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Piezoelectric Sensors And Ultrasonic Transducers - Types, Materials, Applications, New Developments, Industry Structure And Global Markets

PIEZOELECTRIC SENSORS AND ULTRASONIC TRANSDUCERS - TYPES, MATERIALS, APPLICATIONS, NEW DEVELOPMENTS, INDUSTRY STRUCTURE AND GLOBAL MARKETS

Due to the emergence of the Internet of Things (IoT) and automation in industrial processing and home applications, the demand for sensors and transducers has increased dramatically. A sensor is a device which detects change in physical parameters and converts it into signals which can be recorded or measured, e.g., vibration sensors which convert vibrations into voltage signals. A transducer is a device which converts energy in primary form into corresponding energy signals in a different form. Important primary forms of energy include, for example, mechanical, electromagnetic, thermal, chemical and optical energy.

Sensors are used throughout agriculture, the power sector, healthcare, the automotive industry, telecommunications, instrumentation, and many other areas. To meet demand in these areas, various sensor-based products have been developed. Today, sensors are in use in gadgets for everyday living, as well as in airplanes, cellular telephones, radios and TVs, chemical and industrial plants, and more. Due to the boom in wireless standard compliant devices based on WiFi, Zigbee and Bluetooth, home automation has become reality. Home automation relies heavily on sensors of various kinds, such as proximity sensors and motion sensors, liquid level sensors, smoke sensors, magnetic sensors, temperature sensors and light sensors, among others.

Piezoelectric sensors rely on the piezoelectric effect to measure a plethora of parameters such as pressure, strain, or force by converting them to voltages. Technically, piezoelectric sensors and transducers are one and the same. But piezoelectric sensors, more often than not, operate purely as sensors and do not apply voltage to generate an effect, as occurs in transducers. Key piezoelectric sensor products covered in this paper include the generic product families of accelerators, force sensors and pressure sensors.

Ultrasonic transducers include devices that produce ultrasonic signals (transmitters) which are received by other transducers (receivers) or devices that alternate between transmitting an ultrasonic signal and receiving a reflected signal (transmitter-receivers). The six generic families of transducers covered in this paper include flow sensors, proximity sensors, level sensors, acoustic sensors, medical imaging equipment and fluid property sensors.

The two non-military product groups covered – piezoelectric sensors and ultrasonic transducers – basically originate from the same material group, piezoelectric materials comprised of different grades of piezoelectric crystals, ceramics such as PZT, PVDF and ceramic/polymer composites.

STUDY GOAL AND OBJECTIVES

The goal of this report is to provide a detailed and comprehensive multi-client study of the markets in North America, Europe, Japan, China, Korea and the rest of the world (ROW) for PE sensors and ultrasonic transducers based on piezoelectric ceramic, polymer and ceramic/polymer composite devices. This study provides data about the size and growth of markets, company profiles and industry trends for three categories of piezoelectric (PE) sensors and five generic sensor products. The report also highlights potential business opportunities.

A primary objective of this report is thorough coverage of underlying economic issues driving the growth in demand for PE sensors and ultrasonic transducers, as well as assessments of advanced piezoelectric devices that are being developed. Another important objective is to provide realistic market data and forecasts for PE sensors and ultrasonic transducers. This study provides the most thorough and up-to-date assessment that can be found anywhere on the subject. The study also provides extensive quantification of the many important facets of worldwide market development for PE sensors and ultrasonic transducers. This, in turn, contributes to a determination of the kinds of strategic responses companies may adopt in order to compete in these dynamic markets.

Users of PE sensors and ultrasonic transducers in developed markets must contend with twin pressures – to innovate and, at the same time, to reduce costs. New applications for PE sensors and ultrasonic transducers have been proposed in recent years. This study condenses all of these business-related issues and opportunities.

