Figure 5.1 Water resources
Figure 5.2 Sectoral water withdrawal
5.2 Utility sector
Figure 5.3 Utility service performance
Figure 5.4 Water and wastewater utilities serving greater than 300,000 people
5.2.1 Utility water
Figure 5.5 Water supply indicators
Figure 5.6 Percentage of people connected to water supply network
Figure 5.7 Meter coverage
5.2.2 Utility wastewater
Figure 5.8 Wastewater indicators
Figure 5.9 Percentage of wastewater treated to secondary level
5.2.3 Utility funding
Figure 5.10 Benchmark water and wastewater tariffs for selected major cities, 2015
Figure 5.11 Overseas development assistance for the water and sanitation sector, 2008–2014
5.2.4 Private sector participation
Figure 5.12 Selected major projects involving private sector participation
5.3 Current and future projects
Figure 5.13 Projects tracked by GWI
5.4 Market forecast
Figure 5.14 Market forecast, 2013–2020
Figure 5.15 Market forecast breakdown, 2016
Figure 5.16 Market forecast data, 2013–2020
6. BOLIVIA
6.1 Water availability and demand
Figure 6.1 Water resources
Figure 6.2 Sectoral water withdrawal
6.2 Utility sector
Figure 6.3 Utility service performance
Figure 6.4 Water and wastewater utilities serving greater than 300,000 people
6.2.1 Utility water
Figure 6.5 Water supply indicators
Figure 6.6 Number of people connected to water supply network
Figure 6.7 Percentage of people connected to water supply network
6.2.2 Utility wastewater
Figure 6.8 Wastewater indicators
Figure 6.9 Number of people connected to sewerage network
Figure 6.10 Percentage of people connected to sewerage network
6.2.3 Utility funding
Figure 6.11 Benchmark water and wastewater tariffs for selected major cities, 2015
Figure 6.12 Overseas development assistance for the water and sanitation sector, 2008–2014
6.3 Market forecast
Figure 6.13 Market forecast, 2013–2020
Figure 6.14 Market forecast breakdown, 2016
Figure 6.15 Market forecast data, 2013–2020
7. BRAZIL
7.1 Top market opportunities
7.2 Sector structure and regulation
Figure 7.1 Water sector structure
Figure 7.2 Water sector funding organisations
Figure 7.3 Regulations applicable to the water sector
Figure 7.4 PLANSAB goals for water supply and sanitation in Brazil
7.3 Water resources
Figure 7.5 Projected change in water stress by 2020
Figure 7.6 Water resources
Figure 7.7 Water withdrawals by sector, 2010–2030
7.3.1 Desalination
7.3.2 Water reuse
7.3.3 Water transfer
7.3.4 Groundwater protection
7.3.5 Reservoirs and storage
7.3.6 Demand management
7.4 Utility sector
7.4.1 Utility sector strategies and investment planning
7.4.1.1 Water service extension
7.4.1.2 Asset management
7.4.1.3 Non-revenue water
7.4.1.4 Smart water
7.4.1.5 Wastewater networks
7.4.1.6 Wastewater treatment
7.4.1.7 Wastewater polishing
7.4.2 Utility sector structure and performance
Figure 7.8 Utility market structure
Figure 7.9 Water and wastewater utilities serving greater than 300,000 people
Figure 7.10 Utility service performance
Figure 7.11 Water supply indicators
Figure 7.12 Wastewater service indicators
7.4.3 Utility infrastructure
Figure 7.13 Major water treatment plants
Figure 7.14 Major wastewater treatment plants
Figure 7.15 Major desalination plants
Figure 7.16 Major water reuse plants
7.4.4 Utility funding
Figure 7.17 Water and wastewater charges for a benchmark user in selected major cities, 2015
Figure 7.18 Sources of utility funding
Figure 7.19 Sources of debt used to fund utility investments
Figure 7.20 Overseas development assistance for the water and sanitation sector, 2008-2014
7.4.5 Utility procurement
Figure 7.21 Procurement models used
Figure 7.22 Criteria for comparing bids on construction contracts
7.4.6 Private sector participation
Figure 7.23 Models of private sector participation
7.4.7 Current and future projects
Figure 7.24 Future utility investment projects
7.5 Industrial water
Figure 7.25 Industrial water market significance
7.5.1 Oil & gas
7.5.2 Pulp & paper and food & beverage
7.5.3 Mining
7.6 Market participants
Figure 7.26 Major companies active in the water sector
7.7 Market forecast
7.7.1 Future market directions
7.7.2 Notes on market forecast
Figure 7.27 Market forecast, 2013–2020
Figure 7.28 Market forecast breakdown, 2016
Figure 7.29 Market forecast data, 2013–2020
7.8 Data Sources
Figure 7.30 Sources of data used in this report
8. CANADA
8.1 Top market opportunities
8.2 Sector structure and regulation
Figure 8.1 Water sector structure
Figure 8.2 Water sector funding organisations
Figure 8.3 Regulations applicable to the water sector
8.3 Water resources
Figure 8.4 Projected change in water stress by 2020
Figure 8.5 Water resources
Figure 8.6 Water withdrawals by sector, 2010–2030
8.3.1 Desalination
8.3.2 Water reuse
8.3.3 Water transfer
8.3.4 Groundwater protection
8.3.5 Reservoirs and storage
8.3.6 Demand management
8.4 Utility sector
8.4.1 Utility sector strategies and investment planning
8.4.1.1 Wastewater infrastructure
8.4.1.2 Water treatment
8.4.1.3 Networks
8.4.2 Utility sector structure and performance
Figure 8.7 Utility market structure
Figure 8.8 Water and wastewater utilities serving greater than 300,000 people
Figure 8.9 Utility service performance
Figure 8.10 Water supply indicators
Figure 8.11 Wastewater service indicators
8.4.3 Utility infrastructure
Figure 8.12 Major water treatment plants
Figure 8.13 Major wastewater treatment plants
Figure 8.14 Major water reuse plants
8.4.4 Utility funding
Figure 8.15 Water and wastewater charges for a benchmark user in selected major cities, 2015
Figure 8.16 Sources of utility funding
Figure 8.17 Sources of debt used to fund utility investments
8.4.4.1 Federal/provincial funding
8.4.4.2 Tariffs
8.4.4.3 First Nations
8.4.5 Utility procurement
Figure 8.18 Procurement models used
Figure 8.19 Criteria for comparing bids on construction contracts
8.4.6 Private sector participation
Figure 8.20 Models of private sector participation
8.4.6.1 Contract operations
8.4.6.2 Privately financed projects
Figure 8.21 Water and wastewater projects supported by the P3 Canada Fund
8.4.7 Current and future projects
Figure 8.22 Future utility investment projects
8.5 Industrial water
Figure 8.23 Industrial water withdrawals
Figure 8.24 Industrial water market significance
8.5.1 Upstream oil & gas
8.5.2 Mining
8.6 Market participants
Figure 8.25 Major companies active in the water sector
8.7 Market forecast
8.7.1 Future market directions
8.7.2 Notes on market forecast
Figure 8.26 Market forecast, 2013–2020
Figure 8.27 Market forecast breakdown, 2016
Figure 8.28 Market forecast data, 2013–2020
8.8 Data Sources
Figure 8.29 Sources of data used in this report
9. CHILE
9.1 Top market opportunities
9.2 Sector structure and regulation
Figure 9.1 Water sector structure
Figure 9.2 Water sector funding organisations
Figure 9.3 Regulations applicable to the water sector
9.3 Water resources
Figure 9.4 Projected change in water stress by 2020
Figure 9.5 Water resources
Figure 9.6 Water withdrawals by sector, 2010–2030
9.3.1 Desalination
9.3.1.1 Municipal desalination
9.3.1.2 Industrial desalination
9.3.2 Water reuse
9.3.3 Water transfer
9.3.4 Groundwater protection
9.3.5 Reservoirs and storage
9.3.6 Demand management
9.4 Utility sector
9.4.1 Utility sector strategies and investment planning
9.4.1.1 Water service extension
9.4.1.2 Non-revenue water
9.4.1.3 Smart water
9.4.1.4 Wastewater networks
9.4.1.5 Wastewater treatment and polishing
9.4.2 Utility sector structure and performance
Figure 9.7 Utility market structure
Figure 9.8 Water and wastewater utilities serving greater than 300,000 people
Figure 9.9 Utility service performance
Figure 9.10 Water supply indicators
Figure 9.11 Wastewater service indicators
9.4.3 Utility infrastructure
Figure 9.12 Major water treatment plants
Figure 9.13 Wastewater treatment plants by level of treatment
Figure 9.14 Major wastewater treatment plants
Figure 9.15 Major desalination plants
9.4.4 Utility funding
Figure 9.16 Water and wastewater charges for a benchmark user in selected major cities, 2015
Figure 9.17 Sources of utility funding
Figure 9.18 Sources of debt used to fund utility investments
Figure 9.19 Overseas development assistance for the water and sanitation sector, 2008-2014
9.4.5 Utility procurement
Figure 9.20 Procurement models used
Figure 9.21 Criteria for comparing bids on construction contracts
9.4.6 Private sector participation
Figure 9.22 Models of private sector participation
9.4.7 Current and future projects
Figure 9.23 Future utility investment projects
9.5 Industrial water
Figure 9.24 Industrial water market significance
9.6 Market participants
Figure 9.25 Major companies active in the water sector
9.7 Market forecast
9.7.1 Future market directions
9.7.2 Notes on market forecast
Figure 9.26 Market forecast, 2013–2020
Figure 9.27 Market forecast breakdown, 2016
Figure 9.28 Market forecast data, 2013–2020
9.8 Data Sources
Figure 9.29 Sources of data used in this report
10. COLOMBIA
10.1 Top market opportunities
10.2 Sector structure and regulation
Figure 10.1 Water sector structure
Figure 10.2 Water sector funding organisations
Figure 10.3 Regulations applicable to the water sector
10.2.1 New wastewater discharge regulations through Resolution 631 of 2015
10.3 Water resources
Figure 10.4 Projected change in water stress by 2020
Figure 10.5 Water resources
Figure 10.6 Water withdrawals by sector, 2010–2030
10.3.1 Desalination
10.3.2 Water reuse
10.3.3 Water transfer
10.3.4 Groundwater protection
10.3.5 Reservoirs and storage
10.3.6 Demand management
10.4 Utility sector
10.4.1 Utility sector strategies and investment planning
10.4.1.1 Water service extension
10.4.1.2 Non-revenue water
10.4.1.3 Smart water
10.4.1.4 Wastewater networks and wastewater treatment
10.4.1.5 Wastewater polishing
10.4.2 Utility sector structure and performance
Figure 10.7 Utility market structure
Figure 10.8 Water and wastewater utilities serving greater than 300,000 people
Figure 10.9 Utility service performance
Figure 10.10 Water supply indicators
Figure 10.11 Wastewater service indicators
10.4.3 Utility infrastructure
Figure 10.12 Major water treatment plants
Figure 10.13 Wastewater treatment plants by level of treatment
Figure 10.14 Major wastewater treatment plants
Figure 10.15 Major desalination plants
10.4.4 Utility funding
Figure 10.16 Water and wastewater charges for a benchmark user in selected major cities, 2015
Figure 10.17 Sources of utility funding
Figure 10.18 Sources of debt used to fund utility investments
Figure 10.19 Overseas development assistance for the water and sanitation sector, 2008-2014
10.4.5 Utility procurement
Figure 10.20 Procurement models used
Figure 10.21 Criteria for comparing bids on construction contracts
10.4.6 Private sector participation
Figure 10.22 Models of private sector participation
10.4.7 Current and future projects
Figure 10.23 Future utility investment projects
10.5 Industrial water
Figure 10.24 Industrial water withdrawals
Figure 10.25 Market significance
10.5.1 Oil & gas opportunities
10.5.2 Other industries
10.6 Market participants
Figure 10.26 Major companies active in the water sector
10.7 Market forecast
10.7.1 Future market directions
10.7.2 Notes on market forecast
Figure 10.27 Market forecast, 2013–2020
Figure 10.28 Market forecast breakdown, 2016
Figure 10.29 Market forecast data, 2013–2020
11. COSTA RICA
11.1 Water availability and demand
Figure 11.1 Water resources
Figure 11.2 Sectoral water withdrawal
11.2 Utility sector
Figure 11.3 Utility service performance
Figure 11.4 Water and wastewater utilities serving greater than 300,000 people
11.2.1 Utility water
Figure 11.5 Water supply indicators
Figure 11.6 Number of people connected to water supply network
Figure 11.7 Percentage of people connected to water supply network
11.2.2 Utility wastewater
Figure 11.8 Wastewater indicators
Figure 11.9 Percentage of people connected to sewerage network
Figure 11.10 Wastewater treatment plants by level of treatment
11.2.3 Utility funding
Figure 11.11 Benchmark water and wastewater tariffs for selected major cities, 2015
Figure 11.12 Overseas development assistance for the water and sanitation sector, 2008–2014
11.3 Market forecast
Figure 11.13 Market forecast, 2013–2020
Figure 11.14 Market forecast breakdown, 2016
Figure 11.15 Market forecast data, 2013–2020
12. DOMINICAN REPUBLIC
12.1 Water availability and demand
Figure 12.1 Water resources
Figure 12.2 Sectoral water withdrawal
12.2 Utility sector
Figure 12.3 Utility service performance
Figure 12.4 Water and wastewater utilities serving greater than 300,000 people
12.2.1 Utility water
Figure 12.5 Water supply indicators
Figure 12.6 Number of water connections
Figure 12.7 Utility water supply capacity
Figure 12.8 Non-revenue water
12.2.2 Utility wastewater
Figure 12.9 Wastewater indicators
Figure 12.10 Volume of wastewater produced
Figure 12.11 Percentage of wastewater collected
Figure 12.12 Percentage of wastewater treated to secondary level
12.2.3 Utility funding
Figure 12.13 Benchmark water and wastewater tariffs for selected major cities, 2015
Figure 12.14 Overseas development assistance for the water and sanitation sector, 2008–2014
12.3 Market forecast
Figure 12.15 Market forecast, 2013–2020
Figure 12.16 Market forecast breakdown, 2016
Figure 12.17 Market forecast data, 2013–2020
13. ECUADOR
13.1 Water availability and demand
Figure 13.1 Water resources
Figure 13.2 Sectoral water withdrawal
13.2 Utility sector
Figure 13.3 Utility service performance
Figure 13.4 Water and wastewater utilities serving greater than 300,000 people
13.2.1 Utility water
Figure 13.5 Water supply indicators
13.2.2 Utility wastewater
Figure 13.6 Wastewater indicators
13.2.3 Utility funding
Figure 13.7 Benchmark water and wastewater tariffs for selected major cities, 2015
Figure 13.8 Overseas development assistance for the water and sanitation sector, 2008–2014
13.3 Current and future projects
Figure 13.9 Projects tracked by GWI
13.4 Market forecast
Figure 13.10 Market forecast, 2013–2020
Figure 13.11 Market forecast breakdown, 2016
Figure 13.12 Market forecast data, 2013–2020
14. EL SALVADOR
14.1 Water availability and demand
Figure 14.1 Water resources
Figure 14.2 Sectoral water withdrawal
14.2 Utility sector
Figure 14.3 Utility service performance
Figure 14.4 Water and wastewater utilities serving greater than 300,000 people
14.2.1 Utility water
Figure 14.5 Water supply indicators
Figure 14.6 Number of people connected to water supply network
Figure 14.7 Percentage of people connected to water supply network
Figure 14.8 Number of water connections
Figure 14.9 Utility water supply capacity
Figure 14.10 Meter coverage
Figure 14.11 Non-revenue water
14.2.2 Utility wastewater
Figure 14.12 Wastewater indicators
Figure 14.13 Number of people connected to sewerage network
Figure 14.14 Percentage of people connected to sewerage network
Figure 14.15 Number of sewerage connections
14.2.3 Utility funding
Figure 14.16 Benchmark water and wastewater tariffs for selected major cities, 2015
Figure 14.17 Overseas development assistance for the water and sanitation sector, 2008–2014
14.3 Market forecast
Figure 14.18 Market forecast, 2013–2020
Figure 14.19 Market forecast breakdown, 2016
Figure 14.20 Market forecast data, 2013–2020
15. GUATEMALA
15.1 Water availability and demand
Figure 15.1 Water resources
Figure 15.2 Sectoral water withdrawal
15.2 Utility sector
Figure 15.3 Utility service performance
15.2.1 Utility water
Figure 15.4 Water supply indicators
15.2.2 Utility wastewater
Figure 15.5 Wastewater indicators
15.2.3 Utility funding
Figure 15.6 Overseas development assistance for the water and sanitation sector, 2008–2014
15.3 Market forecast
Figure 15.7 Market forecast, 2013–2020
Figure 15.8 Market forecast breakdown, 2016
Figure 15.9 Market forecast data, 2013–2020
16. HONDURAS
16.1 Water availability and demand
Figure 16.1 Water resources
Figure 16.2 Sectoral water withdrawal
16.2 Utility sector
Figure 16.3 Utility service performance
Figure 16.4 Water and wastewater utilities serving greater than 300,000 people
16.2.1 Utility water
Figure 16.5 Water supply indicators
Figure 16.6 Number of people connected to water supply network
Figure 16.7 Percentage of people connected to water supply network
Figure 16.8 Number of water connections
Figure 16.9 Utility water supply capacity
16.2.2 Utility wastewater
Figure 16.10 Wastewater indicators
Figure 16.11 Number of people connected to sewerage network
Figure 16.12 Percentage of people connected to sewerage network
Figure 16.13 Number of sewerage connections
16.2.3 Utility funding
Figure 16.14 Benchmark water and wastewater tariffs for selected major cities, 2015
Figure 16.15 Overseas development assistance for the water and sanitation sector, 2008–2014
16.2.4 Private sector participation
Figure 16.16 Selected major projects involving private sector participation
16.3 Market forecast
Figure 16.17 Market forecast, 2013–2020
Figure 16.18 Market forecast breakdown, 2016
Figure 16.19 Market forecast data, 2013–2020
17. MEXICO
17.1 Top market opportunities
17.2 Sector structure and regulation
Figure 17.1 Water sector structure
Figure 17.2 Water sector funding organisations
Figure 17.3 Regulations applicable to the water sector
17.2.1 Enforcement of existing water regulations in industry
17.2.2 2012 Public-Private Partnership Law
17.2.3 New General Water Law
17.3 Water resources
Figure 17.4 Projected change in water stress by 2020
Figure 17.5 Water resources
Figure 17.6 Water withdrawals by sector, 2010–2030
17.3.1 Desalination
17.3.2 Water reuse
17.3.3 Water transfer
17.3.4 Groundwater protection
17.3.5 Reservoirs and storage
17.3.6 Demand management
17.4 Utility sector
17.4.1 Utility sector strategies and investment planning
17.4.1.1 Water service extension
17.4.1.2 Non-revenue water
17.4.1.3 Smart water
17.4.1.4 Wastewater treatment
17.4.1.5 Wastewater polishing
17.4.2 Utility sector structure and performance
Figure 17.7 Utility market structure
Figure 17.8 Water and wastewater utilities serving greater than 300,000 people
Figure 17.9 Utility service performance
Figure 17.10 Water supply indicators
Figure 17.11 Wastewater service indicators
17.4.3 Utility infrastructure
Figure 17.12 Major water treatment plants
Figure 17.13 Wastewater treatment plants by level of treatment
Figure 17.14 Major wastewater treatment plants
Figure 17.15 Major desalination plants
Figure 17.16 Major water reuse plants
17.4.4 Utility funding
Figure 17.17 Water and wastewater charges for a benchmark user in selected major cities, 2015
Figure 17.18 Sources of utility funding
Figure 17.19 Sources of debt used to fund utility investments
Figure 17.20 Overseas development assistance for the water and sanitation sector, 2008-2014
17.4.5 Utility procurement
Figure 17.21 Procurement models used
Figure 17.22 Criteria for comparing bids on construction contracts
17.4.6 Private sector participation
Figure 17.23 Models of private sector participation
Figure 17.24 Private sector participation models currently in play in Mexico’s water sector
17.4.7 Current and future projects
Figure 17.25 Future utility investment projects
17.5 Industrial water
Figure 17.26 Industrial water market significance
17.5.1 Oil & gas sector
17.5.1.1 Oil sector reform
17.5.1.2 Pemex/Global Water Development Partners joint venture
17.5.1.3 Upstream opportunities
17.5.1.4 Downstream opportunities
17.5.2 Other industries
17.5.2.1 Auto manufacturing
17.5.2.2 Food & beverage
17.5.2.3 Mining
17.6 Market participants
Figure 17.27 Major companies active in the water sector
17.7 Market forecast
