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Colombia: In-depth PESTLE Insights

Colombia: In-depth PESTLE Insights

Summary

This PESTLE country analysis report on Colombia provides a holistic view of the country, with insightful analysis of current and future issues, supplemented with relevant quantitative data to support trend analysis.

Synopsis

  • Understand the political system in Colombia through analysis of key figures in the country and governance indicators.
  • Understand the economic situation in Colombia through a balanced assessment of core macroeconomic issues.
  • Understand customer demographics in Colombia through analysis of income distribution and the rural-urban split, as well as healthcare and education.
  • Understand the technological landscape in Colombia through analysis of relevant laws and policies, as well as patents data.
  • Understand the legal landscape in Colombia through analysis of the judicial system as well as performance of the legal indicators
  • Understand the environmental landscape in Colombia through analysis of the environmental regulations and the performance of the environmetal indicators
Scope
  • The political landscape section discusses the evolution of the political scenario in Colombia, as well as the country's economic, social, foreign, and defense policies. The section also discusses the country's performance according to World Bank Governance Indicators.
  • The economic landscape section outlines the evolution of Colombia's economy, as well as the country's performance in terms of GDP growth, composition by sector (agriculture, industry, and services), fiscal situation, international investment position, monetary situation, credit disbursement, banking sector, and employment.
  • The social landscape section analyzes the government's social welfare policies, as well as the country's performance in terms of healthcare, income distribution, and education.
Reasons to buy
  • What is the outlook in Colombia in terms of political stability, policies towards business, and the popularity of the government?
  • How does Colombia perform in terms of GDP growth, its fiscal situation, international investment position, monetary situation, and employment?
  • How does Colombia perform in terms of healthcare, income distribution, and education?
  • How does Colombia perform in terms of technology-intensive sectors like IT, life sciences, and R&D expenditure trends?