REASONS FOR DOING THE STUDY

The PE sensors and ultrasonic transducers market is an attractive and still-growing multi-billion-dollar market characterized by very high production volumes of a diversified range PE sensors and ultrasonic transducers that must be both extremely reliable and low in cost. Growth in the PE sensors market continues to be driven by increasing demands in several segments including predictive maintenance and condition monitoring; testing and measurement of vibration in mechanical, electrical and manufacturing equipment and applications; vibration monitoring; high temperature applications; and harsh and explosive applications.

The diversified business of PE sensors and ultrasonic transducers is complex and fast moving, with manufacturers increasingly adopting a truly global view of the market. Around the world, consumers are demanding high quality along with an extremely long cycle life. In this challenging market, manufacturers have attempted to achieve growth through company mergers and acquisitions and by implementing global strategies. Traditional PE sensors have a broad customer base, and new applications such as wireless sensors, miniaturized and tactile sensors, and structural health monitoring have now entered the mainstream and are showing significant sales volumes.

Ultrasonic sensors for medical imaging have a broad customer base, and new applications such as high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) have now entered the mainstream and are showing significant sales volumes.

Structural health monitoring (SHM), tactile sensors (touch sensors), piezoelectric wafer active sensors (PWASs) for structural health monitoring of composite structures, and ultrasonic fingerprint sensors (PMUTs) that use a piezoelectric micro-machined ultrasonic transducer array integrated with complementary metal oxide semiconductor electronics sensor arrays are other areas showing significant growth.

With this background of new emerging technologies and applications, iRAP felt a need to conduct a detailed study and update technology developments and markets. This report identifies and evaluates new markets and new product developments which show potential growth for PE sensors and ultrasonic transducers.

CONTRIBUTIONS OF THE STUDY

This study provides the most complete accounting of the current market and future growth in PE sensors and ultrasonic transducers in North America, Europe, Japan, China and the rest of the world (ROW). It provides the most thorough and up-to-date assessment that can be found anywhere on the subject. The study also provides extensive quantification of the many important facets of market developments in emerging markets, such as China, for PE sensors and ultrasonic transducers. This quantification, in turn, contributes to the determination of what kind of strategic response suppliers may adopt in order to compete in these dynamic markets. Audiences for this study include directors of technology, marketing executives, business unit managers and other decision makers in the PE sensors and ultrasonic transducer companies, as well as those companies peripheral to this business.

FORMAT AND SCOPE

The market data contained in this report quantify opportunities for PE sensors and ultrasonic transducers. In addition to product types, this report also covers the merits and future prospects of the PE sensors and ultrasonic transducers business, including corporate strategies, information technologies, and the means for providing these highly advanced product and service offerings. This report also covers in detail the economic and technological issues regarded by many as critical to the industry’s current state of change. It provides a review of the PE sensors and ultrasonic transducers industry and its structure, and of the many companies involved in providing these products. The competitive positions of the main players in the piezoelectric devices market and their strategic options are also discussed, along with such competitive factors as marketing, distribution and operations.

TO WHOM THE STUDY CATERS

The study will benefit existing manufacturers of PE sensors and ultrasonic transducers that seek to expand and diversify their applications of PE sensors and ultrasonic transducers based on piezo materials like QCP-quartz crystal piezos, PZT, PVDF and ceramic polymer composites which are positioned to become a preferred solution for many applications. This study also will benefit users of PE sensors and ultrasonic transducers looking for new challenges and applications.

REPORT SUMMARY

Piezoelectric sensors and ultrasonic transducers, benefiting from the development of piezoelectric materials, have become a key enabling technology for a wide range of industrial, consumer, electronic, home automation and internet of things (IoT) applications. This market has experienced robust growth in the last two decades, and it will continue to witness strong growth in the next years, with certain application markets enjoying double digital growth.

The diversified business of piezoelectric (PE) sensors and ultrasonic transducers is complex and fast moving, with manufacturers increasingly adopting a truly global view of the market. Around the world, consumers are demanding high quality as well as an extremely long cycle life for their gadgets. In this challenging market, manufacturers have attempted to achieve growth through company mergers and acquisitions and by implementing global strategies.