17.7.1 Future market directions
17.7.2 Notes on market forecast
Figure 17.28 Market forecast, 2013–2020
Figure 17.29 Market forecast breakdown, 2016
Figure 17.30 Market forecast data, 2013–2020
18. PANAMA
18.1 Water availability and demand
Figure 18.1 Water resources
Figure 18.2 Sectoral water withdrawal
18.2 Utility sector
Figure 18.3 Utility service performance
Figure 18.4 Water and wastewater utilities serving greater than 300,000 people
18.2.1 Utility water
Figure 18.5 Water supply indicators
Figure 18.6 Number of people connected to water supply network
Figure 18.7 Percentage of people connected to water supply network
Figure 18.8 Number of water connections
Figure 18.9 Utility water supply capacity
Figure 18.10 Meter coverage
Figure 18.11 Non-revenue water
18.2.2 Utility wastewater
Figure 18.12 Wastewater indicators
Figure 18.13 Number of people connected to sewerage network
Figure 18.14 Percentage of people connected to sewerage network
Figure 18.15 Number of sewerage connections
18.2.3 Utility funding
Figure 18.16 Benchmark water and wastewater tariffs for selected major cities, 2015
Figure 18.17 Overseas development assistance for the water and sanitation sector, 2008–2014
18.2.4 Private sector participation
Figure 18.18 Selected major projects involving private sector participation
18.3 Current and future projects
Figure 18.19 Projects tracked by GWI
18.4 Market forecast
Figure 18.20 Market forecast, 2013–2020
Figure 18.21 Market forecast breakdown, 2016
Figure 18.22 Market forecast data, 2013–2020
19. PARAGUAY
19.1 Water availability and demand
Figure 19.1 Water resources
Figure 19.2 Sectoral water withdrawal
19.2 Utility sector
Figure 19.3 Utility service performance
Figure 19.4 Water and wastewater utilities serving greater than 300,000 people
19.2.1 Utility water
Figure 19.5 Water supply indicators
Figure 19.6 Number of people connected to water supply network
Figure 19.7 Percentage of people connected to water supply network
Figure 19.8 Number of water connections
19.2.2 Utility wastewater
Figure 19.9 Wastewater indicators
Figure 19.10 Number of people connected to sewerage network
Figure 19.11 Percentage of people connected to sewerage network
Figure 19.12 Number of sewerage connections
19.2.3 Utility funding
Figure 19.13 Benchmark water and wastewater tariffs for selected major cities, 2015
Figure 19.14 Overseas development assistance for the water and sanitation sector, 2008–2014
19.3 Current and future projects
Figure 19.15 Projects tracked by GWI
19.4 Market forecast
Figure 19.16 Market forecast, 2013–2020
Figure 19.17 Market forecast breakdown, 2016
Figure 19.18 Market forecast data, 2013–2020
20. PERU
20.1 Top market opportunities
20.2 Sector structure and regulation
Figure 20.1 Water sector structure
Figure 20.2 Water sector funding organisations
Figure 20.3 Regulations applicable to the water sector
20.3 Water resources
Figure 20.4 Projected change in water stress by 2020
Figure 20.5 Water resources
Figure 20.6 Water withdrawals by sector, 2010–2030
20.3.1 Desalination
20.3.2 Water reuse
20.3.3 Water transfer
20.3.4 Groundwater protection
20.3.5 Reservoirs and storage
20.3.6 Demand management
20.4 Utility sector
20.4.1 Utility sector strategies and investment planning
20.4.1.1 Water service extension
20.4.1.2 Wastewater treatment
20.4.1.3 Wastewater polishing
20.4.1.4 Asset management
20.4.1.5 Smart water
20.4.1.6 Non-revenue water
20.4.1.7 Wastewater networks
20.4.2 Utility sector structure and performance
Figure 20.7 Utility market structure
Figure 20.8 Water and wastewater utilities serving greater than 300,000 people
Figure 20.9 Utility service performance
Figure 20.10 Water supply indicators
Figure 20.11 Wastewater service indicators
20.4.3 Utility infrastructure
Figure 20.12 Major water treatment plants
Figure 20.13 Wastewater treatment plants by level of treatment
Figure 20.14 Major wastewater treatment plants
Figure 20.15 Major desalination plants
20.4.4 Utility funding
Figure 20.16 Water and wastewater charges for a benchmark user in selected major cities, 2015
Figure 20.17 Sources of utility funding
Figure 20.18 Sources of debt used to fund utility investments
Figure 20.19 Overseas development assistance for the water and sanitation sector, 2008-2014
20.4.5 Utility procurement
Figure 20.20 Procurement models used
Figure 20.21 Criteria for comparing bids on construction contracts
20.4.6 Private sector participation
Figure 20.22 Models of private sector participation
20.4.7 Current and future projects
Figure 20.23 Future utility investment projects
20.5 Industrial water
Figure 20.24 Industrial water market significance
20.6 Market participants
Figure 20.25 Major companies active in the water sector
20.7 Market forecast
20.7.1 Future market directions
20.7.2 Notes on market forecast
Figure 20.26 Market forecast, 2013–2020
Figure 20.27 Market forecast breakdown, 2016
Figure 20.28 Market forecast data, 2013–2020
21. TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO
21.1 Water availability and demand
Figure 21.1 Water resources
Figure 21.2 Sectoral water withdrawal
21.2 Utility sector
Figure 21.3 Utility service performance
21.2.1 Utility water
Figure 21.4 Water supply indicators
Figure 21.5 Number of people connected to water supply network
Figure 21.6 Percentage of people connected to water supply network
21.2.2 Utility wastewater
Figure 21.7 Wastewater indicators
21.2.3 Utility funding
Figure 21.8 Overseas development assistance for the water and sanitation sector, 2008–2014
21.3 Market forecast
Figure 21.9 Market forecast, 2013–2020
Figure 21.10 Market forecast breakdown, 2016
Figure 21.11 Market forecast data, 2013–2020
22. UNITED STATES
22.1 Top market opportunities
22.2 Sector structure and regulation
Figure 22.1 Water sector structure
Figure 22.2 Water sector funding organisations
Figure 22.3 Regulations applicable to the water sector
22.3 Water resources
Figure 22.4 Projected change in water stress by 2020
Figure 22.5 Water resources
Figure 22.6 Water withdrawals by sector, 2010–2030
22.3.1 Desalination
22.3.2 Water reuse
22.3.3 Water transfer
22.3.4 Groundwater protection
22.3.5 Reservoirs and storage
22.3.6 Demand management
22.4 Utility sector
22.4.1 Utility sector strategies and investment planning
22.4.1.1 Water networks
22.4.1.2 Wastewater infrastructure
22.4.1.3 Stormwater management
22.4.2 Utility sector structure and performance
Figure 22.7 Utility market structure
Figure 22.8 Water and wastewater utilities serving greater than 1 million people
Figure 22.9 Utility service performance
Figure 22.10 Water supply indicators
Figure 22.11 Wastewater service indicators
22.4.3 Utility infrastructure
Figure 22.12 Major water treatment plants
Figure 22.13 Wastewater treatment plants by level of treatment
Figure 22.14 Major wastewater treatment plants
Figure 22.15 Major desalination plants
Figure 22.16 Major water reuse plants
22.4.4 Utility funding
Figure 22.17 Water and wastewater charges for a benchmark user in selected major cities, 2015
Figure 22.18 Sources of utility funding
Figure 22.19 Sources of debt used to fund utility investments
Figure 22.20 Survey of public spending on construction put in place, 2005–2015
22.4.4.1 Federal/state funding
22.4.4.2 Bond issuance
22.4.4.3 Tariffs
22.4.4.4 Developer contributions
22.4.5 Utility procurement
Figure 22.21 Procurement models used
Figure 22.22 Criteria for comparing bids on construction contracts
22.4.6 Private sector participation
Figure 22.23 Models of private sector participation
22.4.6.1 Investor-owned utilities
22.4.6.2 Utility leases
22.4.6.3 Contract operations
22.4.6.4 Privately financed projects
22.4.7 Current and future projects
Figure 22.24 Future utility investment projects
22.5 Industrial water
Figure 22.25 Industrial water withdrawals
Figure 22.26 Industrial water market significance
22.5.1 Upstream oil & gas
22.5.2 Refining & petrochemicals
22.5.3 Power
22.5.4 Mining
22.6 Market participants
Figure 22.27 Major companies active in the water sector
22.7 Market forecast
22.7.1 Future market directions
22.7.2 Notes on market forecast
Figure 22.28 Market forecast, 2013–2020
Figure 22.29 Market forecast breakdown, 2016
Figure 22.30 Market forecast data, 2013–2020
22.8 Data Sources
Figure 22.31 Sources of data used in this report
23. URUGUAY
23.1 Water availability and demand
Figure 23.1 Water resources
Figure 23.2 Sectoral water withdrawal
23.2 Utility sector
Figure 23.3 Utility service performance
Figure 23.4 Water and wastewater utilities serving greater than 300,000 people
23.2.1 Utility water
Figure 23.5 Water supply indicators
23.2.2 Utility wastewater
Figure 23.6 Wastewater indicators
23.2.3 Utility funding
Figure 23.7 Benchmark water and wastewater tariffs for selected major cities, 2015
Figure 23.8 Overseas development assistance for the water and sanitation sector, 2008–2014
23.3 Market forecast
Figure 23.9 Market forecast, 2013–2020
Figure 23.10 Market forecast breakdown, 2016
Figure 23.11 Market forecast data, 2013–2020
24. VENEZUELA
24.1 Water availability and demand
Figure 24.1 Water resources
Figure 24.2 Sectoral water withdrawal
24.2 Utility sector
Figure 24.3 Utility service performance
Figure 24.4 Water and wastewater utilities serving greater than 300,000 people
24.2.1 Utility water
Figure 24.5 Water supply indicators
24.2.2 Utility wastewater
Figure 24.6 Wastewater indicators
24.2.3 Utility funding
Figure 24.7 Benchmark water and wastewater tariffs for selected major cities, 2015
Figure 24.8 Overseas development assistance for the water and sanitation sector, 2008–2014
24.2.4 Private sector participation
Figure 24.9 Selected major projects involving private sector participation
24.3 Market forecast
Figure 24.10 Market forecast, 2013–2020
Figure 24.11 Market forecast breakdown, 2016
Figure 24.12 Market forecast data, 2013–2020
VOLUME 3: EUROPE
25. AUSTRIA
26. AZERBAIJAN
27. BELARUS
28. BELGIUM
29. BULGARIA
30. CROATIA
31. CYPRUS
32. CZECH REPUBLIC
33. DENMARK
34. ESTONIA
35. FINLAND
36. FRANCE
37. GERMANY
38. GREECE
39. HUNGARY
40. IRELAND
41. ITALY
42. KAZAKHSTAN
43. LATVIA
44. LITHUANIA
45. LUXEMBOURG
46. NETHERLANDS
47. NORWAY
48. POLAND
49. PORTUGAL
50. ROMANIA
51. RUSSIAN FEDERATION
52. SERBIA
53. SLOVAKIA
54. SLOVENIA
55. SPAIN
56. SWEDEN
57. SWITZERLAND
58. UKRAINE
59. UNITED KINGDOM

VOLUME 4: MIDDLE EAST AND AFRICA
60. ALGERIA
61. ANGOLA
62. BAHRAIN
63. CAMEROON
64. CÔTE D’IVOIRE
65. EGYPT
66. ETHIOPIA
67. GHANA
68. IRAN
69. IRAQ
70. ISRAEL
71. JORDAN
72. KENYA
73. KUWAIT
74. LEBANON
75. MOROCCO
76. NAMIBIA
77. NIGERIA
78. OMAN
79. QATAR
80. RWANDA
81. SAUDI ARABIA
82. SOUTH AFRICA
83. TANZANIA
84. TUNISIA
85. TURKEY
86. UGANDA
87. UNITED ARAB EMIRATES

VOLUME 5: ASIA PACIFIC
88. AUSTRALIA
89. BANGLADESH
90. CHINA
91. HONG KONG
92. INDIA
93. INDONESIA
94. JAPAN
95. MALAYSIA
96. NEW ZEALAND
97. PAKISTAN
98. PHILIPPINES
99. SINGAPORE
100. SOUTH KOREA
101. SRI LANKA
102. TAIWAN
103. THAILAND
104. VIETNAM
INTERVIEWEES
REFERENCES
GLOBAL WATER MARKET

VOLUME 1: COMPANIES AND MARKETS
PUBLICATION INFORMATION II
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY VII
1. WATER MARKET OVERVIEW
2. WATER AND WASTEWATER TREATMENT
3. NETWORKS AND ENVIRONMENT
4. CHEMICALS & CONSUMABLES
VOLUME 2: THE AMERICAS
5. ARGENTINA
6. BOLIVIA
7. BRAZIL
8. CANADA
9. CHILE
10. COLOMBIA
11. COSTA RICA
12. DOMINICAN REPUBLIC
13. ECUADOR
14. EL SALVADOR
15. GUATEMALA
16. HONDURAS
17. MEXICO
18. PANAMA
19. PARAGUAY
20. PERU
21. TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO
22. UNITED STATES
23. URUGUAY
24. VENEZUELA

VOLUME 3: EUROPE
PUBLICATION INFORMATION II
Unit conversion factors used in this publication:
Exchange rates used in this publication:
Indicators of utility service coverage:
Indicators of water service coverage
Indicators of wastewater service coverage
Icons used in this publication:
Icons representing market sectors
Icons representing technology categories
Icons representing technology applications
Icons representing sector structure responsibilities
Icons representing the scope of private sector participation (PSP) projects
Icons representing significance/prevalence
25. AUSTRIA
25.1 Water availability and demand
Figure 25.1 Water resources
Figure 25.2 Sectoral water withdrawal
25.2 Utility sector
Figure 25.3 Utility service performance
Figure 25.4 Water and wastewater utilities serving greater than 300,000 people
25.2.1 Utility water
Figure 25.5 Water supply indicators
Figure 25.6 Number of people connected to water supply network
Figure 25.7 Percentage of people connected to water supply network
Figure 25.8 Number of water connections
Figure 25.9 Utility water supply capacity
Figure 25.10 Length of water distribution network
25.2.2 Utility wastewater
Figure 25.11 Wastewater indicators
Figure 25.12 Number of people connected to sewerage network
Figure 25.13 Percentage of people connected to sewerage network
Figure 25.14 Volume of wastewater produced
Figure 25.15 Wastewater treatment plants by level of treatment
25.2.3 Utility funding
Figure 25.16 Benchmark water and wastewater tariffs for selected major cities, 2015
25.2.4 Private sector participation
Figure 25.17 Selected major projects involving private sector participation
25.3 Market forecast
Figure 25.18 Market forecast, 2013–2020
Figure 25.19 Market forecast breakdown, 2016
Figure 25.20 Market forecast data, 2013–2020
26. AZERBAIJAN
26.1 Water availability and demand
Figure 26.1 Water resources
Figure 26.2 Sectoral water withdrawal
26.2 Utility sector
Figure 26.3 Utility service performance
Figure 26.4 Water and wastewater utilities serving greater than 300,000 people
26.2.1 Utility water
Figure 26.5 Water supply indicators
Figure 26.6 Percentage of people connected to water supply network
Figure 26.7 Utility water supply capacity
Figure 26.8 Non-revenue water
26.2.2 Utility wastewater
Figure 26.9 Wastewater indicators
Figure 26.10 Volume of wastewater produced
Figure 26.11 Percentage of wastewater collected
26.2.3 Utility funding
Figure 26.12 Benchmark water and wastewater tariffs for selected major cities, 2015
Figure 26.13 Overseas development assistance for the water and sanitation sector, 2008–2014
26.3 Market forecast
Figure 26.14 Market forecast, 2013–2020
Figure 26.15 Market forecast breakdown, 2016
Figure 26.16 Market forecast data, 2013–2020
27. BELARUS
27.1 Water availability and demand
Figure 27.1 Water resources
Figure 27.2 Sectoral water withdrawal
27.2 Utility sector
Figure 27.3 Utility service performance
Figure 27.4 Water and wastewater utilities serving greater than 300,000 people
27.2.1 Utility water
Figure 27.5 Water supply indicators
Figure 27.6 Number of people connected to water supply network
Figure 27.7 Percentage of people connected to water supply network
Figure 27.8 Utility water supply capacity
Figure 27.9 Non-revenue water
27.2.2 Utility wastewater
Figure 27.10 Wastewater indicators
Figure 27.11 Number of people connected to sewerage network
Figure 27.12 Percentage of people connected to sewerage network
Figure 27.13 Volume of wastewater produced
Figure 27.14 Percentage of wastewater treated to secondary level
27.2.3 Utility funding
Figure 27.15 Benchmark water and wastewater tariffs for selected major cities, 2015
Figure 27.16 Overseas development assistance for the water and sanitation sector, 2008–2014
27.3 Market forecast
Figure 27.17 Market forecast, 2013–2020
Figure 27.18 Market forecast breakdown, 2016
Figure 27.19 Market forecast data, 2013–2020
28. BELGIUM
28.1 Water availability and demand
Figure 28.1 Water resources
Figure 28.2 Sectoral water withdrawal
28.2 Utility sector
Figure 28.3 Utility service performance
Figure 28.4 Water and wastewater utilities serving greater than 300,000 people
28.2.1 Utility water
Figure 28.5 Water supply indicators
Figure 28.6 Number of people connected to water supply network
Figure 28.7 Percentage of people connected to water supply network
Figure 28.8 Number of water connections
Figure 28.9 Utility water supply capacity
Figure 28.10 Non-revenue water
Figure 28.11 Length of water distribution network
28.2.2 Utility wastewater
Figure 28.12 Wastewater indicators
Figure 28.13 Wastewater treatment plants by level of treatment
28.2.3 Utility funding
Figure 28.14 Benchmark water and wastewater tariffs for selected major cities, 2015
28.2.4 Private sector participation
Figure 28.15 Selected major projects involving private sector participation
28.3 Market forecast
Figure 28.16 Market forecast, 2013–2020
Figure 28.17 Market forecast breakdown, 2016
Figure 28.18 Market forecast data, 2013–2020
29. BULGARIA
29.1 Water availability and demand
Figure 29.1 Water resources
Figure 29.2 Sectoral water withdrawal
29.2 Utility sector
Figure 29.3 Utility service performance
Figure 29.4 Water and wastewater utilities serving greater than 300,000 people
29.2.1 Utility water
Figure 29.5 Water supply indicators
Figure 29.6 Number of people connected to water supply network
Figure 29.7 Percentage of people connected to water supply network
Figure 29.8 Utility water supply capacity
Figure 29.9 Non-revenue water
Figure 29.10 Length of water distribution network
29.2.2 Utility wastewater
Figure 29.11 Wastewater indicators
Figure 29.12 Number of people connected to sewerage network
Figure 29.13 Percentage of people connected to sewerage network
Figure 29.14 Volume of wastewater produced
Figure 29.15 Percentage of wastewater collected
Figure 29.16 Percentage of wastewater treated to secondary level
Figure 29.17 Percentage of wastewater treated to tertiary level
Figure 29.18 Length of sewerage network
Figure 29.19 Wastewater treatment plants by level of treatment
29.2.3 Utility funding
Figure 29.20 Benchmark water and wastewater tariffs for selected major cities, 2015
29.2.4 Private sector participation
Figure 29.21 Selected major projects involving private sector participation
29.3 Market forecast
Figure 29.22 Market forecast, 2013–2020
Figure 29.23 Market forecast breakdown, 2016
Figure 29.24 Market forecast data, 2013–2020
30. CROATIA
30.1 Water availability and demand
Figure 30.1 Water resources
Figure 30.2 Sectoral water withdrawal
30.2 Utility sector
Figure 30.3 Utility service performance
Figure 30.4 Water and wastewater utilities serving greater than 300,000 people
30.2.1 Utility water
Figure 30.5 Water supply indicators
Figure 30.6 Percentage of people connected to water supply network
Figure 30.7 Number of water connections
Figure 30.8 Utility water supply capacity
Figure 30.9 Non-revenue water
Figure 30.10 Length of water distribution network
30.2.2 Utility wastewater
Figure 30.11 Wastewater indicators
Figure 30.12 Number of sewerage connections
Figure 30.13 Percentage of wastewater collected
Figure 30.14 Percentage of wastewater treated to secondary level
Figure 30.15 Percentage of wastewater treated to tertiary level
Figure 30.16 Length of sewerage network
Figure 30.17 Wastewater treatment plants by level of treatment
30.2.3 Utility funding
Figure 30.18 Benchmark water and wastewater tariffs for selected major cities, 2015
Figure 30.19 Overseas development assistance for the water and sanitation sector, 2008–2014
30.2.4 Private sector participation
Figure 30.20 Selected major projects involving private sector participation
30.3 Market forecast
Figure 30.21 Market forecast, 2013–2020
Figure 30.22 Market forecast breakdown, 2016
Figure 30.23 Market forecast data, 2013–2020
31. CYPRUS
31.1 Water availability and demand
Figure 31.1 Water resources
Figure 31.2 Sectoral water withdrawal
31.2 Utility sector
Figure 31.3 Utility service performance