Overview
Catalyst
Summary
Key findings
PESTLE highlights
Key fundamentals
Key Facts and Geographic Location
Key facts
Geographical location
PESTLE Analysis
Summary
Political analysis
Overview
Current strengths
Current challenges
Future prospects
Future risks
Economic analysis
Overview
Current strengths
Current challenges
Future prospects
Future risks
Social analysis
Overview
Current strengths
Current challenges
Future prospects
Future risks
Technological analysis
Overview
Current strengths
Current challenges
Future prospects
Future risks
Legal analysis
Overview
Current strengths
Current challenges
Future prospects
Future risks
Environmental analysis
Overview
Current strengths
Current challenges
Future prospects
Future risks
Political Landscape
Summary
Evolution
Structure and policies
Key political figures
Structure of government
Key political parties
Composition of government
Key policies
Performance
Governance indicators
Outlook
Economic Landscape
Summary
Evolution
Structure and policies
Financial authorities and regulators
Stock markets
Performance
GDP and growth rate
Fiscal situation
Exports and imports
Current account
Debt situation
International investment position
Credit rating
Monetary situation
Inflation
Interest rate
Employment
Outlook
Social Landscape
Summary
Evolution
Structure and policies
Demographic composition
Education
Healthcare
Social welfare
Performance
Healthcare
Education
Income distribution
Outlook
Technology Landscape
Summary
Evolution
Structure and policies
Innovation governance
Intellectual property
Performance
Telecommunications
R&D expenditure
Outlook
Legal Landscape
Summary
Evolution
Structure and policies
Judicial system
Legislation affecting business
Tax regulations
Performance
Effectiveness of the legal system
Outlook
Environmental Landscape
Summary
Evolution
Structure and policies
Environmental regulations
Participation in global efforts, agreements, and pacts
Performance
Environmental impact
Outlook
Appendix
ISO codes of selected countries
Ask the analyst
Disclaimer
List of Tables
Table 1: Colombia – Key Fundamentals, 2015–2022f 6
Table 2: Colombia – Key Facts, 2018 15
Table 3: Analysis of Colombia’s Political Landscape 20
Table 4: Analysis of the Colombian Economy 24
Table 5: Analysis of Colombia’s Social System 41
Table 6: Analysis of Colombia’s Technological Landscape 50
Table 7: Frequency of Internet Use in Colombia (Number of People in Thousands), 2017 53
Table 8: Holdings of ICT Goods in Micro-establishments According to Economic Activities in Colombia, 2016 54
Table 9: Analysis of Colombia’s Legal Landscape 55
Table 10: Analysis of Colombia’s Environmental Landscape 59
Table 11: Banco de la República Policy Interest Rate, 2016–2018 82
Table 12: Mid-year Population by Age in Colombia (% by Gender), 2017 86
Table 13: Patents Granted by US Patent and Trademark Office, 2010–2015 93
List of Figures
Figure 1: Map of Colombia 16
Figure 2: Petroleum Production and Consumption in Colombia (1,000 Barrels per Day), 1980–2017 25
Figure 3: Primary Coal Production and Consumption in Colombia (Million Tons), 1980–2016 26
Figure 4: Natural Gas Production and Consumption in Colombia (Billion Standard Cubic Meters), 2013–2017 27
Figure 5: External Debt Balance Guaranteed by the Central Government ($ Billion), 1990–2017 28
Figure 6: Gross Capital Formation in Colombia (COP Trillion/Constant Prices), 2011–2016 29
Figure 7: Infrastructure Quality in Comparison to the OECD, 2015 30
Figure 8: Quality of Transport Infrastructure in Colombia, Logistics Performance Index, 2018 31
Figure 9: Tax Revenue as a Percentage of GDP, 2016 32
Figure 10: Expanding Banking Business (Commercial Banks/Borrowers), 2008–2017 33
Figure 11: Depositors with the Commercial Banks (Number of Depositors), 2008–2017 34
Figure 12: Growing Domestic Credit (% of GDP), 2007–2016 35
Figure 13: Agricultural Land Area (1,000 Square Kilometers/% of Land Area), 2006–2015 36
Figure 14: Increasing Agricultural Output (Value Added per Worker), 2008–2017 37
Figure 15: Current Account Balance ($ Billion/% of GDP), 2008–2017 38
Figure 16: Bank Nonperforming Loans to Total Gross Loans (%), 2008–2017 39
Figure 17: Bank Capital to Assets Ratio (%), 2018–2017 40
Figure 18: Poverty Headcount Ratio at National Poverty Lines (% of Population), 2016 43
Figure 19: Relative Income Poverty by Age Group (%), 2013–2014 44
Figure 20: Informal and Formal Employment in Colombia (Million Persons/%), 2008–2018 45
Figure 21: Protection of Permanent Workers Against Individual and Collective Dismissals, 2014 46
Figure 22: Healthcare Expenditure in Colombia ($/% of GDP), 2007–2016 47
Figure 23: Distribution of Income by Population Quintile in Colombia (%), 2016 48
Figure 24: Income Inequality in Select Nations from South America (%), 2016 49
Figure 25: R&D Intensity (%) in Selected Latin American Countries, 2015 51
Figure 26: Innovation in the Manufacturing Sector as a Percentage of All Manufacturing Firms, 2015 52
Figure 27: Product Market Regulations, 2014 57
Figure 28: Natural Resources Rents (% of GDP), 2007–2016 61
Figure 29: Growing Urbanization and Pollution Level (Micrograms per Cubic Meter/%), 2010–2017 62
Figure 30: Colombia – Key Political Events Timeline 64
Figure 31: Key Political Figures in Colombia 65
Figure 32: Composition of the Chamber of Representatives (Lower House) after the 2018 Congressional Elections 67
Figure 33: Historical GDP Growth Rate in Colombia (%), 2008–2017 72
Figure 34: GDP and GDP Growth Rate in Colombia ($ Billion/%), 2013–2022f 74
Figure 35: GDP Composition by Sectors, 2017 75
Figure 36: Agriculture Output of Colombia (CPL Trillion/%), 2012–2017 76
Figure 37: Industrial Output of Colombia (CPL Trillion/%), 2012–2017 77
Figure 38: Services Output of Colombia (CPL Trillion/%), 2012–2017 78
Figure 39: External Trade of Colombia ($ Billion), 2013–2017 79
Figure 40: Consumer Price Index and Consumer Price Index-based Inflation in Colombia, 2012–2022f 81
Figure 41: Unemployment and Rate of Unemployment in Colombia (Millions/%), 2012–2022f 83
Figure 42: Major Religions in Colombia, 2014 87
Figure 43: Total Expenditure on Healthcare in Colombia ($ Billion/%), 2008–2017 89
Figure 44: Public Expenditure on Education in Colombia ($ Billion/%), 2007–2016 90
Figure 45: Internet Users in Colombia (Million Users/%), 2008–2017 94
Figure 46: Research and Development Expenditure in Colombia (% of GDP), 2006–2015 95
Figure 47: CO2 Emission in Colombia (Tons/%), 2008–2015 101

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