Ultrasonic sensors for medical imaging have a broad customer base, and new applications such as high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) have now entered the mainstream and are showing significant sales volumes.

Ultrasonic transducers have developed into universal solutions that cover a wide range of applications, offering reliable operation in environments where traditional sensing technologies are unsuitable. They detect objects with utmost precision, operate in harsh and problematic environments, and are unaffected by target shape or color.

Six categories of ultrasonic transducers are covered in this report, including:

  • liquid flow sensors.
  • proximity transducers, combined with position and distance transducers.
  • level transducers.
  • acoustic transducers combined with ultrasonic transducers for non-destructive testing.
  • ultrasonic medical imaging transducers.
  • fluid property testing sensors.
According to the new iRAP report, the global market for traditional PE sensors and ultrasonic transducers is quite mature in applications. The combined market is estimated to have reached $4.3 billion in 2015 and is expected to grow at a growth rate of 6.7% to reach $6 billion 2020.


INTRODUCTION
STUDY GOAL AND OBJECTIVES
REASONS FOR DOING THE STUDY
CONTRIBUTIONS OF THE STUDY
SCOPE AND FORMAT
METHODOLOGY
INFORMATION SOURCES
TARGET AUDIENCE FOR THE STUDY
AUTHOR’S CREDENTIALS
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
SUMMARY TABLE: GLOBAL MARKET SIZE/PERCENTAGE SHARE FOR PIEZOELECTRIC SENSORS AND ULTRASONIC TRANSDUCERS COMBINED (NON-MILITARY), 2015 AND 2020
SUMMARY FIGURE: PERCENTAGES OF MARKET SHARE FOR PIEZOELECTRIC SENSORS AND ULTRASONIC TRANSDUCERS, 2015 AND 2020
INDUSTRY OVERVIEW
MANUFCTURERS
USERS OF VIBRATION SENSORS/FORCE SENSORS/PRESSURE SENSORS
USERS OF ULTRASONIC TRANSDUCERS
SPECIALIST GROUPS
ASSOCIATIONS
GOVERNMENT REGULATING BODIES FOR MEDICAL IMAGING
TECHNOLOGY OVERVIEW
THE PIEZOELECTRIC EFFECT AND TECHNOLOGY
FERROELECTRIC DOMAINS AND POLARIZATION TO PIEZOELECTRIC
ORTHOGONAL SYSTEM FOR PIEZOELECTRIC MATERIALS
FIGURE 1: ORTHOGONAL SYSTEM TO DESCRIBE PIEZOELECTRIC MATERIALS
DIRECT AND INVERSE PIEZO EFFECTS
MODES OF PIEZOELECTRIC EFFECTS
TABLE 1: FIVE MODES OF PIEZOELECTRIC EFFECTS
DEFINITIONS OF COMMON TERMS USED IN PIZO SENSORS AND TRANDUCERS
PIEZOELECTRIC CHARGE CONSTANT
TABLE 2: PIEZOELECTRIC CHARGE CONSTANTS
PIEZOELECTRIC VOLTAGE CONSTANT
TABLE 3: PIEZOELECTRIC VOLTAGE CONSTANTS
