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Colombia: In-depth PESTLE Insights

Colombia: In-depth PESTLE Insights

Summary

This PESTLE country analysis report on Colombia provides a holistic view of the country, with insightful analysis of current and future issues, supplemented with relevant quantitative data to support trend analysis.Key Highlights

  • The political landscape section discusses the evolution of the political scenario in Colombia, as well as the country's economic, social, foreign, and defense policies. The section also discusses the country's performance according to World Bank Governance Indicators.
  • The economic landscape section outlines the evolution of Colombia's economy, as well as the country's performance in terms of GDP growth, composition by sector (agriculture, industry, and services), fiscal situation, international investment position, monetary situation, credit disbursement, banking sector, and employment.
  • The social landscape section analyzes the government's social welfare policies, as well as the country's performance in terms of healthcare, income distribution, and education.
  • Scope
    • Understand the political system in Colombia through analysis of key figures in the country and governance indicators.
    • Understand the economic situation in Colombia through a balanced assessment of core macroeconomic issues.
    • Understand customer demographics in Colombia through analysis of income distribution and the rural-urban split, as well as healthcare and education.
    • Understand the technological landscape in Colombia through analysis of relevant laws and policies, as well as patents data.
    Reasons to buy
    • What is the outlook in Colombia in terms of political stability, policies towards business, and the popularity of the government?
    • How does Colombia perform in terms of GDP growth, its fiscal situation, international investment position, monetary situation, and employment?
    • How does Colombia perform in terms of healthcare, income distribution, and education?
    • How does Colombia perform in terms of technology-intensive sectors like IT, life sciences, and R&D expenditure trends?