Figure 31.4 Water and wastewater utilities serving greater than 300,000 people
31.2.1 Utility water
Figure 31.5 Water supply indicators
Figure 31.6 Utility water supply capacity
31.2.2 Utility wastewater
Figure 31.7 Wastewater indicators
Figure 31.8 Wastewater treatment plants by level of treatment
31.2.3 Private sector participation
Figure 31.9 Selected major projects involving private sector participation
31.3 Current and future projects
Figure 31.10 Projects tracked by GWI
31.4 Market forecast
Figure 31.11 Market forecast, 2013–2020
Figure 31.12 Market forecast breakdown, 2016
Figure 31.13 Market forecast data, 2013–2020
32. CZECH REPUBLIC
32.1 Water availability and demand
Figure 32.1 Water resources
Figure 32.2 Sectoral water withdrawal
32.2 Utility sector
Figure 32.3 Utility service performance
Figure 32.4 Water and wastewater utilities serving greater than 300,000 people
32.2.1 Utility water
Figure 32.5 Water supply indicators
Figure 32.6 Number of people connected to water supply network
Figure 32.7 Percentage of people connected to water supply network
Figure 32.8 Number of water connections
Figure 32.9 Utility water supply capacity
Figure 32.10 Meter coverage
Figure 32.11 Non-revenue water
Figure 32.12 Length of water distribution network
32.2.2 Utility wastewater
Figure 32.13 Wastewater indicators
Figure 32.14 Number of people connected to sewerage network
Figure 32.15 Percentage of people connected to sewerage network
Figure 32.16 Volume of wastewater produced
Figure 32.17 Percentage of wastewater collected
Figure 32.18 Length of sewerage network
Figure 32.19 Wastewater treatment plants by level of treatment
32.2.3 Utility funding
Figure 32.20 Benchmark water and wastewater tariffs for selected major cities, 2015
32.2.4 Private sector participation
Figure 32.21 Selected major projects involving private sector participation
32.3 Market forecast
Figure 32.22 Market forecast, 2013–2020
Figure 32.23 Market forecast breakdown, 2016
Figure 32.24 Market forecast data, 2013–2020
33. DENMARK
33.1 Water availability and demand
Figure 33.1 Water resources
Figure 33.2 Sectoral water withdrawal
33.2 Utility sector
Figure 33.3 Utility service performance
Figure 33.4 Water and wastewater utilities serving greater than 300,000 people
33.2.1 Utility water
Figure 33.5 Water supply indicators
Figure 33.6 Number of people connected to water supply network
Figure 33.7 Utility water supply capacity
Figure 33.8 Length of water distribution network
33.2.2 Utility wastewater
Figure 33.9 Wastewater indicators
Figure 33.10 Number of people connected to sewerage network
Figure 33.11 Percentage of people connected to sewerage network
Figure 33.12 Volume of wastewater produced
Figure 33.13 Length of sewerage network
Figure 33.14 Wastewater treatment plants by level of treatment
33.2.3 Utility funding
Figure 33.15 Benchmark water and wastewater tariffs for selected major cities, 2015
33.3 Current and future projects
Figure 33.16 Projects tracked by GWI
33.4 Market forecast
Figure 33.17 Market forecast, 2013–2020
Figure 33.18 Market forecast breakdown, 2016
Figure 33.19 Market forecast data, 2013–2020
34. ESTONIA
34.1 Water availability and demand
Figure 34.1 Water resources
Figure 34.2 Sectoral water withdrawal
34.2 Utility sector
Figure 34.3 Utility service performance
Figure 34.4 Water and wastewater utilities serving greater than 300,000 people
34.2.1 Utility water
Figure 34.5 Water supply indicators
Figure 34.6 Number of people connected to water supply network
Figure 34.7 Percentage of people connected to water supply network
Figure 34.8 Utility water supply capacity
34.2.2 Utility wastewater
Figure 34.9 Wastewater indicators
Figure 34.10 Number of people connected to sewerage network
Figure 34.11 Percentage of people connected to sewerage network
Figure 34.12 Volume of wastewater produced
Figure 34.13 Percentage of wastewater treated to secondary level
Figure 34.14 Percentage of wastewater treated to tertiary level
34.2.3 Utility funding
Figure 34.15 Benchmark water and wastewater tariffs for selected major cities, 2015
34.3 Market forecast
Figure 34.16 Market forecast, 2013–2020
Figure 34.17 Market forecast breakdown, 2016
Figure 34.18 Market forecast data, 2013–2020
35. FINLAND
35.1 Water availability and demand
Figure 35.1 Water resources
Figure 35.2 Sectoral water withdrawal
35.2 Utility sector
Figure 35.3 Utility service performance
Figure 35.4 Water and wastewater utilities serving greater than 300,000 people
35.2.1 Utility water
Figure 35.5 Water supply indicators
Figure 35.6 Number of people connected to water supply network
Figure 35.7 Percentage of people connected to water supply network
35.2.2 Utility wastewater
Figure 35.8 Wastewater indicators
Figure 35.9 Number of people connected to sewerage network
Figure 35.10 Percentage of people connected to sewerage network
Figure 35.11 Wastewater treatment plants by level of treatment
35.2.3 Utility funding
Figure 35.12 Benchmark water and wastewater tariffs for selected major cities, 2015
35.3 Market forecast
Figure 35.13 Market forecast, 2013–2020
Figure 35.14 Market forecast breakdown, 2016
Figure 35.15 Market forecast data, 2013–2020
36. FRANCE
36.1 Top market opportunities
36.2 Sector structure and regulation
Figure 36.1 Water sector structure
Figure 36.2 Water sector funding organisations
Figure 36.3 Regulations applicable to the water sector
36.2.1 Water market consolidation at local level
36.2.2 Reducing specific pollution of water bodies
36.3 Water resources
Figure 36.4 Projected change in water stress by 2020
Figure 36.5 Water resources
Figure 36.6 Water withdrawals by sector, 2010–2030
36.3.1 Desalination
36.3.2 Water reuse
36.3.3 Reservoirs and storage
36.3.4 Demand management
36.4 Utility sector
36.4.1 Utility sector strategies and investment planning
36.4.1.1 Wastewater treatment
36.4.1.2 Wastewater polishing
36.4.1.3 Asset management and non-revenue water
36.4.1.4 Smart water
36.4.2 Utility sector structure and performance
Figure 36.7 Utility market structure
Figure 36.8 Water and wastewater utilities serving greater than 300,000 people
Figure 36.9 Utility service performance
Figure 36.10 Water supply indicators
Figure 36.11 Wastewater service indicators
36.4.3 Utility infrastructure
Figure 36.12 Major water treatment plants
Figure 36.13 Major wastewater treatment plants
36.4.4 Utility funding
Figure 36.14 Water and wastewater charges for a benchmark user in selected major cities, 2015
Figure 36.15 Sources of utility funding
Figure 36.16 Sources of debt used to fund utility investments
36.4.5 Utility procurement
Figure 36.17 Procurement models used
Figure 36.18 Criteria for comparing bids on construction contracts
36.4.6 Private sector participation
Figure 36.19 Models of private sector participation
36.4.7 Current and future projects
Figure 36.20 Future utility investment projects
36.5 Industrial water
Figure 36.21 Industrial water market significance
36.6 Market participants
Figure 36.22 Major companies active in the water sector
36.7 Market forecast
36.7.1 Future market directions
36.7.2 Notes on market forecast
Figure 36.23 Market forecast, 2013–2020
Figure 36.24 Market forecast breakdown, 2016
Figure 36.25 Market forecast data, 2013–2020
36.8 Data Sources
Figure 36.26 Sources of data used in this report
37. GERMANY
37.1 Top market opportunities
37.2 Sector structure and regulation
Figure 37.1 Water sector structure
Figure 37.2 Water sector funding organisations
Figure 37.3 Regulations applicable to the water sector
37.3 Water resources
Figure 37.4 Projected change in water stress by 2020
Figure 37.5 Water resources
Figure 37.6 Water withdrawals by sector, 2010–2030
37.3.1 Desalination
37.3.2 Water reuse
37.3.3 Groundwater protection
37.3.4 Demand management
37.4 Utility sector
37.4.1 Utility sector strategies and investment planning
37.4.1.1 Sludge treatment
37.4.1.2 Wastewater treatment and polishing
37.4.1.3 Asset management
37.4.2 Utility sector structure and performance
Figure 37.7 Utility market structure
Figure 37.8 Water and wastewater utilities serving greater than 300,000 people
Figure 37.9 Utility service performance
Figure 37.10 Water supply indicators
Figure 37.11 Wastewater service indicators
37.4.3 Utility infrastructure
Figure 37.12 Major water treatment plants
Figure 37.13 Wastewater treatment plants by level of treatment
Figure 37.14 Major wastewater treatment plants
37.4.4 Utility funding
Figure 37.15 Water and wastewater charges for a benchmark user in selected major cities, 2015
Figure 37.16 Sources of utility funding
Figure 37.17 Sources of debt used to fund utility investments
37.4.4.1 Tariffs
37.4.4.2 Subsidies at state level
37.4.4.3 Debt financing
37.4.5 Utility procurement
Figure 37.18 Procurement models used
Figure 37.19 Criteria for comparing bids on construction contracts
37.4.6 Private sector participation
Figure 37.20 Models of private sector participation
37.5 Industrial water
Figure 37.21 Industrial water withdrawals
Figure 37.22 Industrial water market significance
37.6 Market participants
Figure 37.23 Major companies active in the water sector
37.7 Market forecast
37.7.1 Future market directions
37.7.2 Notes on market forecast
Figure 37.24 Market forecast, 2013–2020
Figure 37.25 Market forecast breakdown, 2016
Figure 37.26 Market forecast data, 2013–2020
37.8 Data Sources
Figure 37.27 Sources of data used in this report
38. GREECE
38.1 Water availability and demand
Figure 38.1 Water resources
Figure 38.2 Sectoral water withdrawal
38.2 Utility sector
Figure 38.3 Utility service performance
Figure 38.4 Water and wastewater utilities serving greater than 300,000 people
38.2.1 Utility water
Figure 38.5 Water supply indicators
38.2.2 Utility wastewater
Figure 38.6 Wastewater indicators
Figure 38.7 Number of people connected to sewerage network
Figure 38.8 Percentage of people connected to sewerage network
Figure 38.9 Volume of wastewater produced
Figure 38.10 Wastewater treatment plants by level of treatment
38.2.3 Utility funding
Figure 38.11 Benchmark water and wastewater tariffs for selected major cities, 2015
38.2.4 Private sector participation
Figure 38.12 Selected major projects involving private sector participation
38.3 Current and future projects
Figure 38.13 Projects tracked by GWI
38.4 Market forecast
Figure 38.14 Market forecast, 2013–2020
Figure 38.15 Market forecast breakdown, 2016
Figure 38.16 Market forecast data, 2013–2020
39. HUNGARY
39.1 Water availability and demand
Figure 39.1 Water resources
Figure 39.2 Sectoral water withdrawal
39.2 Utility sector
Figure 39.3 Utility service performance
Figure 39.4 Water and wastewater utilities serving greater than 300,000 people
39.2.1 Utility water
Figure 39.5 Water supply indicators
Figure 39.6 Number of people connected to water supply network
Figure 39.7 Percentage of people connected to water supply network
Figure 39.8 Number of water connections
Figure 39.9 Utility water supply capacity
Figure 39.10 Length of water distribution network
39.2.2 Utility wastewater
Figure 39.11 Wastewater indicators
Figure 39.12 Number of people connected to sewerage network
Figure 39.13 Percentage of people connected to sewerage network
Figure 39.14 Number of sewerage connections
Figure 39.15 Volume of wastewater produced
Figure 39.16 Percentage of wastewater collected
Figure 39.17 Percentage of wastewater treated to secondary level
Figure 39.18 Percentage of wastewater treated to tertiary level
Figure 39.19 Length of sewerage network
Figure 39.20 Wastewater treatment plants by level of treatment
39.2.3 Utility funding
Figure 39.21 Benchmark water and wastewater tariffs for selected major cities, 2015
39.2.4 Private sector participation
Figure 39.22 Selected major projects involving private sector participation
39.3 Market forecast
Figure 39.23 Market forecast, 2013–2020
Figure 39.24 Market forecast breakdown, 2016
Figure 39.25 Market forecast data, 2013–2020
40. IRELAND
40.1 Water availability and demand
Figure 40.1 Water resources
Figure 40.2 Sectoral water withdrawal
40.2 Utility sector
Figure 40.3 Utility service performance
Figure 40.4 Water and wastewater utilities serving greater than 300,000 people
40.2.1 Utility water
Figure 40.5 Water supply indicators
Figure 40.6 Percentage of people connected to water supply network
Figure 40.7 Utility water supply capacity
40.2.2 Utility wastewater
Figure 40.8 Wastewater indicators
Figure 40.9 Volume of wastewater produced
Figure 40.10 Percentage of wastewater collected
Figure 40.11 Percentage of wastewater treated to secondary level
Figure 40.12 Percentage of wastewater treated to tertiary level
Figure 40.13 Wastewater treatment plants by level of treatment
40.2.3 Utility funding
Figure 40.14 Benchmark water and wastewater tariffs for selected major cities, 2015
40.2.4 Private sector participation
Figure 40.15 Selected major projects involving private sector participation
40.3 Current and future projects
Figure 40.16 Projects tracked by GWI
40.4 Market forecast
Figure 40.17 Market forecast, 2013–2020
Figure 40.18 Market forecast breakdown, 2016
Figure 40.19 Market forecast data, 2013–2020
41. ITALY
41.1 Top market opportunities
41.2 Sector structure and regulation
Figure 41.1 Water sector structure
Figure 41.2 Water sector funding organisations
Figure 41.3 Regulations applicable to the water sector
41.3 Water resources
Figure 41.4 Projected change in water stress by 2020
Figure 41.5 Water resources
Figure 41.6 Water withdrawals by sector, 2010–2030
41.3.1 Desalination
41.3.2 Water reuse
41.3.3 Groundwater protection
41.3.4 Reservoirs and storage
41.3.5 Demand management
41.4 Utility sector
41.4.1 Utility sector strategies and investment planning
41.4.1.1 Water service extension
41.4.1.2 Asset management
41.4.1.3 Non-revenue water
41.4.1.4 Smart water
41.4.1.5 Wastewater networks
41.4.1.6 Wastewater treatment
41.4.1.7 Wastewater polishing
41.4.2 Utility sector structure and performance
Figure 41.7 Utility market structure
Figure 41.8 Water and wastewater utilities serving greater than 300,000 people
Figure 41.9 Utility service performance
Figure 41.10 Water supply indicators
Figure 41.11 Wastewater service indicators
41.4.3 Utility infrastructure
Figure 41.12 Major water treatment plants
Figure 41.13 Wastewater treatment plants by level of treatment
Figure 41.14 Major wastewater treatment plants
Figure 41.15 Major desalination plants
Figure 41.16 Major water reuse plants
41.4.4 Utility funding
Figure 41.17 Water and wastewater charges for a benchmark user in selected major cities, 2015
Figure 41.18 Sources of utility funding
Figure 41.19 Sources of debt used to fund utility investments
41.4.5 Utility procurement
Figure 41.20 Procurement models used
Figure 41.21 Criteria for comparing bids on construction contracts
41.4.6 Private sector participation
Figure 41.22 Models of private sector participation
41.4.7 Current and future projects
Figure 41.23 Future utility investment projects
41.5 Industrial water
Figure 41.24 Industrial water market significance
Figure 41.25 Industrial production by industrial sector, 2011
41.6 Market participants
Figure 41.26 Major companies active in the water sector
41.7 Market forecast
41.7.1 Future market directions
41.7.2 Notes on market forecast
Figure 41.27 Market forecast, 2013–2020
Figure 41.28 Market forecast breakdown, 2016
Figure 41.29 Market forecast data, 2013–2020
41.8 Data Sources
Figure 41.30 Sources of data used in this report
42. KAZAKHSTAN
42.1 Water availability and demand
Figure 42.1 Water resources
Figure 42.2 Sectoral water withdrawal
42.2 Utility sector
Figure 42.3 Utility service performance
Figure 42.4 Water and wastewater utilities serving greater than 300,000 people
42.2.1 Utility water
Figure 42.5 Water supply indicators
Figure 42.6 Number of people connected to water supply network
Figure 42.7 Percentage of people connected to water supply network
Figure 42.8 Utility water supply capacity
Figure 42.9 Non-revenue water
Figure 42.10 Length of water distribution network
42.2.2 Utility wastewater
Figure 42.11 Wastewater indicators
Figure 42.12 Number of people connected to sewerage network
Figure 42.13 Percentage of people connected to sewerage network
Figure 42.14 Volume of wastewater produced
Figure 42.15 Percentage of wastewater collected
Figure 42.16 Length of sewerage network
42.2.3 Utility funding
Figure 42.17 Benchmark water and wastewater tariffs for selected major cities, 2015
Figure 42.18 Overseas development assistance for the water and sanitation sector, 2008–2014
42.3 Current and future projects
Figure 42.19 Projects tracked by GWI
42.4 Market forecast
Figure 42.20 Market forecast, 2013–2020
Figure 42.21 Market forecast breakdown, 2016
Figure 42.22 Market forecast data, 2013–2020
43. LATVIA
43.1 Water availability and demand
Figure 43.1 Water resources
Figure 43.2 Sectoral water withdrawal
43.2 Utility sector
Figure 43.3 Utility service performance
Figure 43.4 Water and wastewater utilities serving greater than 300,000 people
43.2.1 Utility water
Figure 43.5 Water supply indicators
Figure 43.6 Number of people connected to water supply network
Figure 43.7 Percentage of people connected to water supply network
43.2.2 Utility wastewater
Figure 43.8 Wastewater indicators
Figure 43.9 Number of people connected to sewerage network
Figure 43.10 Percentage of people connected to sewerage network
Figure 43.11 Wastewater treatment plants by level of treatment
43.2.3 Utility funding
Figure 43.12 Benchmark water and wastewater tariffs for selected major cities, 2015
43.3 Market forecast
Figure 43.13 Market forecast, 2013–2020
Figure 43.14 Market forecast breakdown, 2016
Figure 43.15 Market forecast data, 2013–2020
44. LITHUANIA
44.1 Water availability and demand
Figure 44.1 Water resources
Figure 44.2 Sectoral water withdrawal
44.2 Utility sector
Figure 44.3 Utility service performance
Figure 44.4 Water and wastewater utilities serving greater than 300,000 people
44.2.1 Utility water
Figure 44.5 Water supply indicators
Figure 44.6 Utility water supply capacity
44.2.2 Utility wastewater
Figure 44.7 Wastewater indicators
Figure 44.8 Wastewater treatment plants by level of treatment
44.2.3 Utility funding
Figure 44.9 Benchmark water and wastewater tariffs for selected major cities, 2015
44.3 Market forecast
Figure 44.10 Market forecast, 2013–2020
Figure 44.11 Market forecast breakdown, 2016
Figure 44.12 Market forecast data, 2013–2020
45. LUXEMBOURG
45.1 Water availability and demand
Figure 45.1 Water resources
Figure 45.2 Sectoral water withdrawal
45.2 Utility sector
Figure 45.3 Utility service performance
Figure 45.4 Water and wastewater utilities serving greater than 300,000 people
45.2.1 Utility water
Figure 45.5 Water supply indicators
Figure 45.6 Number of people connected to water supply network
Figure 45.7 Percentage of people connected to water supply network
Figure 45.8 Utility water supply capacity
45.2.2 Utility wastewater
Figure 45.9 Wastewater indicators
Figure 45.10 Percentage of people connected to sewerage network
Figure 45.11 Percentage of wastewater treated to secondary level
Figure 45.12 Wastewater treatment plants by level of treatment
45.2.3 Utility funding
Figure 45.13 Benchmark water and wastewater tariffs for selected major cities, 2015
45.3 Market forecast
Figure 45.14 Market forecast, 2013–2020
Figure 45.15 Market forecast breakdown, 2016
Figure 45.16 Market forecast data, 2013–2020
46. NETHERLANDS
46.1 Water availability and demand
Figure 46.1 Water resources
Figure 46.2 Sectoral water withdrawal
46.2 Utility sector
Figure 46.3 Utility service performance