PERMITTIVITY
TABLE 4: PIEZOELECTRIC PERMITTIVITY
ELECTROMECHANICAL COUPLING FACTOR (SPECIFIC TO ULTRASONIC TRANSDUCERS)
TABLE 5: PIEZOELECTRIC ELECTROMECHANICAL COUPLING FACTORS
DIELECTRIC DISSIPATION FACTOR OR DIELECTRIC LOSS FACTOR (SPECIFIC TO ULTRASONIC TRANSDUCERS)
CURIE TEMPERATURE
MECHANICAL QUALITY FACTOR
ACOUSTIC IMPEDANCE (SPECIFIC TO ULTRASONIC TRANSDUCERS)
WIDER BANDWIDTH (Q < 3 TYPICALLY)
ATTENUATION OF SOUND WAVES (SPECIFIC TO ULTRASONIC TRANSDUCERS)
REQUIRED FUNCTIONAL CHARACTERISTICS OF PIEZOELECTRIC SENSOR DEVICES
SENSITIVITY RANGE
FREQUENCY RANGE
ENVIRONMENTAL REQUIREMENTS
TEMPERATURE RANGE
HUMIDITY
HIGH AMPLITUDE VIBRATION SIGNALS
HAZARDOUS ENVIRONMENTS (GAS, DUST, ETC.)
PIEZO CHARACTERISTICS OF PZT MATERIALS FOR SENSORS
TABLE 6: COMPARISON OF HARD AND SOFT PZT PROPERTIES
TABLE 7: PROPERTIES OF SOFT PIEZOELECTRIC CERAMICS FOR MANUFACTURE OF SENSORS
PIEZOELECTRIC MATERIALS
PREFERRED COMMERCIAL GRADES OF SOFT PIEZOCERAMICS USED FOR MANUFACTURING PIEZOELECTRIC SENSORS
TABLE 8: MANUFACTURERS’ PREFERRED GRADES OF SOFT PIEZOELECTRIC MATERIALS FOR THE MANUFACTURE OF SENSORS
PIEZOELECTRIC CRYSTALS
FIGURE 2: PIEZO CRYSTAL CUTS FOR SENSOR APPLICATIONS
ACCELEROMETERS/GYROS
TABLE 9: PARAMETERS USED IN PIEZOCRYSTAL ACCELEROMETERS
QUARTZ CRYSTALS FOR PIEZOELECTRIC SENSORS AND TRANSDUCERS
QUARTZ CRYSTALS FOR PIEZOELECTRIC SENSORS AND TRANSDUCERS (CNTD.)
TABLE 10: KEY MANUFACTURERS OF ARTIFICIAL QUARTZ CRYSTALS FOR PIEZOELECTRIC SENSORS
PVDF AS AN ALTERNATIVE PIEZOELECTRIC MATERIAL
PVDF FOR PIEZOELECTRIC SENSORS AND ULTRASONIC TRANSDUCERS
TABLE 11: LEADING MANUFACTURERS OF PVDF FOR ULTRASONIC TRANSDUCERS
TABLE 12: SIZES OF PVDF PIEZOELECTRIC FILMS FOR ULTRASONIC TRANSDUCERS
PIEZOELECTRIC COMPOSITES FOR ULTRASONIC TRANSDUCERS FOR MEDICAL IMAGING
FIGURE 3: THREE PHASES OF PVDF MATERIAL
TABLE 13: INDIVIDUAL PROPERTIES OF PZT AND PVDF
TABLE 14: PROPERTIES OF PIEZOELECTRIC COMPOSITES AT DIFFERENTT POLING FIELDS
TRANSDUCERS FOR MEDICAL IMAGING (CNTD.)
TYPES OF CERAMIC-POLYMER COMPOSITES
Ceramic-polymers with 3-3 connectivity
Ceramic-polymers with 1-3 connectivity
Ceramic-polymer with 3-0 connectivity
Composite with 3-1 and 3-2 connectivity
Ceramic-polymer with 0-3 connectivity
TABLE 15: COMPARISON OF PIEZOELECTRIC PROPERTIES OF CERAMIC COMPOSITES TO PVDF AND STANDARD NAVY GRADE CERAMICS
TABLE 16: KEY MANUFACTURERS OF CERAMIC-POLYMER COMPOSITES FOR ULTRASONIC TRANSDUCERS
PIEZOELECTRIC SENSORS