    Overview 2
    Catalyst 2
    Summary 2
    Key findings 2
    PESTLE highlights 6
    Key fundamentals 7
    Key Facts and Geographic Location 15
    Key facts 15
    Geographical location 16
    PESTLE Analysis 17
    Summary 17
    Political analysis 19
    Overview 19
    Current strengths 20
    Current challenges 20
    Future prospects 21
    Future risks 22
    Economic analysis 23
    Overview 23
    Current strengths 23
    Current challenges 28
    Future prospects 31
    Future risks 35
    Social analysis 37
    Overview 37
    Current strengths 37
    Current challenges 38
    Future prospects 40
    Future risks 42
    Technological analysis 44
    Overview 44
    Current strengths 44
    Current challenges 44
    Future prospects 45
    Future risks 46
    Legal analysis 48
    Overview 48
    Current strengths 48
    Current challenges 49
    Future prospects 51
    Future risks 51
    Environmental analysis 52
    Overview 52
    Current strengths 52
    Current challenges 52
    Future prospects 53
    Future risks 53
    Political Landscape 55
    Summary 55
    Evolution 55
    Structure and policies 57
    Key political figures 57
    Structure of government 57
    Key political parties 57
    Composition of government 59
    Key policies 59
    Performance 61
    Governance indicators 61
    Outlook 62
    Economic Landscape 63
    Summary 63
    Evolution 63
    Structure and policies 64
    Financial authorities and regulators 64
    Stock markets 65
    Performance 66
    GDP and growth rate 66
    Fiscal situation 70
    Exports and imports 70
    Current account 71
    Debt situation 72
    International investment position 72
    Credit rating 72
    Monetary situation 72
    Inflation 72
    Interest rate 73
    Employment 74
    Outlook 75
    Social Landscape 76
    Summary 76
    Evolution 76
    Structure and policies 76
    Demographic composition 76
    Education 78
    Healthcare 79
    Social welfare 79
    Performance 80
    Healthcare 80
    Education 81
    Income distribution 81
    Outlook 81
    Technology Landscape 83
    Summary 83
    Evolution 83
    Structure and policies 83
    Innovation governance 83
    Intellectual property 84
    Performance 84
    Telecommunications 84
    R&D expenditure 85
    Outlook 86
    Legal Landscape 87
    Summary 87
    Evolution 87
    Structure and policies 87
    Judicial system 87
    Legislation affecting business 88
    Tax regulations 88
    Performance 88
    Effectiveness of the legal system 88
    Outlook 89
    Environmental Landscape 90
    Summary 90
    Evolution 90
    Structure and policies 90
    Environmental regulations 90
    Participation in global efforts, agreements, and pacts 91
    Performance 91
    Environmental impact 91
    Outlook 92
    Appendix 93
    ISO codes of selected countries 93
    Ask the analyst 94
    Disclaimer 94
    List of Tables
    Table 1: Colombia – key fundamentals 7
    Table 2: Colombia – key facts 15
    Table 3: Analysis of Colombia’s political landscape 19
    Table 4: Analysis of the Colombian economy 23
    Table 5: Analysis of Colombia’s social system 37
    Table 6: Analysis of Colombia’s technological landscape 44
    Table 7: Frequency of internet use in Colombia (2016) 46
    Table 8: Holdings of ICT goods in micro-establishments according to economic activities in Colombia (2016) 47
    Table 9: Analysis of Colombia’s legal landscape 48
    Table 10: Analysis of Colombia’s environmental landscape 52
    Table 11: Banco de la República policy interest rate 74
    Table 12: Mid-year population by age in Colombia (percentage by gender), 2016 77
    Table 13: Patents granted by US Patent and Trademark Office, 2010–15 84
    List of Figures
    Figure 1: Map of Colombia 16
    Figure 2: Oil production and consumption in Colombia, 1980–2016 24
    Figure 3: Coal production and consumption in Colombia, 1980–2015 25
    Figure 4: Natural gas production and consumption in Colombia, 1980–2015 26
    Figure 5: External debt balance guaranteed by the central government, 1990-2016 27
    Figure 6: GDP relative to United States, 2000-2016 27
    Figure 7: Gross Domestic Product ($ billion, constant prices, 2010 PPPs) 28
    Figure 8: Logistics performance index: Quality of trade and transport-related infrastructure (1=low to 5=high) - 2016 29
    Figure 9: Quality of port infrastructure (2016), WEF (1=extremely underdeveloped to 5=well developed and efficient by international standards) 30
    Figure 10: Tax revenue – 2016 31
    Figure 11: Growing domestic credit and falling non-performing loans, 2006-2016 32
    Figure 12: Expanding banking business, 2007-2015 33
    Figure 24: Agricultural land area, 2008-2015 34
    Figure 25: Increasing agricultural output, 2007-2016 35
    Figure 13: Current account balance, 2008-2016 36
    Figure 14: Relative Poverty rates, 2014 38
    Figure 15: Relative income poverty by age group, 2013-14 39
    Figure 16: Informal and formal employment in Colombia 40
    Figure 17: Protection of permanent workers against individual and collective dismissals, 2014 41
    Figure 18: Healthcare expenditure in Colombia, 2007-2016 42
    Figure 19: Income inequality in Colombia, 2015 43
    Figure 20: R&D intensity (%) in selected Latin American countries, 2015, or latest available year 45
    Figure 21: Percentage of firms introducing new products to the market by sector, 2010-12 47
    Figure 22: Product market regulation (2013) 50
    Figure 23: Declining natural resources rents, 2007-2015 53
    Figure 26: Growing urbanization and pollution level, 2010-2016 54
    Figure 27: Colombia – key political events timeline 56
    Figure 28: Key political figures in Colombia 57
    Figure 29: Composition of the Chamber of Representatives (lower house) after March 2014 elections 59
    Figure 30: Historical GDP growth rate in Colombia, 2006–16 64
    Figure 31: GDP and GDP growth rate in Colombia, 2011–21f 66
    Figure 32: GDP composition by sectors, 2016 67
    Figure 33: Agriculture output of Colombia, 2011–16 68
    Figure 34: Industrial output of Colombia, 2011–16 69
    Figure 35: Services output of Colombia, 2011–16 70
    Figure 36: External trade of Colombia, 2012–16 71
    Figure 37: Consumer price index and consumer price index-based inflation in Colombia, 2011–21f 73
    Figure 38: Unemployment and rate of unemployment in Colombia, 2011–21f 74
    Figure 39: Major religions of Colombia (2014) 78
    Figure 40: Total expenditure on healthcare in Colombia, 2009–15 80
    Figure 41: Public expenditure on education in Colombia, 2010–16 81
    Figure 42: Internet users in Colombia, 2012–16 85
    Figure 43: Research and development expenditure in Colombia, 2007–15 86
    Figure 44: CO2 emission in Colombia, 2008–15 92

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