Figure 46.4 Water and wastewater utilities serving greater than 300,000 people
46.2.1 Utility water
Figure 46.5 Water supply indicators
Figure 46.6 Number of people connected to water supply network
Figure 46.7 Number of water connections
Figure 46.8 Utility water supply capacity
Figure 46.9 Non-revenue water
Figure 46.10 Length of water distribution network
46.2.2 Utility wastewater
Figure 46.11 Wastewater indicators
Figure 46.12 Number of people connected to sewerage network
Figure 46.13 Percentage of people connected to sewerage network
Figure 46.14 Volume of wastewater produced
Figure 46.15 Percentage of wastewater treated to secondary level
Figure 46.16 Percentage of wastewater treated to tertiary level
Figure 46.17 Length of sewerage network
Figure 46.18 Wastewater treatment plants by level of treatment
46.2.3 Utility funding
Figure 46.19 Benchmark water and wastewater tariffs for selected major cities, 2015
46.2.4 Private sector participation
Figure 46.20 Selected major projects involving private sector participation
46.3 Market forecast
Figure 46.21 Market forecast, 2013–2020
Figure 46.22 Market forecast breakdown, 2016
Figure 46.23 Market forecast data, 2013–2020
47. NORWAY
47.1 Water availability and demand
Figure 47.1 Water resources
Figure 47.2 Sectoral water withdrawal
47.2 Utility sector
Figure 47.3 Utility service performance
Figure 47.4 Water and wastewater utilities serving greater than 300,000 people
47.2.1 Utility water
Figure 47.5 Water supply indicators
Figure 47.6 Number of people connected to water supply network
Figure 47.7 Percentage of people connected to water supply network
Figure 47.8 Utility water supply capacity
Figure 47.9 Meter coverage
Figure 47.10 Non-revenue water
Figure 47.11 Length of water distribution network
47.2.2 Utility wastewater
Figure 47.12 Wastewater indicators
Figure 47.13 Number of people connected to sewerage network
Figure 47.14 Percentage of people connected to sewerage network
Figure 47.15 Volume of wastewater produced
Figure 47.16 Percentage of wastewater collected
Figure 47.17 Length of sewerage network
Figure 47.18 Wastewater treatment plants by level of treatment
47.2.3 Utility funding
Figure 47.19 Benchmark water and wastewater tariffs for selected major cities, 2015
47.2.4 Private sector participation
Figure 47.20 Selected major projects involving private sector participation
47.3 Market forecast
Figure 47.21 Market forecast, 2013–2020
Figure 47.22 Market forecast breakdown, 2016
Figure 47.23 Market forecast data, 2013–2020
48. POLAND
48.1 Water availability and demand
Figure 48.1 Water resources
Figure 48.2 Sectoral water withdrawal
48.2 Utility sector
Figure 48.3 Utility service performance
Figure 48.4 Water and wastewater utilities serving greater than 300,000 people
48.2.1 Utility water
Figure 48.5 Water supply indicators
Figure 48.6 Number of people connected to water supply network
Figure 48.7 Percentage of people connected to water supply network
Figure 48.8 Number of water connections
Figure 48.9 Utility water supply capacity
Figure 48.10 Non-revenue water
Figure 48.11 Length of water distribution network
48.2.2 Utility wastewater
Figure 48.12 Wastewater indicators
Figure 48.13 Number of people connected to sewerage network
Figure 48.14 Percentage of people connected to sewerage network
Figure 48.15 Number of sewerage connections
Figure 48.16 Volume of wastewater produced
Figure 48.17 Percentage of wastewater collected
Figure 48.18 Length of sewerage network
Figure 48.19 Wastewater treatment plants by level of treatment
48.2.3 Utility funding
Figure 48.20 Benchmark water and wastewater tariffs for selected major cities, 2015
48.2.4 Private sector participation
Figure 48.21 Selected major projects involving private sector participation
48.3 Current and future projects
Figure 48.22 Projects tracked by GWI
48.4 Market forecast
Figure 48.23 Market forecast, 2013–2020
Figure 48.24 Market forecast breakdown, 2016
Figure 48.25 Market forecast data, 2013–2020
49. PORTUGAL
49.1 Water availability and demand
Figure 49.1 Water resources
Figure 49.2 Sectoral water withdrawal
49.2 Utility sector
Figure 49.3 Utility service performance
Figure 49.4 Water and wastewater utilities serving greater than 300,000 people
49.2.1 Utility water
Figure 49.5 Water supply indicators
Figure 49.6 Number of people connected to water supply network
Figure 49.7 Percentage of people connected to water supply network
Figure 49.8 Utility water supply capacity
Figure 49.9 Length of water distribution network
49.2.2 Utility wastewater
Figure 49.10 Wastewater indicators
Figure 49.11 Number of people connected to sewerage network
Figure 49.12 Percentage of people connected to sewerage network
Figure 49.13 Volume of wastewater produced
Figure 49.14 Length of sewerage network
Figure 49.15 Wastewater treatment plants by level of treatment
49.2.3 Utility funding
Figure 49.16 Benchmark water and wastewater tariffs for selected major cities, 2015
49.2.4 Private sector participation
Figure 49.17 Selected major projects involving private sector participation
49.3 Market forecast
Figure 49.18 Market forecast, 2013–2020
Figure 49.19 Market forecast breakdown, 2016
Figure 49.20 Market forecast data, 2013–2020
50. ROMANIA
50.1 Water availability and demand
Figure 50.1 Water resources
Figure 50.2 Sectoral water withdrawal
50.2 Utility sector
Figure 50.3 Utility service performance
Figure 50.4 Water and wastewater utilities serving greater than 300,000 people
50.2.1 Utility water
Figure 50.5 Water supply indicators
Figure 50.6 Number of people connected to water supply network
Figure 50.7 Percentage of people connected to water supply network
Figure 50.8 Utility water supply capacity
Figure 50.9 Meter coverage
Figure 50.10 Length of water distribution network
50.2.2 Utility wastewater
Figure 50.11 Wastewater indicators
Figure 50.12 Number of people connected to sewerage network
Figure 50.13 Percentage of people connected to sewerage network
Figure 50.14 Volume of wastewater produced
Figure 50.15 Percentage of wastewater collected
Figure 50.16 Length of sewerage network
Figure 50.17 Wastewater treatment plants by level of treatment
50.2.3 Utility funding
Figure 50.18 Benchmark water and wastewater tariffs for selected major cities, 2015
50.2.4 Private sector participation
Figure 50.19 Selected major projects involving private sector participation
50.3 Market forecast
Figure 50.20 Market forecast, 2013–2020
Figure 50.21 Market forecast breakdown, 2016
Figure 50.22 Market forecast data, 2013–2020
51. RUSSIAN FEDERATION
51.1 Top market opportunities
51.2 Sector structure and regulation
Figure 51.1 Water sector structure
Figure 51.2 Water sector funding organisations
Figure 51.3 Regulations applicable to the water sector
51.2.1 Recent policy/regulatory initiatives
51.2.1.1 Federal Law No. 219-FZ of 21.07.2014
51.2.1.2 Federal Law No. 416-FZ of 07.12.2011
51.2.1.3 RF Government Decree No. 644 of 29.07.2013
51.2.1.4 Changes in tariff setting regulation
51.3 Water resources
Figure 51.4 Projected change in water stress by 2020
Figure 51.5 Water resources
Figure 51.6 Water withdrawals by sector, 2010–2030
51.3.1 Desalination
51.3.2 Water reuse
51.3.3 Groundwater protection
51.3.4 Reservoirs and storage
51.3.5 Demand management
51.4 Utility sector
51.4.1 Utility sector strategies and investment planning
51.4.1.1 Water service extension
51.4.1.2 Asset management
51.4.1.3 Non-revenue water
51.4.1.4 Wastewater networks
51.4.1.5 Wastewater treatment
51.4.1.6 Wastewater polishing
51.4.2 Utility sector structure and performance
Figure 51.7 Utility market structure
Figure 51.8 Water and wastewater utilities serving greater than 300,000 people
Figure 51.9 Utility service performance
Figure 51.10 Water supply indicators
Figure 51.11 Wastewater service indicators
51.4.3 Utility infrastructure
Figure 51.12 Major water treatment plants
Figure 51.13 Wastewater treatment plants by level of treatment
Figure 51.14 Major wastewater treatment plants
Figure 51.15 Major water reuse plants
51.4.4 Utility funding
Figure 51.16 Water and wastewater charges for a benchmark user in selected major cities, 2015
Figure 51.17 Sources of utility funding
Figure 51.18 Sources of debt used to fund utility investments
51.4.5 Utility procurement
Figure 51.19 Procurement models used
Figure 51.20 Criteria for comparing bids on construction contracts
51.4.6 Private sector participation
Figure 51.21 Models of private sector participation
51.4.7 Current and future projects
Figure 51.22 Future utility investment projects
51.5 Industrial water
Figure 51.23 Industrial water withdrawals
Figure 51.24 Industrial water market significance
51.5.1 Oil & gas
51.6 Market participants
Figure 51.25 Major companies active in the water sector
51.7 Market forecast
51.7.1 Future market directions
51.7.2 Notes on market forecast
Figure 51.26 Market forecast, 2013–2020
Figure 51.27 Market forecast breakdown, 2016
Figure 51.28 Market forecast data, 2013–2020
51.8 Data Sources
Figure 51.29 Sources of data used in this report
52. SERBIA
52.1 Water availability and demand
Figure 52.1 Water resources
Figure 52.2 Sectoral water withdrawal
52.2 Utility sector
Figure 52.3 Utility service performance
Figure 52.4 Water and wastewater utilities serving greater than 300,000 people
52.2.1 Utility water
Figure 52.5 Water supply indicators
Figure 52.6 Number of people connected to water supply network
Figure 52.7 Percentage of people connected to water supply network
Figure 52.8 Number of water connections
Figure 52.9 Utility water supply capacity
Figure 52.10 Non-revenue water
Figure 52.11 Length of water distribution network
52.2.2 Utility wastewater
Figure 52.12 Wastewater indicators
Figure 52.13 Number of people connected to sewerage network
Figure 52.14 Percentage of people connected to sewerage network
Figure 52.15 Number of sewerage connections
Figure 52.16 Volume of wastewater produced
Figure 52.17 Percentage of wastewater collected
Figure 52.18 Percentage of wastewater treated to secondary level
Figure 52.19 Percentage of wastewater treated to tertiary level
Figure 52.20 Length of sewerage network
Figure 52.21 Wastewater treatment plants by level of treatment
52.2.3 Utility funding
Figure 52.22 Benchmark water and wastewater tariffs for selected major cities, 2015
Figure 52.23 Overseas development assistance for the water and sanitation sector, 2008–2014
52.2.4 Private sector participation
Figure 52.24 Selected major projects involving private sector participation
52.3 Market forecast
Figure 52.25 Market forecast, 2013–2020
Figure 52.26 Market forecast breakdown, 2016
Figure 52.27 Market forecast data, 2013–2020
53. SLOVAKIA
53.1 Water availability and demand
Figure 53.1 Water resources
Figure 53.2 Sectoral water withdrawal
53.2 Utility sector
Figure 53.3 Utility service performance
Figure 53.4 Water and wastewater utilities serving greater than 300,000 people
53.2.1 Utility water
Figure 53.5 Water supply indicators
Figure 53.6 Number of people connected to water supply network
Figure 53.7 Percentage of people connected to water supply network
Figure 53.8 Utility water supply capacity
Figure 53.9 Non-revenue water
Figure 53.10 Length of water distribution network
53.2.2 Utility wastewater
Figure 53.11 Wastewater indicators
Figure 53.12 Number of people connected to sewerage network
Figure 53.13 Percentage of people connected to sewerage network
Figure 53.14 Volume of wastewater produced
Figure 53.15 Length of sewerage network
Figure 53.16 Wastewater treatment plants by level of treatment
53.2.3 Utility funding
Figure 53.17 Benchmark water and wastewater tariffs for selected major cities, 2015
53.2.4 Private sector participation
Figure 53.18 Selected major projects involving private sector participation
53.3 Market forecast
Figure 53.19 Market forecast, 2013–2020
Figure 53.20 Market forecast breakdown, 2016
Figure 53.21 Market forecast data, 2013–2020
54. SLOVENIA
54.1 Water availability and demand
Figure 54.1 Water resources
Figure 54.2 Sectoral water withdrawal
54.2 Utility sector
Figure 54.3 Utility service performance
Figure 54.4 Water and wastewater utilities serving greater than 300,000 people
54.2.1 Utility water
Figure 54.5 Water supply indicators
Figure 54.6 Number of water connections
Figure 54.7 Utility water supply capacity
Figure 54.8 Non-revenue water
Figure 54.9 Length of water distribution network
54.2.2 Utility wastewater
Figure 54.10 Wastewater indicators
Figure 54.11 Number of sewerage connections
Figure 54.12 Volume of wastewater produced
Figure 54.13 Percentage of wastewater collected
Figure 54.14 Percentage of wastewater treated to secondary level
Figure 54.15 Percentage of wastewater treated to tertiary level
Figure 54.16 Length of sewerage network
Figure 54.17 Wastewater treatment plants by level of treatment
54.2.3 Utility funding
Figure 54.18 Benchmark water and wastewater tariffs for selected major cities, 2015
54.2.4 Private sector participation
Figure 54.19 Selected major projects involving private sector participation
54.3 Market forecast
Figure 54.20 Market forecast, 2013–2020
Figure 54.21 Market forecast breakdown, 2016
Figure 54.22 Market forecast data, 2013–2020
55. SPAIN
55.1 Top market opportunities
55.2 Sector structure and regulation
Figure 55.1 Water sector structure
Figure 55.2 Water sector funding organisations
Figure 55.3 Regulations applicable to the water sector
55.3 Water resources
Figure 55.4 Projected change in water stress by 2020
Figure 55.5 Water resources
Figure 55.6 Water withdrawals by sector, 2010–2030
55.3.1 Desalination
55.3.2 Water reuse
55.3.3 Groundwater protection
55.3.4 Reservoirs and storage
55.3.5 Demand management
55.3.6 Water transfer
55.4 Utility sector
55.4.1 Utility sector strategies and investment planning
55.4.1.1 Water service extension
55.4.1.2 Asset management
55.4.1.3 Non-revenue water
55.4.1.4 Smart water
55.4.1.5 Wastewater networks
55.4.1.6 Wastewater treatment
55.4.2 Utility sector structure and performance
Figure 55.7 Utility market structure
Figure 55.8 Water and wastewater utilities serving greater than 300,000 people
Figure 55.9 Utility service performance
Figure 55.10 Water supply indicators
Figure 55.11 Wastewater service indicators
55.4.3 Utility infrastructure
Figure 55.12 Major water treatment plants
Figure 55.13 Major wastewater treatment plants
Figure 55.14 Major desalination plants
Figure 55.15 Major water reuse plants
55.4.4 Utility funding
Figure 55.16 Water and wastewater charges for a benchmark user in selected major cities, 2015
Figure 55.17 Sources of utility funding
Figure 55.18 Sources of debt used to fund utility investments
55.4.5 Utility procurement
Figure 55.19 Procurement models used
Figure 55.20 Criteria for comparing bids on construction contracts
55.4.6 Private sector participation
Figure 55.21 Models of private sector participation
55.4.7 Current and future projects
Figure 55.22 Future utility investment projects
55.5 Industrial water
Figure 55.23 Industrial water withdrawals
Figure 55.24 Industrial water market significance
55.6 Market participants
Figure 55.25 Major companies active in the water sector
55.7 Market forecast
55.7.1 Future market directions
55.7.2 Notes on market forecast
Figure 55.26 Market forecast, 2013–2020
Figure 55.27 Market forecast breakdown, 2016
Figure 55.28 Market forecast data, 2013–2020
56. SWEDEN
56.1 Water availability and demand
Figure 56.1 Water resources
Figure 56.2 Sectoral water withdrawal
56.2 Utility sector
Figure 56.3 Utility service performance
Figure 56.4 Water and wastewater utilities serving greater than 300,000 people
56.2.1 Utility water
Figure 56.5 Water supply indicators
56.2.2 Utility wastewater
Figure 56.6 Wastewater indicators
Figure 56.7 Wastewater treatment plants by level of treatment
56.2.3 Utility funding
Figure 56.8 Benchmark water and wastewater tariffs for selected major cities, 2015
56.3 Market forecast
Figure 56.9 Market forecast, 2013–2020
Figure 56.10 Market forecast breakdown, 2016
Figure 56.11 Market forecast data, 2013–2020
57. SWITZERLAND
57.1 Water availability and demand
Figure 57.1 Water resources
Figure 57.2 Sectoral water withdrawal
57.2 Utility sector
Figure 57.3 Utility service performance
Figure 57.4 Water and wastewater utilities serving greater than 300,000 people
57.2.1 Utility water
Figure 57.5 Water supply indicators
Figure 57.6 Number of people connected to water supply network
Figure 57.7 Percentage of people connected to water supply network
Figure 57.8 Number of water connections
Figure 57.9 Utility water supply capacity
Figure 57.10 Meter coverage
Figure 57.11 Non-revenue water
Figure 57.12 Length of water distribution network
57.2.2 Utility wastewater
Figure 57.13 Wastewater indicators
Figure 57.14 Number of people connected to sewerage network
Figure 57.15 Percentage of people connected to sewerage network
Figure 57.16 Volume of wastewater produced
Figure 57.17 Length of sewerage network
Figure 57.18 Wastewater treatment plants by level of treatment
57.2.3 Utility funding
Figure 57.19 Benchmark water and wastewater tariffs for selected major cities, 2015
57.3 Market forecast
Figure 57.20 Market forecast, 2013–2020
Figure 57.21 Market forecast breakdown, 2016
Figure 57.22 Market forecast data, 2013–2020
58. UKRAINE
58.1 Water availability and demand
Figure 58.1 Water resources
Figure 58.2 Sectoral water withdrawal
58.2 Utility sector
Figure 58.3 Utility service performance
Figure 58.4 Water and wastewater utilities serving greater than 300,000 people
58.2.1 Utility water
Figure 58.5 Water supply indicators
Figure 58.6 Number of people connected to water supply network
Figure 58.7 Percentage of people connected to water supply network
Figure 58.8 Number of water connections
Figure 58.9 Utility water supply capacity
Figure 58.10 Meter coverage
Figure 58.11 Non–revenue water
Figure 58.12 Length of water distribution network
58.2.2 Utility wastewater
Figure 58.13 Wastewater indicators
Figure 58.14 Number of people connected to sewerage network
Figure 58.15 Percentage of people connected to sewerage network
Figure 58.16 Volume of wastewater produced
Figure 58.17 Percentage of wastewater collected
Figure 58.18 Percentage of wastewater treated to secondary level
Figure 58.19 Percentage of wastewater treated to tertiary level
Figure 58.20 Length of sewerage network
58.2.3 Utility funding
Figure 58.21 Benchmark water and wastewater tariffs for selected major cities, 2015
Figure 58.22 Overseas development assistance for the water and sanitation sector, 2008–2014
58.3 Market forecast
Figure 58.23 Market forecast, 2013–2020
Figure 58.24 Market forecast breakdown, 2016
Figure 58.25 Market forecast data, 2013–2020
59. UNITED KINGDOM
59.1 Top market opportunities
59.2 Sector structure and regulation
Figure 59.1 Water sector structure
Figure 59.2 Regulations applicable to the water sector
59.2.1 New regulatory environment in England and Wales
59.2.2 Market reform
59.2.2.1 Household competition
59.2.3 Increasing resilience
59.2.4 Water abstraction
59.2.5 Other issues
59.2.5.1 Sector consolidation
59.2.5.2 Priority substances
59.3 Water resources
Figure 59.3 Projected change in water stress by 2020
Figure 59.4 Water resources
Figure 59.5 Water withdrawals by sector, 2010–2030
59.3.1 Desalination
59.3.2 Water reuse
59.3.3 Water transfer
59.3.4 Groundwater protection
59.3.5 Reservoirs and storage
59.3.6 Demand management
59.4 Utility sector
59.4.1 Utility sector strategies and investment planning
59.4.1.1 Asset management
59.4.1.2 Wastewater treatment and polishing
59.4.1.3 Smart water/non-revenue water