TABLE 17: CHARACTERISTICS OF PIEZO SENSORS BY DIFFERENT TECHNOLOGIES
TYPES OF PIEZOELECTRIC SENSORS
ACCELEROMETERS/VIBRATION SENSORS
TABLE 18: COMPARISON OF IEPE SENSORS USING PIEZOCERAMICS AND A QUARTZ ELEMENT
CONSTRUCTION FEATURES OF ACCELEROMETERS
FIGURE 4: TYPES OF LOW FREQUENCY PIEZOELECTRIC ACCELEROMETERS
TYPES OF PIEZOELECTRICACCELERATORS
Low frequency piezoelectric accelerators
TABLE 19: PIEZOELECTRIC VELOCITY TRANSDUCER PERFORMANCE AT DIFFERENT SENSITIVITIES
High frequency piezoelectric accelerators
Multi-axis piezoelectric accelerators
High temperature piezoelectric accelerators
Precision piezoelectric accelerometers
FIGURE 5: PRECISION CLASS MINIATURE PIEZOELECTRIC ACCELEROMETER
Embeddable piezoelectric accelerometers
FIGURE 6: EMBEDDED FREQUENCY PIEZOELECTRIC ACCELEROMETER
Handheld piezoelectric accelerators/vibration meter (handprobes)
Hazardous area approved piezoelectric accelerators
MARKET FOR ACCELEROMETERS
TABLE 20: GLOBAL MARKET FOR PIEZOELECTRIC ACCELEROMETERS BY TYPE, 2015 AND 2020
PRESSURE SENSORS
CONSTRUCTION
FIGURE 7: SCHEMATIC VIEW OF PIEZOELECTRIC PRESSURE SENSOR
SENSITIVITY OF PIEZOELECTRIC PRESSURE SENSORS
TYPES OF PIEZOELECTRIC PRESSURE SENSORS
General purpose piezoelectric pressure sensors
High sensitivity piezoelectric pressure sensors
High frequency shockwave/blast/explosion piezoelectric pressure sensors
Ballistics piezoelectric pressure sensors
Engine combustion piezoelectric pressure sensors
High-temperature and cryogenic piezoelectric pressure sensors
Rocket motor piezoelectric pressure sensors
TABLE 21: GLOBAL MARKET OF PIEZOELECTRIC PRESSURE SENSORS BY TYPE THROUGH 2015-2020
FORCE SENSORS
PIEZOELECTRIC CRYSTAL FORCE TRANSDUCERS
FIGURE 8: PIEZOELECTRIC FORCE SENSORS
Multi-component crystal force sensor/transducer
CONSTRUCTION AND DESIGN OF PIEZOELECTRIC FORCE SENSORS
Mounting of a load washer
FIGURE 9: PRE-LOADED LOAD WASHER AS A PIEZOELECTRIC FORCE SENSOR
FIGURE 10: CROSS-SECTION OF A TYPICAL FORCE SENSOR
QUANTIFICATION OF FORCE SENSORS
Range
Temperature
Sensitivity
Linearity
PIEZOELECTRIC SENSOR APPLICATION SEGMENTS
APPLICATIONS OF PIEZOELECTRIC ACCELEROMETERS
GENERAL PURPOSE APPLICATIONS
Case study1-bearing monitoring
Case study 2-gear subharmonics
Case study 3-cooling towers
SHOCK AND VIBRATION
MODEL ANALYSIS SURVEYS
HIGH TEMPERATURE AND INDUSTRIAL USES
MARKET SIZE
TABLE 22: GLOBAL MARKET OF PIEZOELECTRIC ACCELEROMETERS OR VIBRATION SENSORS BY APPLICATION, 2015 AND 2020
APPLICATIONS OF PIEZOELECTRIC PRESSURE SENSORS
STATIC AND DYNAMIC APPLICATIONS
Case study 1-injection molding of plastic material:
Case study 2-electromechanical nc joining systems:
HYDRAULIC AND FUEL SYSTEMS MEASUREMENTS
BALLISTICS AND BLAST MEASUREMENT
COMBUSTION ENGINE TESTING
MISCELLANEOUS PRESSURE SENSORS
MARKET SIZE
TABLE 23: GLOBAL MARKET FOR PIEZOELECTRIC PRESSURE SENSORS BY APPLICATION, 2015 AND 2020
APPLICATIONS OF PIEZOELECTRIC FORCE SENSORS
QUASISTATIC AND DYNAMIC TESTING
Case study 1-automotive testing
Case study 2-biomechanics
Case study 3-weigh-in-motion (wim) equipment
METAL WORKING STUDIES
Case study - monitoring for forming/deep-drawing processes
STRAIN MEASUREMENT
INDUSTRIAL PROCESS CONTROL APPLICATIONS
Case study 1 - high-quality welding as a customized industrial solution
Case study 2-friction welding
Case study 3-wire bonding:
MISCELLANEOUS
MARKET SIZE
TABLE 24: GLOBAL MARKET OF PIEZOELECTRIC FORCE SENSORS BY APPLICATION, 2015 AND 2020
ULTRASONIC TRANSDUCERS
OVERVIEW
TABLE 25: CATEGORIES OF ULTRASONIC MEASUREMENTS AND THEIR APPLICATIONS
FIGURE 11: ROLE OF MATCHING LAYER IN CONSTRUCTION OF TRANSDUCER
TABLE 26: PERFORMANCE OF VARIOUS MATERIALS USED AS THE FINAL ACOUSTIC IMPEDANCE MATCHING LAYER ON THE PIEZOELECTRIC ELEMENT
ROLE OF THE PIEZOELECTRIC ELEMENT IN ULTRASONIC TRANSDUCERS
ULTRASONIC SENSOR CONSTRUCTION
FIGURE 12: ULTRASONIC PROXIMITY SENSOR COMPONENTS
BASIC COMPONENTS
Transducer/receiver
Comparator and detector circuit
Solid-state output switching device
Sensing
FIGURE 13: ULTRASONIC SENSING DISTANCE
ULTRASONIC FLOW MEASUREMENT TRANSDUCERS
FIGURE 14: PRINCIPLE AND CONSTRUCTION OF ULTRASONIC FLOW SENSORS
TYPES OF ULTRASONIC FLOW METERS
Doppler
Transit time
SAMPLE SPECIFICATIONS FOR AN ULTRASONIC FLOW TRANSDUCER
MARKET SIZE
TABLE 27: GLOBAL MARKET OF ULTRASONIC FLOW TRANSDUCERS BY TYPE, 2015 AND 2020
ULTRASONIC POSITION/DISTANCE/PROXIMITY TRANSDUCERS
SAMPLE SPECIFICATIONS FOR AN ULTRASONIC PROXIMITY TRANSDUCER
ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES
OPERATION AND DESIGN OF ULTRASONIC PROXIMITY SENSORS
FIGURE 15: PRINCIPLE OF ULTRASONIC PROXIMITY SENSORS
Two-point ultrasonic proximity switches
FIGURE 16: TWO-POINT ULTRASONIC PROXIMITY SENSORS
RETRO-REFLECTIVE ULTRASONIC SENSORS
FIGURE 17: PRINCIPLE OF RETRO-REFLECTIVE ULTRASONIC PROXIMITY SENSORS
Through-beam ultrasonic sensor
FIGURE 18: PRINCIPLE OF THROUGH-BEAM ULTRASONIC PROXIMITY SENSORS
MARKET SIZE