59.4.2 Utility sector structure and performance
Figure 59.6 Utility market structure
Figure 59.7 Water and wastewater utilities serving greater than 300,000 people
Figure 59.8 Utility service performance
Figure 59.9 Water supply indicators
Figure 59.10 Wastewater service indicators
59.4.3 Utility infrastructure
Figure 59.11 Major water treatment plants
Figure 59.12 Wastewater treatment plants by level of treatment
Figure 59.13 Major wastewater treatment plants
Figure 59.14 Major desalination plants
Figure 59.15 Major water reuse plants
59.4.4 Utility funding
Figure 59.16 Water and wastewater charges for a benchmark user in selected major cities, 2015
Figure 59.17 Sources of utility funding
Figure 59.18 Sources of debt used to fund utility investments
59.4.5 Utility procurement
Figure 59.19 Procurement models used
Figure 59.20 Criteria for comparing bids on construction contracts
59.4.6 Private sector participation
Figure 59.21 Models of private sector participation
59.4.7 Current and future projects
Figure 59.22 Future utility investment projects
59.5 Industrial water
Figure 59.23 Industrial water market significance
59.5.1 Offshore oil & gas
59.5.2 Food & beverage
59.6 Market participants
Figure 59.24 Major companies active in the water sector
59.7 Market forecast
59.7.1 Future market directions
59.7.2 Notes on market forecast
Figure 59.25 Market forecast, 2013–2020
Figure 59.26 Market forecast breakdown, 2016
Figure 59.27 Market forecast data, 2013–2020
59.8 Data Sources
Figure 59.28 Sources of data used in this report
VOLUME 4: MIDDLE EAST AND AFRICA
60. ALGERIA
61. ANGOLA
62. BAHRAIN
63. CAMEROON
64. CÔTE D’IVOIRE
65. EGYPT
66. ETHIOPIA
67. GHANA
68. IRAN
69. IRAQ
70. ISRAEL
71. JORDAN
72. KENYA
73. KUWAIT
74. LEBANON
75. MOROCCO
76. NAMIBIA
77. NIGERIA
78. OMAN
79. QATAR
80. RWANDA
81. SAUDI ARABIA
82. SOUTH AFRICA
83. TANZANIA
84. TUNISIA
85. TURKEY
86. UGANDA
87. UNITED ARAB EMIRATES

VOLUME 5: ASIA PACIFIC
88. AUSTRALIA
89. BANGLADESH
90. CHINA
91. HONG KONG
92. INDIA
93. INDONESIA
94. JAPAN
95. MALAYSIA
96. NEW ZEALAND
97. PAKISTAN
98. PHILIPPINES
99. SINGAPORE
100. SOUTH KOREA
101. SRI LANKA
102. TAIWAN
103. THAILAND
104. VIETNAM
INTERVIEWEES
REFERENCES
GLOBAL WATER MARKET

VOLUME 1: COMPANIES AND MARKETS
PUBLICATION INFORMATION II
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY VII
1. WATER MARKET OVERVIEW
2. WATER AND WASTEWATER TREATMENT
3. NETWORKS AND ENVIRONMENT
4. CHEMICALS & CONSUMABLES

VOLUME 2: THE AMERICAS
5. ARGENTINA
6. BOLIVIA
7. BRAZIL
8. CANADA
9. CHILE
10. COLOMBIA
11. COSTA RICA
12. DOMINICAN REPUBLIC
13. ECUADOR
14. EL SALVADOR
15. GUATEMALA
16. HONDURAS
17. MEXICO
18. PANAMA
19. PARAGUAY
20. PERU
21. TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO
22. UNITED STATES
23. URUGUAY
24. VENEZUELA

VOLUME 3: EUROPE
25. AUSTRIA
26. AZERBAIJAN
27. BELARUS
28. BELGIUM
29. BULGARIA
30. CROATIA
31. CYPRUS
32. CZECH REPUBLIC
33. DENMARK
34. ESTONIA
35. FINLAND
36. FRANCE
37. GERMANY
38. GREECE
39. HUNGARY
40. IRELAND
41. ITALY
42. KAZAKHSTAN
43. LATVIA
44. LITHUANIA
45. LUXEMBOURG
46. NETHERLANDS
47. NORWAY
48. POLAND
49. PORTUGAL
50. ROMANIA
51. RUSSIAN FEDERATION
52. SERBIA
53. SLOVAKIA
54. SLOVENIA
55. SPAIN
56. SWEDEN
57. SWITZERLAND
58. UKRAINE
59. UNITED KINGDOM

VOLUME 4: MIDDLE EAST AND AFRICA
PUBLICATION INFORMATION
Unit conversion factors used in this publication:
Exchange rates used in this publication:
Indicators of utility service coverage:
Indicators of water service coverage
Indicators of wastewater service coverage
Icons used in this publication:
Icons representing market sectors
Icons representing technology categories
Icons representing technology applications
Icons representing sector structure responsibilities
Icons representing the scope of private sector participation (PSP) projects
Icons representing significance/prevalence
60. ALGERIA
60.1 Top market opportunities
60.2 Sector structure and regulation
Figure 60.1 Water sector structure
Figure 60.2 Water sector funding organisations
Figure 60.3 Regulations applicable to the water sector
60.3 Water resources
Figure 60.4 Projected change in water stress by 2020
Figure 60.5 Water resources
Figure 60.6 Water withdrawals by sector, 2010–2030
60.3.1 Desalination
60.3.2 Water reuse
60.3.3 Water transfer
60.3.4 Groundwater protection
60.3.5 Reservoirs and storage
60.3.6 Demand management
60.4 Utility sector
60.4.1 Utility sector strategies and investment planning
60.4.1.1 Water service extension
60.4.1.2 Asset management
60.4.1.3 Non-revenue water
60.4.1.4 Smart water
60.4.1.5 Wastewater networks
60.4.1.6 Wastewater treatment
60.4.1.7 Wastewater polishing
60.4.2 Utility sector structure and performance
Figure 60.7 Utility market structure
Figure 60.8 Water and wastewater utilities serving greater than 300,000 people
Figure 60.9 Utility service performance
Figure 60.10 Water supply indicators
Figure 60.11 Wastewater service indicators
60.4.3 Utility infrastructure
Figure 60.12 Major water treatment plants
Figure 60.13 Wastewater treatment plants by level of treatment
Figure 60.14 Major wastewater treatment plants
Figure 60.15 Major desalination plants
60.4.4 Utility funding
Figure 60.16 Water and wastewater charges for a benchmark user in selected major cities, 2015
Figure 60.17 Sources of utility funding
Figure 60.18 Sources of debt used to fund utility investments
Figure 60.19 Overseas development assistance for the water and sanitation sector, 2008-2014
60.4.4.1 Tariffs
60.4.4.2 Public investment spending
60.4.5 Utility procurement
Figure 60.20 Procurement models used
Figure 60.21 Criteria for comparing bids on construction contracts
60.4.5.1 DBOs and DBs
60.4.5.2 Private finance
60.4.6 Private sector participation
Figure 60.22 Models of private sector participation
60.4.7 Current and future projects
Figure 60.23 Future utility investment projects
60.5 Industrial water
Figure 60.24 Industrial water market significance
60.6 Market participants
Figure 60.25 Major companies active in the water sector
60.7 Market forecast
60.7.1 Future market directions
60.7.2 Notes on market forecast
Figure 60.26 Market forecast, 2013–2020
Figure 60.27 Market forecast breakdown, 2016
Figure 60.28 Market forecast data, 2013–2020
61. ANGOLA
61.1 Water availability and demand
Figure 61.1 Water resources
Figure 61.2 Sectoral water withdrawal
61.2 Utility sector
Figure 61.3 Utility service performance
Figure 61.4 Water and wastewater utilities serving greater than 300,000 people
61.2.1 Utility water
Figure 61.5 Water supply indicators
Figure 61.6 Number of people connected to water supply network
Figure 61.7 Percentage of people connected to water supply network
Figure 61.8 Number of water connections
Figure 61.9 Utility water supply capacity
Figure 61.10 Non-revenue water
61.2.2 Utility wastewater
Figure 61.11 Wastewater indicators
61.2.3 Utility funding
Figure 61.12 Benchmark water and wastewater tariffs for selected major cities, 2015
Figure 61.13 Overseas development assistance for the water and sanitation sector, 2008–2014
61.3 Market forecast
Figure 61.14 Market forecast, 2013–2020
Figure 61.15 Market forecast breakdown, 2016
Figure 61.16 Market forecast data, 2013–2020
62. BAHRAIN
62.1 Water availability and demand
Figure 62.1 Water resources
Figure 62.2 Sectoral water withdrawal
62.2 Utility sector
Figure 62.3 Utility service performance
Figure 62.4 Water and wastewater utilities serving greater than 300,000 people
62.2.1 Utility water
Figure 62.5 Water supply indicators
Figure 62.6 Utility water supply capacity
62.2.2 Utility wastewater
Figure 62.7 Wastewater indicators
62.2.3 Utility funding
Figure 62.8 Benchmark water and wastewater tariffs for selected major cities, 2015
62.2.4 Private sector participation
Figure 62.9 Selected major projects involving private sector participation
62.3 Current and future projects
Figure 62.10 Projects tracked by GWI
62.4 Market forecast
Figure 62.11 Market forecast, 2013–2020
Figure 62.12 Market forecast breakdown, 2016
Figure 62.13 Market forecast data, 2013–2020
63. CAMEROON
63.1 Water availability and demand
Figure 63.1 Water resources
Figure 63.2 Sectoral water withdrawal
63.2 Utility sector
Figure 63.3 Utility service performance
Figure 63.4 Water and wastewater utilities serving greater than 300,000 people
63.2.1 Utility water
Figure 63.5 Water supply indicators
63.2.2 Utility wastewater
Figure 63.6 Wastewater indicators
63.2.3 Utility funding
Figure 63.7 Benchmark water and wastewater tariffs for selected major cities, 2015
Figure 63.8 Overseas development assistance for the water and sanitation sector, 2008–2014
63.3 Market forecast
Figure 63.9 Market forecast, 2013–2020
Figure 63.10 Market forecast breakdown, 2016
Figure 63.11 Market forecast data, 2013–2020
64. CÔTE D’IVOIRE
64.1 Water availability and demand
Figure 64.1 Water resources
Figure 64.2 Sectoral water withdrawal
64.2 Utility sector
Figure 64.3 Utility service performance
64.2.1 Utility water
Figure 64.4 Water supply indicators
64.2.2 Utility wastewater
Figure 64.5 Wastewater indicators
64.2.3 Utility funding
Figure 64.6 Benchmark water and wastewater tariffs for selected major cities, 2015
Figure 64.7 Overseas development assistance for the water and sanitation sector, 2008–2014
64.3 Market forecast
Figure 64.8 Market forecast, 2013–2020
Figure 64.9 Market forecast breakdown, 2016
Figure 64.10 Market forecast data, 2013–2020
65. EGYPT
65.1 Top market opportunities
65.2 Sector structure and regulation
Figure 65.1 Water sector structure
Figure 65.2 Water sector funding organisations
Figure 65.3 Regulations applicable to the water sector
65.3 Water resources
Figure 65.4 Projected change in water stress by 2020
Figure 65.5 Water resources
Figure 65.6 Water withdrawals by sector, 2010–2030
65.3.1 Desalination
65.3.2 Water reuse
65.3.3 Water transfer
65.3.4 Groundwater protection
65.3.5 Demand management
65.4 Utility sector
65.4.1 Utility sector strategies and investment planning
65.4.1.1 Water service expansion
65.4.1.2 Wastewater networks
65.4.1.3 Non-revenue and smart water
65.4.2 Utility sector structure and performance
Figure 65.7 Utility market structure
Figure 65.8 Water and wastewater utilities serving greater than 300,000 people
Figure 65.9 Utility service performance
Figure 65.10 Water supply indicators
Figure 65.11 Wastewater service indicators
65.4.3 Utility infrastructure
Figure 65.12 Major water treatment plants
Figure 65.13 Major wastewater treatment plants
Figure 65.14 Major desalination plants
65.4.4 Utility funding
Figure 65.15 Water and wastewater charges for a benchmark user in selected major cities, 2015
Figure 65.16 Sources of utility funding
Figure 65.17 Sources of debt used to fund utility investments
Figure 65.18 Overseas development assistance for the water and sanitation sector, 2008-2014
65.4.4.1 Tariffs
65.4.4.2 Government funding
65.4.4.3 International funding
65.4.4.4 Private finance
65.4.5 Utility procurement
Figure 65.19 Procurement models used
Figure 65.20 Criteria for comparing bids on construction contracts
65.4.6 Private sector participation
Figure 65.21 Models of private sector participation
65.4.7 Current and future projects
Figure 65.22 Future utility investment projects
65.5 Industrial water
Figure 65.23 Industrial water market significance
65.6 Market participants
Figure 65.24 Major companies active in the water sector
65.7 Market forecast
65.7.1 Future market directions
65.7.2 Notes on market forecast
Figure 65.25 Market forecast, 2013–2020
Figure 65.26 Market forecast breakdown, 2016
Figure 65.27 Market forecast data, 2013–2020
66. ETHIOPIA
66.1 Water availability and demand
Figure 66.1 Water resources
Figure 66.2 Sectoral water withdrawal
66.2 Utility sector
Figure 66.3 Utility service performance
Figure 66.4 Water and wastewater utilities serving greater than 300,000 people
66.2.1 Utility water
Figure 66.5 Water supply indicators
66.2.2 Utility wastewater
Figure 66.6 Wastewater indicators
66.2.3 Utility funding
Figure 66.7 Benchmark water and wastewater tariffs for selected major cities, 2015
Figure 66.8 Overseas development assistance for the water and sanitation sector, 2008–2014
66.3 Market forecast
Figure 66.9 Market forecast, 2013–2020
Figure 66.10 Market forecast breakdown, 2016
Figure 66.11 Market forecast data, 2013–2020
67. GHANA
67.1 Water availability and demand
Figure 67.1 Water resources
Figure 67.2 Sectoral water withdrawal
67.2 Utility sector
Figure 67.3 Utility service performance
Figure 67.4 Water and wastewater utilities serving greater than 300,000 people
67.2.1 Utility water
Figure 67.5 Water supply indicators
67.2.2 Utility wastewater
Figure 67.6 Wastewater indicators
67.2.3 Utility funding
Figure 67.7 Benchmark water and wastewater tariffs for selected major cities, 2015
Figure 67.8 Overseas development assistance for the water and sanitation sector, 2008–2014
67.2.4 Private sector participation
Figure 67.9 Selected major projects involving private sector participation
67.3 Current and future projects
Figure 67.10 Projects tracked by GWI
67.4 Market forecast
Figure 67.11 Market forecast, 2013–2020
Figure 67.12 Market forecast breakdown, 2016
Figure 67.13 Market forecast data, 2013–2020
68. IRAN
68.1 Top market opportunities
68.2 Sector structure and regulation
Figure 68.1 Water sector structure
Figure 68.2 Water sector funding organisations
Figure 68.3 Regulations applicable to the water sector
68.3 Water resources
Figure 68.4 Projected change in water stress by 2020
Figure 68.5 Water resources
Figure 68.6 Water withdrawals by sector, 2010–2030
68.3.1 Desalination
68.3.2 Water reuse
68.3.3 Water transfer
68.3.4 Groundwater protection
68.3.5 Reservoirs and storage
68.3.6 Demand management
68.4 Utility sector
68.4.1 Utility sector strategies and investment planning
Figure 68.7 Government funding, 2016–2021
68.4.1.1 Wastewater treatment and networks
68.4.1.2 Non-revenue water
68.4.2 Utility sector structure and performance
Figure 68.8 Utility market structure
Figure 68.9 Water and wastewater utilities serving greater than 300,000 people
Figure 68.10 Utility service performance
Figure 68.11 Water supply indicators
Figure 68.12 Wastewater service indicators
68.4.3 Utility infrastructure
Figure 68.13 Major water treatment plants
Figure 68.14 Major wastewater treatment plants
Figure 68.15 Major desalination plants
Figure 68.16 Major water reuse plants
68.4.4 Utility funding
Figure 68.17 Water and wastewater charges for a benchmark user in selected major cities, 2015
Figure 68.18 Sources of utility funding
Figure 68.19 Sources of debt used to fund utility investments
Figure 68.20 Overseas development assistance for the water and sanitation sector, 2008-2014
68.4.4.1 Government funding
68.4.4.2 National Development Fund
68.4.4.3 International aid
68.4.4.4 Private finance
68.4.5 Utility procurement
Figure 68.21 Procurement models used
Figure 68.22 Criteria for comparing bids on construction contracts
68.4.6 Private sector participation
Figure 68.23 Models of private sector participation
68.4.6.1 Build-own-operate (BOO) and build-own-transfer (BOT) contracts
68.4.6.2 Buyback contracts
68.4.7 Current and future projects
Figure 68.24 Future utility investment projects
68.5 Industrial water
Figure 68.25 Industrial water market significance
68.6 Market participants
Figure 68.26 Major companies active in the water sector
68.7 Market forecast
68.7.1 Future market directions
68.7.2 Notes on market forecast
Figure 68.27 Market forecast, 2013–2020
Figure 68.28 Market forecast breakdown, 2016
Figure 68.29 Market forecast data, 2013–2020
68.8 Data Sources
Figure 68.30 Sources of data used in this report
69. IRAQ
69.1 Water availability and demand
Figure 69.1 Water resources
Figure 69.2 Sectoral water withdrawal
69.2 Utility sector
Figure 69.3 Utility service performance
69.2.1 Utility water
Figure 69.4 Water supply indicators
Figure 69.5 Number of people connected to water supply network
Figure 69.6 Percentage of people connected to water supply network
Figure 69.7 Utility water supply capacity
Figure 69.8 Non-revenue water
69.2.2 Utility wastewater
Figure 69.9 Wastewater indicators
Figure 69.10 Number of people connected to sewerage network
Figure 69.11 Percentage of people connected to sewerage network
Figure 69.12 Volume of wastewater produced
Figure 69.13 Percentage of wastewater treated to secondary level
Figure 69.14 Wastewater treatment plants by level of treatment
69.2.3 Utility funding
Figure 69.15 Overseas development assistance for the water and sanitation sector, 2008–2014
69.2.4 Private sector participation
Figure 69.16 Selected major projects involving private sector participation
69.3 Market forecast
Figure 69.17 Market forecast, 2013–2020
Figure 69.18 Market forecast breakdown, 2016
Figure 69.19 Market forecast data, 2013–2020
70. ISRAEL
70.1 Water availability and demand
Figure 70.1 Water resources
Figure 70.2 Sectoral water withdrawal
70.2 Utility sector
Figure 70.3 Utility service performance
Figure 70.4 Water and wastewater utilities serving greater than 300,000 people
70.2.1 Utility water
Figure 70.5 Water supply indicators
Figure 70.6 Number of people connected to water supply network
Figure 70.7 Percentage of people connected to water supply network
Figure 70.8 Number of water connections
Figure 70.9 Utility water supply capacity
Figure 70.10 Non-revenue water
70.2.2 Utility wastewater
Figure 70.11 Wastewater indicators
Figure 70.12 Number of people connected to sewerage network
Figure 70.13 Percentage of people connected to sewerage network
Figure 70.14 Volume of wastewater produced
Figure 70.15 Percentage of wastewater collected
Figure 70.16 Percentage of wastewater treated to secondary level
Figure 70.17 Percentage of wastewater treated to tertiary level
Figure 70.18 Wastewater treatment plants by level of treatment
70.2.3 Utility funding
Figure 70.19 Benchmark water and wastewater tariffs for selected major cities, 2015
70.2.4 Private sector participation
Figure 70.20 Selected major projects involving private sector participation
70.3 Current and future projects
Figure 70.21 Projects tracked by GWI
70.4 Market forecast
Figure 70.22 Market forecast, 2013–2020
Figure 70.23 Market forecast breakdown, 2016
Figure 70.24 Market forecast data, 2013–2020
71. JORDAN
71.1 Water availability and demand
Figure 71.1 Water resources
Figure 71.2 Sectoral water withdrawal
71.2 Utility sector
Figure 71.3 Utility service performance
Figure 71.4 Water and wastewater utilities serving greater than 300,000 people
71.2.1 Utility water
Figure 71.5 Water supply indicators
Figure 71.6 Number of people connected to water supply network
Figure 71.7 Percentage of people connected to water supply network
Figure 71.8 Number of water connections
Figure 71.9 Utility water supply capacity
Figure 71.10 Non-revenue water
71.2.2 Utility wastewater
Figure 71.11 Wastewater indicators
Figure 71.12 Number of people connected to sewerage network
Figure 71.13 Percentage of people connected to sewerage network
Figure 71.14 Number of sewerage connections
Figure 71.15 Volume of wastewater produced
Figure 71.16 Percentage of wastewater treated to secondary level
Figure 71.17 Wastewater treatment plants by level of treatment
71.2.3 Utility funding
Figure 71.18 Benchmark water and wastewater tariffs for selected major cities, 2015
Figure 71.19 Overseas development assistance for the water and sanitation sector, 2008–2014
71.2.4 Private sector participation
Figure 71.20 Selected major projects involving private sector participation
71.3 Current and future projects