TABLE 28: GLOBAL MARKET OF ULTRASONIC POSITION, DISTANCE AND PROXIMITY TRANSDUCERS BY TYPES THROUGH 2015-2020
ULTRASONIC LEVEL TRANSDUCERS
OPERATING PRINCIPLE
FIGURE 19: ULTRASONIC LEVEL TRANSDUCERS
NON-CONTACT ULTRASONIC SENSORS
CONTACT ULTRASONIC SENSORS
SAMPLE SPECIFICATIONS FOR AN ULTRASONIC LEVEL TRANSDUCER
ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF ULTRASONIC LEVEL TRANSDUCERS
MARKET SIZE
TABLE 29: GLOBAL MARKET FOR ULTRASONIC LEVEL TRANSDUCERS BY TYPE, 2015 AND 2020
PRINCIPLES OF ULTRASONIC TESTING
FIGURE 20: PRINCIPLE OF AN ULTRASONIC TRANSDUCER USED FOR NONDESTRUCTIVE TESTING
MAJOR TYPES OF ULTRASONIC TRANSDUCERS FOR NONDESTRUCTIVE TESTING
FIGURE 21: ULTRASONIC NONDESTRUCTIVE TESTING TRANSDUCERS
PHASED-ARRAY TRANSDUCERS
SYNTHETIC APERTURE TRANSDUCERS
MARKET SIZE
TABLE 30: GLOBAL MARKET FOR ACOUSTIC EMISSION SENSORS AND NONDESTRUCTIVE TESTING EQUIPMENT BY TYPE, 2015 AND 2020
APPLICABLE INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS FOR ULTRASONIC NONDESTRUCTIVE TESTING
NEW DEVELOPMENTS IN ULTRASONIC TESTING TRANSDUCERS
ACOUSTIC EMISSION TRANSDUCERS USED FOR NONDESTRUCTIVE TESTING
TABLE 31: ACOUSTIC EMISSION SENSOR TYPES
SAMPLE SPECIFICATION FOR AN ACOUSTIC EMISSION TRANSDUCER
ULTRASONIC MEDICAL IMAGING TRANSDUCERS
MATERIAL SELECTION CRITERIA FOR THE PIEZO ELEMENT AND THE ROLE OF THE MATCHING LAYER IN MEDICAL ULTRASONIC TRANSDUCERS
MATERIAL SELECTION CRITERIA FOR THE PIEZO ELEMENT AND THE ROLE OF THE MATCHING LAYER IN MEDICAL ULTRASONIC TRANSDUCERS (CNTD.)
BASIC PRINCIPLE OF MEDICAL ULTRASONIC PROBES
FIGURE 22: CONSTRUCTION OF A TYPICAL MEDICAL ULTRASONIC PROBE
Function of the backing material
Function of the acoustic matching layer
Function of the acoustic lens
TYPES OF ULTRASONIC TRANSDUCERS FOR MEDICAL USE
Array module
Two-dimensional probe
Mechanical three-dimensional probe
TABLE 32: ULTRASONIC MEDICAL TRANSDUCERS/PROBES
REGULATION OF MEDICAL ULTRASONIC TRANSDUCERS
MARKET SIZE
FLUID PROPERTY MEASUREMENT
TABLE 33: QUARTZ TUNING FORK MEASUREMENT FUNCTIONS IN PROCESS ANALYSIS AND MONITORING
MARKET SIZE
APPLICATIONS OF ULTRASONIC TRANSDUCERS
ULTRASONIC FLOW SENSORS
Pharmaceuticals industry
Food and beverage industry
Bottling plants
Air bubble detection
FIGURE 23: AIR BUBBLE DETECTION BY ULTRASONIC TRANSDUCERS
Other industries
MARKET SIZE
TABLE 34: GLOBAL MARKET FOR ULTRASONIC TRANSDUCERS/FLOW SENSORS BY APPLICATION/INDUSTRY, 2015 AND 2020
APPLICATIONS OF ULTRASONIC POSITION, DISTANCE AND PROXIMITY SENSORS AND TRANSDUCERS
GENERAL ENGINEERING INDUSTRY