Figure 71.21 Projects tracked by GWI
71.4 Market forecast
Figure 71.22 Market forecast, 2013–2020
Figure 71.23 Market forecast breakdown, 2016
Figure 71.24 Market forecast data, 2013–2020
72. KENYA
72.1 Water availability and demand
Figure 72.1 Water resources
Figure 72.2 Sectoral water withdrawal
72.2 Utility sector
Figure 72.3 Utility service performance
Figure 72.4 Water and wastewater utilities serving greater than 300,000 people
72.2.1 Utility water
Figure 72.5 Water supply indicators
Figure 72.6 Non-revenue water
72.2.2 Utility wastewater
Figure 72.7 Wastewater indicators
72.2.3 Utility funding
Figure 72.8 Benchmark water and wastewater tariffs for selected major cities, 2015
Figure 72.9 Overseas development assistance for the water and sanitation sector, 2008–2014
72.3 Current and future projects
Figure 72.10 Projects tracked by GWI
72.4 Market forecast
Figure 72.11 Market forecast, 2013–2020
Figure 72.12 Market forecast breakdown, 2016
Figure 72.13 Market forecast data, 2013–2020
73. KUWAIT
73.1 Water availability and demand
Figure 73.1 Water resources
Figure 73.2 Sectoral water withdrawal
73.2 Utility sector
Figure 73.3 Utility service performance
73.2.1 Utility water
Figure 73.4 Water supply indicators
Figure 73.5 Number of people connected to water supply network
Figure 73.6 Percentage of people connected to water supply network
Figure 73.7 Utility water supply capacity
Figure 73.8 Non-revenue water
73.2.2 Utility wastewater
Figure 73.9 Wastewater indicators
Figure 73.10 Number of people connected to sewerage network
Figure 73.11 Percentage of people connected to sewerage network
Figure 73.12 Percentage of wastewater treated to secondary level
Figure 73.13 Percentage of wastewater treated to tertiary level
Figure 73.14 Wastewater treatment plants by level of treatment
73.2.3 Private sector participation
Figure 73.15 Selected major projects involving private sector participation
73.3 Current and future projects
Figure 73.16 Projects tracked by GWI
73.4 Market forecast
Figure 73.17 Market forecast, 2013–2020
Figure 73.18 Market forecast breakdown, 2016
Figure 73.19 Market forecast data, 2013–2020
74. LEBANON
74.1 Water availability and demand
Figure 74.1 Water resources
Figure 74.2 Sectoral water withdrawal
74.2 Utility sector
Figure 74.3 Utility service performance
Figure 74.4 Water and wastewater utilities serving greater than 300,000 people
74.2.1 Utility water
Figure 74.5 Water supply indicators
Figure 74.6 Percentage of people connected to water supply network
74.2.2 Utility wastewater
Figure 74.7 Wastewater indicators
Figure 74.8 Percentage of people connected to sewerage network
Figure 74.9 Volume of wastewater produced
74.2.3 Utility funding
Figure 74.10 Benchmark water and wastewater tariffs for selected major cities, 2015
Figure 74.11 Overseas development assistance for the water and sanitation sector, 2008–2014
74.3 Current and future projects
Figure 74.12 Projects tracked by GWI
74.4 Market forecast
Figure 74.13 Market forecast, 2013–2020
Figure 74.14 Market forecast breakdown, 2016
Figure 74.15 Market forecast data, 2013–2020
75. MOROCCO
75.1 Top market opportunities
75.2 Sector structure and regulation
Figure 75.1 Water sector structure
Figure 75.2 Regulations applicable to the water sector
75.2.1 ONEE
Figure 75.3 Selected financial indicators for ONEE in 2013
Figure 75.4 ONEE’s contrat-programme 2014–2017 restructuring measures
75.2.2 Regulatory initiatives
75.3 Water resources
Figure 75.5 Projected change in water stress by 2020
Figure 75.6 Water resources
Figure 75.7 Water withdrawals by sector, 2010–2030
Figure 75.8 Breakdown of PNE costs
75.3.1 Desalination
Figure 75.9 Desalination capacity by sector by 2030
75.3.2 Water reuse
Figure 75.10 Reuse volumes by sector by 2030
Figure 75.11 PNREU cost breakdown by capex type
75.3.3 Water transfer
75.3.4 Groundwater protection
75.3.5 Reservoirs and storage
75.3.6 Demand management
75.4 Utility sector
75.4.1 Utility sector strategies and investment planning
75.4.1.1 Water service extension
75.4.1.2 Non-revenue water
75.4.1.3 Smart water
75.4.1.4 Asset management
75.4.1.5 Wastewater treatment
Figure 75.12 Key indicators for PNA
75.4.1.6 Wastewater network
75.4.1.7 Wastewater polishing
75.4.2 Utility sector structure and performance
Figure 75.13 Utility market structure
Figure 75.14 Water and wastewater utilities serving greater than 300,000 people
Figure 75.15 Utility service performance i
Figure 75.16 Water supply indicators
Figure 75.17 Wastewater service indicators
75.4.3 Utility infrastructure
Figure 75.18 Major water treatment plants
Figure 75.19 Wastewater treatment plants by level of treatment
Figure 75.20 Major wastewater treatment plants
Figure 75.21 Major desalination plants
75.4.4 Utility funding
Figure 75.22 Water and wastewater charges for a benchmark user in selected major cities, 2015
Figure 75.23 Sources of utility funding
Figure 75.24 Sources of debt used to fund utility investments
Figure 75.25 Overseas development assistance for the water and sanitation sector, 2008-2014
75.4.4.1 Tariffs
75.4.4.2 ONEE funding
75.4.4.3 Private finance
75.4.5 Utility procurement
Figure 75.26 Procurement models used
Figure 75.27 Criteria for comparing bids on construction contracts
75.4.6 Private sector participation
Figure 75.28 Models of private sector participation
75.4.6.1 Concessions
Figure 75.29 Structure of Morocco’s four private water, wastewater and electricity concessions
75.4.6.2 O&M contracts
75.4.7 Current and future projects
Figure 75.30 Future utility investment projects
75.5 Industrial water
Figure 75.31 Industrial water market significance
75.6 Market participants
Figure 75.32 Major companies active in the water sector
75.7 Market forecast
75.7.1 Future market directions
75.7.2 Notes on market forecast
Figure 75.33 Market forecast, 2013–2020
Figure 75.34 Market forecast breakdown, 2016
Figure 75.35 Market forecast data, 2013–2020
75.8 Data Sources
Figure 75.36 Sources of data used in this report
76. NAMIBIA
76.1 Water availability and demand
Figure 76.1 Water resources
Figure 76.2 Sectoral water withdrawal
76.2 Utility sector
Figure 76.3 Utility service performance
76.2.1 Utility water
Figure 76.4 Water supply indicators
76.2.2 Utility wastewater
Figure 76.5 Wastewater indicators
76.2.3 Utility funding
Figure 76.6 Benchmark water and wastewater tariffs for selected major cities, 2015
Figure 76.7 Overseas development assistance for the water and sanitation sector, 2008–2014
76.2.4 Private sector participation
Figure 76.8 Selected major projects involving private sector participation
76.3 Current and future projects
Figure 76.9 Projects tracked by GWI
76.4 Market forecast
Figure 76.10 Market forecast, 2013–2020
Figure 76.11 Market forecast breakdown, 2016
Figure 76.12 Market forecast data, 2013–2020
77. NIGERIA
77.1 Top market opportunities
77.2 Sector structure and regulation
Figure 77.1 Water sector structure
Figure 77.2 Regulations applicable to the water sector
77.3 Water resources
Figure 77.3 Projected change in water stress by 2020
Figure 77.4 Water resources
Figure 77.5 Water withdrawals by sector, 2010–2030
77.3.1 Desalination
77.3.2 Water reuse
77.3.3 Water transfer
77.3.4 Groundwater protection
77.3.5 Reservoirs and storage
77.3.6 Demand management
77.4 Utility sector
77.4.1 Utility sector strategies and investment planning
77.4.1.1 Water treatment plants and networks
77.4.1.2 Non-revenue water
77.4.1.3 Wastewater treatment and networks
77.4.2 Utility sector structure and performance
Figure 77.6 Utility market structure
Figure 77.7 Water and wastewater utilities serving greater than 300,000 people
Figure 77.8 Utility service performance
Figure 77.9 Water supply indicators
Figure 77.10 Wastewater service indicators
77.4.3 Utility infrastructure
Figure 77.11 Major water treatment plants
Figure 77.12 Major wastewater treatment plants
77.4.4 Utility funding
Figure 77.13 Water and wastewater charges for a benchmark user in selected major cities, 2015
Figure 77.14 Sources of utility funding
Figure 77.15 Sources of debt used to fund utility investments
Figure 77.16 Overseas development assistance for the water and sanitation sector, 2008-2014
77.4.4.1 Water tariffs
77.4.4.2 Government budgetary allocations
77.4.4.3 International grants/loans
77.4.5 Utility procurement
Figure 77.17 Procurement models used
Figure 77.18 Criteria for comparing bids on construction contracts
77.4.6 Private sector participation
Figure 77.19 Models of private sector participation
77.4.7 Current and future projects
Figure 77.20 Future utility investment projects
77.5 Industrial water
Figure 77.21 Industrial water market significance
77.6 Market participants
Figure 77.22 Major companies active in the water sector
77.7 Market forecast
77.7.1 Future market directions
77.7.2 Notes on market forecast
Figure 77.23 Market forecast, 2013–2020
Figure 77.24 Market forecast breakdown, 2016
Figure 77.25 Market forecast data, 2013–2020
78. OMAN
78.1 Top market opportunities
78.2 Sector structure and regulation
Figure 78.1 Water sector structure
Figure 78.2 Water sector funding organisations
Figure 78.3 Regulations applicable to the water sector
78.2.1 Water Resources Master Plan
78.3 Water resources
Figure 78.4 Projected change in water stress by 2020
Figure 78.5 Water resources
Figure 78.6 Water withdrawals by sector, 2010–2030
78.3.1 Desalination
78.3.2 Water reuse
78.3.3 Water transfer
78.3.4 Groundwater protection
78.3.5 Reservoirs and storage
78.3.6 Demand management
78.4 Utility sector
78.4.1 Utility sector strategies and investment planning
78.4.1.1 Water service extension
78.4.1.2 Wastewater infrastructure
78.4.1.3 Non-revenue water and smart water
78.4.2 Utility sector structure and performance
Figure 78.7 Utility market structure
Figure 78.8 Water and wastewater utilities serving greater than 300,000 people
Figure 78.9 Utility service performance
Figure 78.10 Water supply indicators
Figure 78.11 Wastewater service indicators
78.4.3 Utility infrastructure
Figure 78.12 Major desalination plants
Figure 78.13 Major water reuse plants
78.4.4 Utility funding
Figure 78.14 Water and wastewater charges for a benchmark user in selected major cities, 2015
Figure 78.15 Sources of utility funding
Figure 78.16 Sources of debt used to fund utility investments
Figure 78.17 Overseas development assistance for the water and sanitation sector, 2008-2014
78.4.4.1 Government funding
78.4.4.2 Private finance
78.4.4.3 International aid
78.4.5 Utility procurement
Figure 78.18 Procurement models used
Figure 78.19 Criteria for comparing bids on construction contracts
78.4.6 Private sector participation
Figure 78.20 Models of private sector participation
78.4.6.1 Privately financed projects
78.4.6.2 Management contracts
78.4.7 Current and future projects
Figure 78.21 Future utility investment projects
78.5 Industrial water
Figure 78.22 Industrial water market significance
78.6 Market participants
Figure 78.23 Major companies active in the water sector
78.7 Market forecast
78.7.1 Future market directions
78.7.2 Notes on market forecast
Figure 78.24 Market forecast, 2013–2020
Figure 78.25 Market forecast breakdown, 2016
Figure 78.26 Market forecast data, 2013–2020
79. QATAR
79.1 Top market opportunities
79.2 Sector structure and regulation
Figure 79.1 Water sector structure
Figure 79.2 Water sector funding organisations
Figure 79.3 Regulations applicable to the water sector
79.3 Water resources
Figure 79.4 Projected change in water stress by 2020
Figure 79.5 Water resources
Figure 79.6 Water withdrawals by sector, 2010-2030
79.3.1 Desalination
79.3.2 Water reuse
79.3.3 Groundwater protection
79.3.4 Reservoirs and storage
79.3.5 Demand management
79.4 Utility sector
79.4.1 Utility sector strategies and investment planning
79.4.1.1 Wastewater networks
79.4.1.2 Non-revenue water
79.4.2 Utility sector structure and performance
Figure 79.7 Utility market structure
Figure 79.8 Water and wastewater utilities serving greater than 300,000 people
Figure 79.9 Utility service performance
Figure 79.10 Water supply indicators
Figure 79.11 Wastewater service indicators
79.4.3 Utility infrastructure
Figure 79.12 Major desalination plants
Figure 79.13 Major water reuse plants
79.4.4 Utility funding
Figure 79.14 Water and wastewater charges for a benchmark user in selected major cities, 2015
Figure 79.15 Sources of utility funding
Figure 79.16 Sources of debt used to fund utility investments
79.4.5 Utility procurement
Figure 79.17 Procurement models used
Figure 79.18 Criteria for comparing bids on construction contracts
79.4.6 Private sector participation
Figure 79.19 Models of private sector participation
79.4.7 Current and future projects
Figure 79.20 Future utility investment projects
79.5 Industrial water
Figure 79.21 Industrial water market significance
79.6 Market participants
Figure 79.22 Major companies active in the water sector
79.7 Market forecast
79.7.1 Future market directions
79.7.2 Notes on market forecast
Figure 79.23 Market forecast, 2013–2020
Figure 79.24 Market forecast breakdown, 2016
Figure 79.25 Market forecast data, 2013–2020
80. RWANDA
80.1 Water availability and demand
Figure 80.1 Water resources
Figure 80.2 Sectoral water withdrawal
80.2 Utility sector
Figure 80.3 Utility service performance
80.2.1 Utility water
Figure 80.4 Water supply indicators
Figure 80.5 Number of people connected to water supply network
Figure 80.6 Percentage of people connected to water supply network
Figure 80.7 Number of water connections
Figure 80.8 Utility water supply capacity
Figure 80.9 Non-revenue water
80.2.2 Utility wastewater
Figure 80.10 Wastewater indicators
Figure 80.11 Number of people connected to sewerage network
Figure 80.12 Percentage of people connected to sewerage network
Figure 80.13 Number of sewerage connections
80.2.3 Utility funding
Figure 80.14 Benchmark water and wastewater tariffs for selected major cities, 2015
Figure 80.15 Overseas development assistance for the water and sanitation sector, 2008–2014
80.3 Current and future projects
Figure 80.16 Projects tracked by GWI
80.4 Market forecast
Figure 80.17 Market forecast, 2013–2020
Figure 80.18 Market forecast breakdown, 2016
Figure 80.19 Market forecast data, 2013–2020
81. SAUDI ARABIA
81.1 Top market opportunities
81.2 Sector structure and regulation
Figure 81.1 Water sector structure
Figure 81.2 Regulations applicable to the water sector
Figure 81.3 National Water Strategy targets, 2015–2040
81.2.1 10th National Development Plan
81.3 Water resources
Figure 81.4 Projected change in water stress by 2020
Figure 81.5 Water resources
Figure 81.6 Water withdrawals by sector, 2010–2030
81.3.1 Desalination
81.3.2 Water reuse
81.3.3 Water transfer
81.3.4 Groundwater protection
81.3.5 Reservoirs and storage
81.3.6 Demand management
81.4 Utility sector
81.4.1 Utility sector strategies and investment planning
81.4.1.1 Asset management
81.4.1.2 Service extension
81.4.1.3 Wastewater treatment
81.4.2 Utility sector structure and performance
Figure 81.7 Utility market structure
Figure 81.8 Water and wastewater utilities serving greater than 300,000 people
Figure 81.9 Utility service performance
Figure 81.10 Water supply indicators
Figure 81.11 Wastewater service indicators
81.4.3 Utility infrastructure
Figure 81.12 Major wastewater treatment plants
Figure 81.13 Major desalination plants
Figure 81.14 Major water reuse plants
81.4.4 Utility funding
Figure 81.15 Water and wastewater charges for a benchmark user in selected major cities, 2015
Figure 81.16 Sources of utility funding
Figure 81.17 Sources of debt used to fund utility investments
81.4.4.1 Tariffs
81.4.4.2 Treated sewage effluent
81.4.4.3 Private finance
81.4.5 Utility procurement
Figure 81.18 Procurement models used
Figure 81.19 Criteria for comparing bids on construction contracts
81.4.6 Private sector participation
Figure 81.20 Models of private sector participation
81.4.6.1 NWC
81.4.6.2 Industrial parks
Figure 81.21 Water and wastewater treatment plant BOTs in Modon’s industrial parks
81.4.7 Current and future projects
Figure 81.22 Future utility investment projects
81.5 Industrial water
Figure 81.23 Industrial water market significance
81.5.1 Upstream oil & gas
81.6 Market participants
Figure 81.24 Major companies active in the water sector
81.7 Market forecast
81.7.1 Future market directions
81.7.2 Notes on market forecast
Figure 81.25 Market forecast, 2013–2020
Figure 81.26 Market forecast breakdown, 2016
Figure 81.27 Market forecast data, 2013–2020
81.8 Data Sources
Figure 81.28 Sources of data used in this report
82. SOUTH AFRICA
82.1 Top market opportunities
82.2 Sector structure and regulation
Figure 82.1 Water sector structure
Figure 82.2 Water sector funding organisations
Figure 82.3 Regulations applicable to the water sector
82.3 Water resources
Figure 82.4 Projected change in water stress by 2020
Figure 82.5 Water resources
Figure 82.6 Water withdrawals by sector, 2010–2030
82.3.1 Desalination
82.3.2 Water reuse
82.3.3 Water transfer
82.3.4 Groundwater protection
82.3.5 Reservoirs and storage
82.3.6 Demand management
82.4 Utility sector
82.4.1 Utility sector strategies and investment planning
82.4.2 Water and wastewater treatment
82.4.2.1 Non-revenue water
82.4.2.2 Smart water
82.4.3 Utility sector structure and performance
Figure 82.7 Utility market structure
Figure 82.8 Water and wastewater utilities serving greater than 300,000 people
Figure 82.9 Utility service performance
Figure 82.10 Water supply indicators
Figure 82.11 Wastewater service indicators
82.4.4 Utility infrastructure
Figure 82.12 Major water treatment plants
Figure 82.13 Wastewater treatment plants by level of treatment
Figure 82.14 Major wastewater treatment plants
Figure 82.15 Major desalination plants
Figure 82.16 Major water reuse plants
82.4.5 Utility funding
Figure 82.17 Water and wastewater charges for a benchmark user in selected major cities, 2015
Figure 82.18 Sources of utility funding
Figure 82.19 Sources of debt used to fund utility investments
Figure 82.20 Overseas development assistance for the water and sanitation sector, 2008–2014
82.4.6 Utility procurement
Figure 82.21 Procurement models used
Figure 82.22 Criteria for comparing bids on construction contracts
82.4.7 Private sector participation
Figure 82.23 Models of private sector participation
82.4.8 Current and future projects
Figure 82.24 Future utility investment projects
82.5 Industrial water
Figure 82.25 Industrial water withdrawals
Figure 82.26 Industrial water market significance
82.5.1 Mining
82.5.2 Other industries
82.6 Market participants
Figure 82.27 Major companies active in the water sector
82.7 Market forecast
82.7.1 Future market directions
82.7.2 Notes on market forecast
Figure 82.28 Market forecast, 2013–2020
Figure 82.29 Market forecast breakdown, 2016
Figure 82.30 Market forecast data, 2013–2020
82.8 Data Sources
Figure 82.31 Sources of data used in this report
83. TANZANIA
83.1 Water availability and demand
Figure 83.1 Water resources
Figure 83.2 Sectoral water withdrawal
83.2 Utility sector
Figure 83.3 Utility service performance
Figure 83.4 Water and wastewater utilities serving greater than 300,000 people
83.2.1 Utility water
Figure 83.5 Water supply indicators
Figure 83.6 Number of water connections
Figure 83.7 Meter coverage
Figure 83.8 Non-revenue water
Figure 83.9 Length of water distribution network
83.2.2 Utility wastewater
Figure 83.10 Wastewater indicators
Figure 83.11 Length of sewerage network
83.2.3 Utility funding
Figure 83.12 Benchmark water and wastewater tariffs for selected major cities, 2015
Figure 83.13 Overseas development assistance for the water and sanitation sector, 2008–2014
83.3 Current and future projects
Figure 83.14 Projects tracked by GWI
83.4 Market forecast
Figure 83.15 Market forecast, 2013–2020
Figure 83.16 Market forecast breakdown, 2016
Figure 83.17 Market forecast data, 2013–2020
84. TUNISIA
84.1 Water availability and demand
Figure 84.1 Water resources
Figure 84.2 Sectoral water withdrawal
84.2 Utility sector
Figure 84.3 Utility service performance
Figure 84.4 Water and wastewater utilities serving greater than 300,000 people
84.2.1 Utility water
Figure 84.5 Water supply indicators
84.2.2 Utility wastewater
Figure 84.6 Wastewater indicators
84.2.3 Utility funding
Figure 84.7 Benchmark water and wastewater tariffs for selected major cities, 2015
Figure 84.8 Overseas development assistance for the water and sanitation sector, 2008–2014
84.3 Current and future projects
Figure 84.9 Projects tracked by GWI
84.4 Market forecast
Figure 84.10 Market forecast, 2013–2020
Figure 84.11 Market forecast breakdown, 2016
Figure 84.12 Market forecast data, 2013–2020
85. TURKEY
85.1 Water availability and demand
Figure 85.1 Water resources
Figure 85.2 Sectoral water withdrawal
85.2 Utility sector
Figure 85.3 Utility service performance
Figure 85.4 Water and wastewater utilities serving greater than 300,000 people
85.2.1 Utility water
Figure 85.5 Water supply indicators
Figure 85.6 Number of people connected to water supply network
Figure 85.7 Percentage of people connected to water supply network
Figure 85.8 Number of water connections
Figure 85.9 Utility water supply capacity
85.2.2 Utility wastewater
Figure 85.10 Wastewater indicators
Figure 85.11 Number of people connected to sewerage network
Figure 85.12 Percentage of people connected to sewerage network
Figure 85.13 Volume of wastewater produced
Figure 85.14 Percentage of wastewater collected
Figure 85.15 Percentage of wastewater treated to secondary level
Figure 85.16 Percentage of wastewater treated to tertiary level
Figure 85.17 Wastewater treatment plants by level of treatment
85.2.3 Utility funding
Figure 85.18 Benchmark water and wastewater tariffs for selected major cities, 2015
Figure 85.19 Overseas development assistance for the water and sanitation sector, 2008–2014
85.2.4 Private sector participation
Figure 85.20 Selected major projects involving private sector participation
85.3 Market forecast
Figure 85.21 Market forecast, 2013–2020
Figure 85.22 Market forecast breakdown, 2016
Figure 85.23 Market forecast data, 2013–2020
86. UGANDA
86.1 Water availability and demand
Figure 86.1 Water resources
Figure 86.2 Sectoral water withdrawal
86.2 Utility sector
Figure 86.3 Utility service performance
86.2.1 Utility water
Figure 86.4 Water supply indicators
86.2.2 Utility wastewater
Figure 86.5 Wastewater indicators
86.2.3 Utility funding
Figure 86.6 Benchmark water and wastewater tariffs for selected major cities, 2015
Figure 86.7 Overseas development assistance for the water and sanitation sector, 2008–2014
86.2.4 Private sector participation
Figure 86.8 Selected major projects involving private sector participation
86.3 Current and future projects
Figure 86.9 Projects tracked by GWI
86.4 Market forecast
Figure 86.10 Market forecast, 2013–2020
Figure 86.11 Market forecast breakdown, 2016
Figure 86.12 Market forecast data, 2013–2020
87. UNITED ARAB EMIRATES
87.1 Top market opportunities
87.2 Sector structure and regulation
Figure 87.1 Water sector structure
Figure 87.2 Water sector funding organisations
Figure 87.3 Regulations applicable to the water sector
87.3 Water resources
Figure 87.4 Projected change in water stress by 2020
Figure 87.5 Water resources
Figure 87.6 Water withdrawals by sector, 2010–2030
87.3.1 Desalination
87.3.2 Water reuse
87.3.3 Water transfer
87.3.4 Groundwater protection
87.3.5 Reservoirs and storage
87.3.6 Demand management
87.4 Utility sector
87.4.1 Utility sector strategies and investment planning
87.4.1.1 Water service extension
87.4.1.2 Non-revenue water
87.4.1.3 Smart water
87.4.1.4 Wastewater networks
87.4.1.5 Wastewater treatment
87.4.2 Utility sector structure and performance
Figure 87.7 Utility market structure
Figure 87.8 Water and wastewater utilities serving greater than 300,000 people
Figure 87.9 Utility service performance
Figure 87.10 Water supply indicators
Figure 87.11 Wastewater service indicators
87.4.3 Utility infrastructure
Figure 87.12 Wastewater treatment plants by level of treatment
Figure 87.13 Major wastewater treatment plants
Figure 87.14 Major desalination plants
87.4.4 Utility funding
Figure 87.15 Water and wastewater charges for a benchmark user in selected major cities, 2015
Figure 87.16 Sources of utility funding
Figure 87.17 Sources of debt used to fund utility investments
87.4.5 Utility procurement
Figure 87.18 Procurement models used
Figure 87.19 Criteria for comparing bids on construction contracts
87.4.6 Private sector participation
Figure 87.20 Models of private sector participation
87.4.7 Current and future projects
Figure 87.21 Future utility investment projects
87.5 Industrial water
Figure 87.22 Industrial water market significance
87.6 Market participants
Figure 87.23 Major companies active in the water sector
87.7 Market forecast
87.7.1 Future market directions
87.7.2 Notes on market forecast
Figure 87.24 Market forecast, 2013–2020
Figure 87.25 Market forecast breakdown, 2016
Figure 87.26 Market forecast data, 2013–2020
BR>
VOLUME 5: ASIA PACIFIC
88. AUSTRALIA
89. BANGLADESH
90. CHINA
91. HONG KONG
92. INDIA
93. INDONESIA
94. JAPAN
95. MALAYSIA
96. NEW ZEALAND
97. PAKISTAN
98. PHILIPPINES
99. SINGAPORE
100. SOUTH KOREA
101. SRI LANKA
102. TAIWAN
103. THAILAND
104. VIETNAM
INTERVIEWEES
REFERENCES
GLOBAL WATER MARKET
VOLUME 1: COMPANIES AND MARKETS
PUBLICATION INFORMATION II
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY VII
1. WATER MARKET OVERVIEW
2. WATER AND WASTEWATER TREATMENT
3. NETWORKS AND ENVIRONMENT
4. CHEMICALS & CONSUMABLES

VOLUME 2: THE AMERICAS
5. ARGENTINA
6. BOLIVIA
7. BRAZIL
8. CANADA
9. CHILE
10. COLOMBIA
11. COSTA RICA
12. DOMINICAN REPUBLIC
13. ECUADOR
14. EL SALVADOR
15. GUATEMALA
16. HONDURAS
17. MEXICO
18. PANAMA
19. PARAGUAY
20. PERU
21. TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO
22. UNITED STATES
23. URUGUAY
24. VENEZUELA

VOLUME 3: EUROPE
25. AUSTRIA
26. AZERBAIJAN
27. BELARUS
28. BELGIUM
29. BULGARIA
30. CROATIA
31. CYPRUS
32. CZECH REPUBLIC
33. DENMARK
34. ESTONIA
35. FINLAND
36. FRANCE
37. GERMANY
38. GREECE
39. HUNGARY
40. IRELAND
41. ITALY
42. KAZAKHSTAN
43. LATVIA
44. LITHUANIA
45. LUXEMBOURG
46. NETHERLANDS
47. NORWAY
48. POLAND
49. PORTUGAL
50. ROMANIA
51. RUSSIAN FEDERATION
52. SERBIA
53. SLOVAKIA
54. SLOVENIA
55. SPAIN
56. SWEDEN
57. SWITZERLAND
58. UKRAINE
59. UNITED KINGDOM

VOLUME 4: MIDDLE EAST AND AFRICA
60. ALGERIA
61. ANGOLA
62. BAHRAIN
63. CAMEROON
64. CÔTE D’IVOIRE
65. EGYPT
66. ETHIOPIA
67. GHANA
68. IRAN
69. IRAQ
70. ISRAEL
71. JORDAN
72. KENYA
73. KUWAIT
74. LEBANON
75. MOROCCO
76. NAMIBIA
77. NIGERIA
78. OMAN
79. QATAR
80. RWANDA
81. SAUDI ARABIA
82. SOUTH AFRICA
83. TANZANIA
84. TUNISIA
85. TURKEY
86. UGANDA
87. UNITED ARAB EMIRATES

VOLUME 5: ASIA PACIFIC
PUBLICATION INFORMATION
Unit conversion factors used in this publication:
Exchange rates used in this publication:
Indicators of utility service coverage:
Indicators of water service coverage
Indicators of wastewater service coverage
Icons used in this publication:
Icons representing market sectors
Icons representing technology categories
Icons representing technology applications
Icons representing sector structure responsibilities
Icons representing the scope of private sector participation (PSP) projects
Icons representing significance/prevalence
88. AUSTRALIA
88.1 Top market opportunities
88.2 Sector structure and regulation
Figure 88.1 Water sector structure
Figure 88.2 Regulations applicable to the water sector
88.3 Water resources
Figure 88.3 Projected change in water stress by 2020
Figure 88.4 Water resources
Figure 88.5 Water withdrawals by sector, 2010–2030
88.3.1 Desalination
88.3.2 Water reuse
88.3.3 Groundwater protection
88.3.4 Reservoirs and storage
88.3.5 Demand management
88.4 Utility sector
88.4.1 Utility sector strategies and investment planning
88.4.1.1 Water service extension
88.4.1.2 Asset management
88.4.1.3 Smart water
88.4.1.4 Non-revenue water
88.4.1.5 Wastewater networks
88.4.1.6 Wastewater treatment and polishing
88.4.2 Utility sector structure and performance
Figure 88.6 Utility market structure
Figure 88.7 Water and wastewater utilities serving greater than 300,000 people
Figure 88.8 Utility service performance
Figure 88.9 Water supply indicators
Figure 88.10 Wastewater service indicators
88.4.3 Utility infrastructure
Figure 88.11 Major water treatment plants
Figure 88.12 Major wastewater treatment plants
Figure 88.13 Major desalination plants
Figure 88.14 Major water reuse plants
88.4.4 Utility funding
Figure 88.15 Water and wastewater charges for a benchmark user in selected major cities, 2015
Figure 88.16 Sources of utility funding
Figure 88.17 Sources of debt used to fund utility investments
88.4.5 Utility procurement
Figure 88.18 Procurement models used
Figure 88.19 Criteria for comparing bids on construction contracts
88.4.6 Private sector participation
Figure 88.20 Models of private sector participation
88.4.7 Current and future projects
Figure 88.21 Future utility investment projects
88.5 Industrial water
Figure 88.22 Industrial water withdrawals
Figure 88.23 Industrial water market significance
88.5.1 Coal seam gas
88.5.2 Mining
88.6 Market participants
Figure 88.24 Major companies active in the water sector
88.7 Market forecast
88.7.1 Future market directions
88.7.2 Notes on market forecast
Figure 88.25 Market forecast, 2013–2020
Figure 88.26 Market forecast breakdown, 2016
Figure 88.27 Market forecast data, 2013–2020
88.8 Data Sources
Figure 88.28 Sources of data used in this report
89. BANGLADESH
89.1 Water availability and demand
Figure 89.1 Water resources
Figure 89.2 Sectoral water withdrawal
89.2 Utility sector
Figure 89.3 Utility service performance
Figure 89.4 Water and wastewater utilities serving greater than 300,000 people
89.2.1 Utility water
Figure 89.5 Water supply indicators
89.2.2 Utility wastewater
Figure 89.6 Wastewater indicators
89.2.3 Utility funding
Figure 89.7 Benchmark water and wastewater tariffs for selected major cities, 2015
Figure 89.8 Overseas development assistance for the water and sanitation sector, 2008–2014
89.3 Current and future projects
Figure 89.9 Projects tracked by GWI
89.4 Market forecast
Figure 89.10 Market forecast, 2013–2020
Figure 89.11 Market forecast breakdown, 2016
Figure 89.12 Market forecast data, 2013–2020
90. CHINA
90.1 Top market opportunities
90.2 Sector structure and regulation
Figure 90.1 Water sector structure
Figure 90.2 Water sector funding organisations
Figure 90.3 Regulations applicable to the water sector
90.2.1 New Discharge Standards
Figure 90.4 New municipal WWTPs discharge standards
Figure 90.5 New municipal sludge management standards
90.2.2 Industrial Standards
Figure 90.6 Execution date of individual discharge standards for selected industries
Figure 90.7 Comparison of old and new discharge standards for selected industries
Figure 90.8 Comparison of old and new standards for the refining and petrochemical industry
90.2.3 Water Pollution Action Plan
Figure 90.9 Targets for municipal sector outlined in Water Pollution Action Plan
90.3 Water resources
Figure 90.10 Projected change in water stress by 2020
Figure 90.11 Water resources
Figure 90.12 Water withdrawals by sector, 2010-2030
90.3.1 Desalination
90.3.2 Water reuse
90.3.3 Water transfer
90.3.4 Groundwater protection
90.3.5 Reservoirs and storage
90.3.6 Demand management
90.4 Utility sector
90.4.1 Utility sector strategies and investment planning
90.4.1.1 Wastewater treatment
90.4.1.2 Sludge management
90.4.1.3 Non-revenue water
90.4.1.4 Water treatment
90.4.2 Utility sector structure and performance
Figure 90.13 Utility market structure
Figure 90.14 Water and wastewater utilities serving greater than 1,000,000 people
Figure 90.15 Utility service performance
Figure 90.16 Water supply indicators
Figure 90.17 Wastewater service indicators
90.4.3 Utility infrastructure
Figure 90.18 Major water treatment plants
Figure 90.19 Wastewater treatment plants by level of treatment
Figure 90.20 Major wastewater treatment plants
Figure 90.21 Major desalination plants
Figure 90.22 Major water reuse plants
90.4.4 Utility funding
Figure 90.23 Water and wastewater charges for a benchmark user in selected major cities, 2015
Figure 90.24 Sources of utility funding
Figure 90.25 Sources of debt used to fund utility investments
Figure 90.26 Overseas development assistance for the water and sanitation sector, 2008-2014
Figure 90.27 An example of a local government initiated water PPP funds
90.4.5 Utility procurement
Figure 90.28 Procurement models used
Figure 90.29 Criteria for comparing bids on construction contracts
Figure 90.30 Examples of the new form of PPP projects in China
90.4.6 Private sector participation
Figure 90.31 Models of private sector participation
Figure 90.32 China’s new PPP initiative since 2014
90.4.7 Current and future projects
Figure 90.33 Future utility investment projects
90.5 Industrial water
Figure 90.34 Industrial water market significance
90.5.1 Coal-to-chemicals
Figure 90.35 Pipeline of CTX projects in China
Figure 90.36 Minimum capacity requirements for CTX projects
Figure 90.37 Regulations on freshwater withdrawal and wastewater discharge for CTX projects
90.5.2 Refining and petrochemicals
90.5.3 Industrial Parks
90.5.4 Power
90.5.5 Microelectronics
90.5.6 Pharmaceuticals
90.6 Market participants
Figure 90.38 Major companies active in the water sector
90.7 Market forecast
90.7.1 Future market directions
90.7.2 Notes on market forecast
Figure 90.39 Market forecast, 2013–2020
Figure 90.40 Market forecast breakdown, 2016
Figure 90.41 Market forecast data, 2013–2020
90.8 Data Sources
Figure 90.42 Sources of data used in this report
91. HONG KONG
91.1 Water availability and demand
Figure 91.1 Water resources
Figure 91.2 Sectoral water withdrawal
91.2 Utility sector
Figure 91.3 Utility service performance
91.2.1 Utility water
Figure 91.4 Water supply indicators
Figure 91.5 Number of people connected to water supply network
Figure 91.6 Percentage of people connected to water supply network
Figure 91.7 Number of water connections
Figure 91.8 Utility water supply capacity
Figure 91.9 Length of water distribution network
91.2.2 Utility wastewater
Figure 91.10 Wastewater indicators
Figure 91.11 Number of people connected to sewerage network
Figure 91.12 Percentage of people connected to sewerage network
Figure 91.13 Number of sewerage connections
Figure 91.14 Percentage of wastewater treated to secondary level
Figure 91.15 Percentage of wastewater treated to tertiary level
Figure 91.16 Length of sewerage network
91.2.3 Utility funding
Figure 91.17 Benchmark water and wastewater tariffs for selected major cities, 2015
91.2.4 Private sector participation
Figure 91.18 Selected major projects involving private sector participation
91.3 Current and future projects
Figure 91.19 Projects tracked by GWI
91.4 Market forecast
Figure 91.20 Market forecast, 2013–2020
Figure 91.21 Market forecast breakdown, 2016
Figure 91.22 Market forecast data, 2013–2020
92. INDIA
92.1 Top market opportunities
92.2 Sector structure and regulation
Figure 92.1 Water sector structure
Figure 92.2 Water sector funding organisations
Figure 92.3 Regulations applicable to the water sector
92.2.1 New Central Pollution Control Board regulations
Figure 92.4 Wastewater discharge standards for municipal WWTPs
92.2.2 National River Ganga Basin Management Bill
92.3 Water resources
Figure 92.5 Projected change in water stress by 2020
Figure 92.6 Water resources
Figure 92.7 Water withdrawals by sector, 2010–2030
92.3.1 Desalination
92.3.2 Water reuse
92.3.3 Water transfer
92.3.4 Groundwater protection
92.3.5 Reservoirs and storage
92.3.6 Demand management
92.4 Utility sector
92.4.1 Utility sector strategies and investment planning
Figure 92.8 India’s first 20 smart cities
92.4.1.1 Water and wastewater service extension
92.4.1.2 Wastewater treatment and polishing
92.4.1.3 Non-revenue water and smart water
92.4.2 Utility sector structure and performance
Figure 92.9 Utility market structure
Figure 92.10 Water and wastewater utilities serving greater than 300,000 people
Figure 92.11 Utility service performance
Figure 92.12 Water supply indicators
Figure 92.13 Wastewater service indicators
92.4.3 Utility infrastructure
Figure 92.14 Major water treatment plants
Figure 92.15 Wastewater treatment plants by level of treatment
Figure 92.16 Major wastewater treatment plants
Figure 92.17 Major desalination plants
Figure 92.18 Major water reuse plants
92.4.4 Utility funding
Figure 92.19 Water and wastewater charges for a benchmark user in selected major cities, 2015
Figure 92.20 Sources of utility funding
Figure 92.21 Sources of debt used to fund utility investments
Figure 92.22 Overseas development assistance for the water and sanitation sector, 2008-2014
92.4.5 Utility procurement
Figure 92.23 Procurement models used
Figure 92.24 Criteria for comparing bids on construction contracts
92.4.6 Private sector participation
Figure 92.25 Models of private sector participation
92.4.7 Current and future projects
Figure 92.26 Future utility investment projects
92.5 Industrial water
Figure 92.27 Industrial water market significance
92.5.1 Power generation
92.5.2 Refining & petrochemicals
92.5.3 Industrial parks and clusters
92.5.4 Pharmaceuticals
92.6 Market participants
Figure 92.28 Major companies active in the water sector
92.7 Market forecast
92.7.1 Future market directions
92.7.2 Notes on market forecast
Figure 92.29 Market forecast, 2013–2020
Figure 92.30 Market forecast breakdown, 2016
Figure 92.31 Market forecast data, 2013–2020
92.8 Data Sources
Figure 92.32 Sources of data used in this report
93. INDONESIA
93.1 Top market opportunities
93.2 Sector structure and regulation
Figure 93.1 Water sector structure
Figure 93.2 Water sector funding organisations
Figure 93.3 Regulations applicable to the water sector
93.3 Water resources
Figure 93.4 Projected change in water stress by 2020
Figure 93.5 Water resources
Figure 93.6 Water withdrawals by sector, 2010–2030
93.3.1 Desalination
93.3.2 Water reuse
93.3.3 Water transfer
93.3.4 Groundwater protection
93.3.5 Reservoirs and storage
93.4 Utility sector
93.4.1 Utility sector strategies and investment planning
93.4.1.1 Water service extension
93.4.1.2 Wastewater networks
93.4.1.3 Non-revenue water
93.4.2 Utility sector structure and performance
Figure 93.7 Utility market structure
Figure 93.8 Water and wastewater utilities serving greater than 300,000 people
Figure 93.9 Utility service performance
Figure 93.10 Water supply indicators
Figure 93.11 Wastewater service indicators
93.4.3 Utility infrastructure
Figure 93.12 Major water treatment plants
Figure 93.13 Major wastewater treatment plants
93.4.4 Utility funding
Figure 93.14 Water and wastewater charges for a benchmark user in selected major cities, 2015
Figure 93.15 Sources of utility funding
Figure 93.16 Sources of debt used to fund utility investments
Figure 93.17 Overseas development assistance for the water and sanitation sector, 2008-2014
93.4.4.1 Tackling utility financial health
93.4.4.2 Commercial lending
93.4.4.3 The funding requirements
Figure 93.18 Drinking water funding requirement, 2015–2019
93.4.4.4 Government funding
Figure 93.19 Cipta Karya TP (APBN) funds for drinking water supply, 2010–2015
Figure 93.20 Special Allocation Funds (DAK) grants for water supply, 2010–2013
93.4.4.5 Official development assistance (ODA)
93.4.5 Utility procurement
Figure 93.21 Procurement models used
Figure 93.22 Criteria for comparing bids on construction contracts
93.4.6 Private sector participation
Figure 93.23 Models of private sector participation
93.4.6.1 Procurement models
93.4.6.2 New regulatory developments
93.4.6.3 Jakarta concessions
93.4.7 Current and future projects
Figure 93.24 Future utility investment projects
93.5 Industrial water
Figure 93.25 Industrial water market significance
93.5.1 Oil & gas
93.5.2 Power generation
93.5.3 Industrial estates
93.6 Market participants
Figure 93.26 Major companies active in the water sector
93.7 Market forecast
93.7.1 Future market directions
93.7.2 Notes on market forecast
Figure 93.27 Market forecast, 2013–2020
Figure 93.28 Market forecast breakdown, 2016
Figure 93.29 Market forecast data, 2013–2020
93.8 Data Sources
Figure 93.30 Sources of data used in this report
94. JAPAN
94.1 Top market opportunities
94.2 Sector structure and regulation
Figure 94.1 Water sector structure
Figure 94.2 Water sector funding organisations
Figure 94.3 Regulations applicable to the water sector
94.3 Water resources
Figure 94.4 Projected change in water stress by 2020
Figure 94.5 Water resources
Figure 94.6 Water withdrawals by sector, 2010–2030
94.3.1 Desalination
94.3.2 Water reuse
94.3.3 Groundwater protection
94.3.4 Reservoirs and storage
94.3.5 Demand management
94.4 Utility sector
94.4.1 Utility sector strategies and investment planning
94.4.1.1 Asset management
94.4.1.2 Non-revenue water
94.4.2 Utility sector structure and performance
Figure 94.7 Utility market structure
Figure 94.8 Water and wastewater utilities serving greater than 300,000 people
Figure 94.9 Utility service performance
Figure 94.10 Water supply indicators
Figure 94.11 Wastewater service indicators
94.4.3 Utility infrastructure
Figure 94.12 Major water treatment plants
Figure 94.13 Wastewater treatment plants by level of treatment
Figure 94.14 Major wastewater treatment plants
Figure 94.15 Major desalination plants
Figure 94.16 Major water reuse plants
94.4.4 Utility funding
Figure 94.17 Water and wastewater charges for a benchmark user in selected major cities, 2015
Figure 94.18 Sources of utility funding
Figure 94.19 Sources of debt used to fund utility investments
94.4.5 Utility procurement
Figure 94.20 Procurement models used
Figure 94.21 Criteria for comparing bids on construction contracts
94.4.6 Private sector participation
Figure 94.22 Models of private sector participation
94.4.7 Current and future projects
Figure 94.23 Future utility investment projects
94.5 Industrial water
Figure 94.24 Industrial water withdrawals
Figure 94.25 Industrial water market significance
94.6 Market participants
Figure 94.26 Major companies active in the water sector
94.7 Market forecast
94.7.1 Future market directions
94.7.2 Notes on market forecast
Figure 94.27 Market forecast, 2013–2020
Figure 94.28 Market forecast breakdown, 2016
Figure 94.29 Market forecast data, 2013–2020
95. MALAYSIA
95.1 Top market opportunities
95.2 Sector structure and regulation
Figure 95.1 Water sector structure
Figure 95.2 Water sector funding organisations
Figure 95.3 Regulations applicable to the water sector
95.3 Water resources
Figure 95.4 Projected change in water stress by 2020
Figure 95.5 Water resources
Figure 95.6 Water withdrawals by sector, 2010–2030
95.3.1 Desalination
95.3.2 Water reuse
95.3.3 Water transfer
95.3.4 Reservoirs and storage
95.3.5 Demand management
95.4 Utility sector
95.4.1 Utility sector strategies and investment planning
95.4.1.1 Water service extension
95.4.1.2 Non-revenue water
95.4.1.3 Wastewater treatment and networks
95.4.2 Utility sector structure and performance
Figure 95.7 Utility market structure
Figure 95.8 Water and wastewater utilities serving greater than 300,000 people
Figure 95.9 Utility service performance
Figure 95.10 Water supply indicators
Figure 95.11 Wastewater service indicators
95.4.3 Utility infrastructure
Figure 95.12 Major water treatment plants
Figure 95.13 Wastewater treatment plants by level of treatment
Figure 95.14 Major wastewater treatment plants
95.4.4 Utility funding
Figure 95.15 Water and wastewater charges for a benchmark user in selected major cities, 2015
Figure 95.16 Sources of utility funding
Figure 95.17 Sources of debt used to fund utility investments
Figure 95.18 Overseas development assistance for the water and sanitation sector, 2008-2014
95.4.5 Utility procurement
Figure 95.19 Procurement models used
Figure 95.20 Criteria for comparing bids on construction contracts
95.4.6 Private sector participation
Figure 95.21 Models of private sector participation
95.4.7 Current and future projects
Figure 95.22 Future utility investment projects
95.5 Industrial water
Figure 95.23 Industrial water market significance
95.5.1 Oil and gas
95.5.2 Power generation
95.5.3 Palm oil production
95.6 Market participants
Figure 95.24 Major companies active in the water sector
95.7 Market forecast
95.7.1 Future market directions
95.7.2 Notes on market forecast
Figure 95.25 Market forecast, 2013–2020
Figure 95.26 Market forecast breakdown, 2016
Figure 95.27 Market forecast data, 2013–2020
96. NEW ZEALAND
96.1 Water availability and demand
Figure 96.1 Water resources
Figure 96.2 Sectoral water withdrawal
96.2 Utility sector
Figure 96.3 Utility service performance
Figure 96.4 Water and wastewater utilities serving greater than 300,000 people
96.2.1 Utility water
Figure 96.5 Water supply indicators
Figure 96.6 Number of people connected to water supply network
Figure 96.7 Percentage of people connected to water supply network
Figure 96.8 Utility water supply capacity
96.2.2 Utility wastewater
Figure 96.9 Wastewater indicators
Figure 96.10 Number of people connected to sewerage network
Figure 96.11 Percentage of people connected to sewerage network
Figure 96.12 Volume of wastewater produced
Figure 96.13 Wastewater treatment plants by level of treatment
96.2.3 Utility funding
Figure 96.14 Benchmark water and wastewater tariffs for selected major cities, 2015
96.2.4 Private sector participation
Figure 96.15 Selected major projects involving private sector participation
96.3 Market forecast
Figure 96.16 Market forecast, 2013–2020
Figure 96.17 Market forecast breakdown, 2016
Figure 96.18 Market forecast data, 2013–2020
97. PAKISTAN
97.1 Water availability and demand
Figure 97.1 Water resources
Figure 97.2 Sectoral water withdrawal
97.2 Utility sector
Figure 97.3 Utility service performance
Figure 97.4 Water and wastewater utilities serving greater than 300,000 people
97.2.1 Utility water
Figure 97.5 Water supply indicators
Figure 97.6 Number of people connected to water supply network
Figure 97.7 Percentage of people connected to water supply network
97.2.2 Utility wastewater
Figure 97.8 Wastewater indicators
Figure 97.9 Number of people connected to sewerage network
Figure 97.10 Percentage of people connected to sewerage network
97.2.3 Utility funding
Figure 97.11 Benchmark water and wastewater tariffs for selected major cities, 2015
Figure 97.12 Overseas development assistance for the water and sanitation sector, 2008–2014
97.3 Current and future projects
Figure 97.13 Projects tracked by GWI
97.4 Market forecast
Figure 97.14 Market forecast, 2013–2020
Figure 97.15 Market forecast breakdown, 2016
Figure 97.16 Market forecast data, 2013–2020
98. PHILIPPINES
98.1 Top market opportunities
98.2 Sector structure and regulation
Figure 98.1 Water sector structure
Figure 98.2 Water sector funding organisations
Figure 98.3 Regulations applicable to the water sector
98.3 Water resources
Figure 98.4 Projected change in water stress by 2020
Figure 98.5 Water resources
Figure 98.6 Water withdrawals by sector, 2010–2030
98.3.1 Desalination
98.3.2 Water reuse
98.3.3 Water transfer
98.3.4 Groundwater protection
98.3.5 Reservoirs and storage
98.3.6 Demand management
98.4 Utility sector
98.4.1 Utility sector strategies and investment planning
98.4.1.1 Water service extension
98.4.1.2 Wastewater treatment facilities and network extension
98.4.1.3 Non-revenue water
98.4.2 Utility sector structure and performance
Figure 98.7 Utility market structure
Figure 98.8 Water and wastewater utilities serving greater than 300,000 people
Figure 98.9 Utility service performance
Figure 98.10 Water supply indicators
Figure 98.11 Wastewater service indicators
98.4.3 Utility infrastructure
Figure 98.12 Major water treatment plants
Figure 98.13 Major wastewater treatment plants
Figure 98.14 Major desalination plants
98.4.4 Utility funding
Figure 98.15 Water and wastewater charges for a benchmark user in selected major cities, 2015
Figure 98.16 Sources of utility funding
Figure 98.17 Sources of debt used to fund utility investments
Figure 98.18 Overseas development assistance for the water and sanitation sector, 2008-2014
98.4.5 Utility procurement
Figure 98.19 Procurement models used
Figure 98.20 Criteria for comparing bids on construction contracts
98.4.6 Private sector participation
Figure 98.21 Models of private sector participation
98.4.7 Current and future projects
Figure 98.22 Future utility investment projects
98.5 Industrial water
Figure 98.23 Industrial water market significance
98.6 Market participants
Figure 98.24 Major companies active in the water sector
98.7 Market forecast
98.7.1 Future market directions
98.7.2 Notes on market forecast
Figure 98.25 Market forecast, 2013–2020
Figure 98.26 Market forecast breakdown, 2016
Figure 98.27 Market forecast data, 2013–2020
99. SINGAPORE
99.1 Top market opportunities
99.2 Sector structure and regulation
Figure 99.1 Water sector structure
Figure 99.2 Water sector funding organisations
Figure 99.3 Regulations applicable to the water sector
99.2.1 Clean Water Policy
99.3 Water resources
Figure 99.4 Water resources
Figure 99.5 Water withdrawals by sector, 2010–2030
99.3.1 Desalination
99.3.2 Water reuse
99.3.3 Water transfer
99.3.4 Reservoirs and storage
99.3.5 Demand management
99.4 Utility sector
99.4.1 Utility sector strategies and investment planning
99.4.1.1 Water treatment upgrades
99.4.1.2 Water polishing
99.4.1.3 Wastewater networks
99.4.1.4 Smart water
99.4.2 Utility sector structure and performance
Figure 99.6 Utility market structure
Figure 99.7 Water and wastewater utilities serving greater than 300,000 people
Figure 99.8 Utility service performance
Figure 99.9 Water supply indicators
Figure 99.10 Wastewater service indicators
99.4.3 Utility infrastructure
Figure 99.11 Major water treatment plants
Figure 99.12 Wastewater treatment plants by level of treatment
Figure 99.13 Major wastewater treatment plants
Figure 99.14 Major desalination plants
Figure 99.15 Major water reuse plants
99.4.4 Utility funding
Figure 99.16 Water and wastewater charges for a benchmark user in selected major cities, 2015
Figure 99.17 Sources of utility funding
Figure 99.18 Sources of debt used to fund utility investments
99.4.4.1 Tariffs
99.4.4.2 Government grants
99.4.4.3 Private finance
99.4.5 Utility procurement
Figure 99.19 Procurement models used
Figure 99.20 Criteria for comparing bids on construction contracts
99.4.6 Private sector participation
Figure 99.21 Models of private sector participation
99.4.7 Current and future projects
Figure 99.22 Future utility investment projects
99.5 Industrial water
Figure 99.23 Industrial water market significance
99.6 Market participants
Figure 99.24 Major companies active in the water sector
99.7 Market forecast
99.7.1 Future market directions
99.7.2 Notes on market forecast
Figure 99.25 Market forecast, 2013–2020
Figure 99.26 Market forecast breakdown, 2016
Figure 99.27 Market forecast data, 2013–2020
99.8 Data Sources
Figure 99.28 Sources of data used in this report
100. SOUTH KOREA
100.1 Water availability and demand
Figure 100.1 Water resources
Figure 100.2 Sectoral water withdrawal
100.2 Utility sector
Figure 100.3 Utility service performance
Figure 100.4 Water and wastewater utilities serving greater than 300,000 people
100.2.1 Utility water
Figure 100.5 Water supply indicators
Figure 100.6 Number of people connected to water supply network
Figure 100.7 Percentage of people connected to water supply network
Figure 100.8 Utility water supply capacity
Figure 100.9 Non-revenue water
Figure 100.10 Length of water distribution network
100.2.2 Utility wastewater
Figure 100.11 Wastewater indicators
Figure 100.12 Number of people connected to sewerage network
Figure 100.13 Percentage of people connected to sewerage network
Figure 100.14 Volume of wastewater produced
Figure 100.15 Percentage of wastewater collected
Figure 100.16 Percentage of wastewater treated to secondary level
Figure 100.17 Percentage of wastewater treated to tertiary level
Figure 100.18 Length of sewerage network
100.2.3 Utility funding
Figure 100.19 Benchmark water and wastewater tariffs for selected major cities, 2015
100.2.4 Private sector participation
Figure 100.20 Selected major projects involving private sector participation
100.3 Market forecast
Figure 100.21 Market forecast, 2013–2020
Figure 100.22 Market forecast breakdown, 2016
Figure 100.23 Market forecast data, 2013–2020
101. SRI LANKA
101.1 Water availability and demand
Figure 101.1 Water resources
Figure 101.2 Sectoral water withdrawal
101.2 Utility sector
Figure 101.3 Utility service performance
Figure 101.4 Water and wastewater utilities serving greater than 300,000 people
101.2.1 Utility water
Figure 101.5 Water supply indicators
Figure 101.6 Number of people connected to water supply network
Figure 101.7 Percentage of people connected to water supply network
Figure 101.8 Number of water connections
Figure 101.9 Utility water supply capacity
101.2.2 Utility wastewater
Figure 101.10 Wastewater indicators
Figure 101.11 Number of people connected to sewerage network
Figure 101.12 Percentage of people connected to sewerage network
Figure 101.13 Number of sewerage connections
101.2.3 Utility funding
Figure 101.14 Benchmark water and wastewater tariffs for selected major cities, 2015
Figure 101.15 Overseas development assistance for the water and sanitation sector, 2008–2014
101.3 Current and future projects
Figure 101.16 Projects tracked by GWI
101.4 Market forecast
Figure 101.17 Market forecast, 2013–2020
Figure 101.18 Market forecast breakdown, 2016
Figure 101.19 Market forecast data, 2013–2020
102. TAIWAN
102.1 Water availability and demand
Figure 102.1 Water resources
Figure 102.2 Sectoral water withdrawal
102.2 Utility sector
Figure 102.3 Utility service performance
Figure 102.4 Water and wastewater utilities serving greater than 300,000 people
102.2.1 Utility water
Figure 102.5 Water supply indicators
Figure 102.6 Number of people connected to water supply network
Figure 102.7 Percentage of people connected to water supply network
Figure 102.8 Number of water connections
102.2.2 Utility wastewater
Figure 102.9 Wastewater indicators
Figure 102.10 Number of people connected to sewerage network
Figure 102.11 Percentage of people connected to sewerage network
Figure 102.12 Number of sewerage connections
Figure 102.13 Volume of wastewater produced
Figure 102.14 Percentage of wastewater collected
Figure 102.15 Length of sewerage network
Figure 102.16 Wastewater treatment plants by level of treatment
102.2.3 Utility funding
Figure 102.17 Benchmark water and wastewater tariffs for selected major cities, 2015
102.2.4 Private sector participation
Figure 102.18 Selected major projects involving private sector participation
102.3 Current and future projects
Figure 102.19 Projects tracked by GWI
102.4 Market forecast
Figure 102.20 Market forecast, 2013–2020
Figure 102.21 Market forecast breakdown, 2016
Figure 102.22 Market forecast data, 2013–2020
103. THAILAND
103.1 Water availability and demand
Figure 103.1 Water resources
Figure 103.2 Sectoral water withdrawal
103.2 Utility sector
Figure 103.3 Utility service performance
Figure 103.4 Water and wastewater utilities serving greater than 300,000 people
103.2.1 Utility water
Figure 103.5 Water supply indicators
Figure 103.6 Number of people connected to water supply network
Figure 103.7 Percentage of people connected to water supply network
103.2.2 Utility wastewater
Figure 103.8 Wastewater indicators
Figure 103.9 Number of people connected to sewerage network
Figure 103.10 Percentage of people connected to sewerage network
Figure 103.11 Wastewater treatment plants by level of treatment
103.2.3 Utility funding
Figure 103.12 Benchmark water and wastewater tariffs for selected major cities, 2015
Figure 103.13 Overseas development assistance for the water and sanitation sector, 2008–2014
103.2.4 Private sector participation
Figure 103.14 Selected major projects involving private sector participation
103.3 Market forecast
Figure 103.15 Market forecast, 2013–2020
Figure 103.16 Market forecast breakdown, 2016
Figure 103.17 Market forecast data, 2013–2020
104. VIETNAM
104.1 Top market opportunities
104.2 Sector structure and regulation
Figure 104.1 Water sector structure
Figure 104.2 Water sector funding organisations
Figure 104.3 Regulations applicable to the water sector
104.3 Water resources
Figure 104.4 Projected change in water stress by 2020
Figure 104.5 Water resources
Figure 104.6 Water withdrawals by sector, 2010–2030
104.3.1 Desalination
104.3.2 Groundwater protection
104.3.3 Reservoirs and storage
104.4 Utility sector
104.4.1 Utility sector strategies and investment planning
104.4.1.1 Water service extension
104.4.1.2 Wastewater networks
104.4.2 Utility sector structure and performance
Figure 104.7 Utility market structure
Figure 104.8 Water and wastewater utilities serving greater than 300,000 people
Figure 104.9 Utility service performance
Figure 104.10 Water supply indicators
Figure 104.11 Wastewater service indicators
104.4.3 Utility infrastructure
Figure 104.12 Major water treatment plants
Figure 104.13 Wastewater treatment plants by level of treatment
Figure 104.14 Major wastewater treatment plants
104.4.4 Utility funding
Figure 104.15 Water and wastewater charges for a benchmark user in selected major cities, 2015
Figure 104.16 Sources of utility funding
Figure 104.17 Sources of debt used to fund utility investments
Figure 104.18 Overseas development assistance for the water and sanitation sector, 2008-2014
104.4.4.1 Official Development Assistance (ODA)
104.4.4.2 The investment deficit
104.4.5 Utility procurement
Figure 104.19 Procurement models used
Figure 104.20 Criteria for comparing bids on construction contracts
104.4.6 Private sector participation
Figure 104.21 Models of private sector participation
104.4.6.1 Existing PPP projects
104.4.6.2 PPP decree
104.4.6.3 Privatisation
104.4.7 Current and future projects
Figure 104.22 Future utility investment projects
104.5 Industrial water
Figure 104.23 Industrial water market significance
104.5.1 Power generation
104.5.2 Garments and textiles
104.5.3 Industrial zone development
104.6 Market participants
Figure 104.24 Major companies active in the water sector
104.7 Market forecast
104.7.1 Future market directions
104.7.2 Notes on market forecast
Figure 104.25 Market forecast, 2013–2020
Figure 104.26 Market forecast breakdown, 2016
Figure 104.27 Market forecast data, 2013–2020
INTERVIEWEES
REFERENCES

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