TABLE 35: SAMPLE APPLICATION OF ULTRASONIC PROXIMITY SENSORS IN SEVERAL INDUSTRIES
FACTORY AUTOMATION AND MATERIAL HANDLING LOGISTICS PROCESSES
ROBOTICS
PACKAGING INDUSTRY, FOOD AND BEVERAGE INDUSTRY, BOTTLING PLANTS
PARKING SENSORS
ULTRASONIC SYSTEMS IN VEHICLES
ADDITIONAL APPLICATIONS OF ULTRASONIC PROXIMITY TRANSDUCERS
MARKET SIZE
TABLE 36: GLOBAL MARKET FOR ULTRASONIC TRANSDUCERS/PROXIMITY SENSORS BY APPLICATION/ INDUSTRY, 2015 AND 2020
APPLICATIONS OF ULTRASONIC LEVEL SENSORS
FLUID INDUSTRY HANDLING OF LIQUIDS, FUELS AND OTHER FLUIDS
PUBLIC HEALTH ENGINEERING AND WASTEWATER UTILITIES
FIGURE 24: PRINCIPLE OF ULTRASONIC LIQUID TANK LEVEL MONITORING
MISCELLANEOUS APPLICATIONS
MARKET SIZE
TABLE 37: GLOBAL MARKET FOR ULTRASONIC TRANSDUCER LIQUID TANK LEVEL MONITORING BY APPLICATION/ INDUSTRY, 2015 AND 2020
APPLICATIONS OF ACOUSTIC EMISSION TRANSDUCERS
TABLE 38: EXAMPLES OF APPLICATIONS OF ACOUSTIC EMISSION TRANSDUCERS IN NONDESTRUCTIVE TESTING
TABLE 38 (CNTD.)
TABLE 38 (CNTD.)
NONDESTRUCTIVE TESTING
TABLE 39: EXAMPLES OF USAGE OF ULTRASONIC TRANSDUCERS IN NONDESTRUCTIVE TESTING
MARKET SIZE
APPLICATIONS OF MEDICAL TRANSDUCERS
HIGH-INTENSITY THERAPEUTIC ULTRASOUND (HIFU)
LOW-INTENSITY THERAPEUTIC ULTRASOUND (LIFU)
OTHER USES
MARKET SIZE
TABLE 40: GLOBAL MARKET FOR ULTRASONIC TRANSDUCER/MEDICAL IMAGING END USAGE, 2015 AND 2020
APPLICATIONS OF ULTRASONIC TUNING FORK FLUID PROPERTY SENSORS (FPS)
USAGE FOR ENGINE OILS AND FUELS
USAGE IN HYDRAULIC FLUIDS
OTHER SPECIAL MEASUREMENTS
MARKET SIZE
TABLE 41: GLOBAL MARKET FOR ULTRASONIC FLUID PROPERTIES SENSORS (FPS) BY APPLICATION AREA, 2015 AND 2020
INDUSTRY STRUCTURE AND GLOBAL MARKETS
INDUSTRY STRUCTURE
TABLE 42: TOP SUPPLIERS OF PIEZOELECTRIC MATERIAL FOR SENSORS AND TRANSDUCERS, PRODUCT LINE REFERENCE
COMPETITION
COMPETITIVE STRATEGIES - PIEZOELECTRIC SENSORS
TABLE 43: COMPETING TECHNOLOGIES OF PIEZOELECTRIC SENSORS
COMPETITIVE STRATEGIES AND TECHNOLOGIES
TABLE 44: MAJOR COMPETING TECHNOLOGIES FOR ULTRASONIC SENSORS IN 2015
MERGERS, ACQUISITIONS AND DIVESTITURES
TABLE 45: ACQUISITION DEALS AMONG MANUFACTURERS OF PIEZOELECTRIC SENSORS AND ULTRASONIC TRANSDUCERS FROM 2010 TO 2015
MARKET SIZE
TABLE 46: GLOBAL MARKET SIZE/PERCENTAGE SHARE FOR PIEZOELECTRIC SENSORS AND ULTRASONIC TRANSDUCERS COMBINED (NON-MILITARY), 2015 AND 2020
PIEZOELECTRIC SENSORS
TABLE 47: GLOBAL MARKET SIZE/PERCENTAGE SHARE FOR PIEZOELECTRIC SENSORS BY PRODUCT TYPE, 2015 AND 2020
FIGURE 25: MARKET SHARE FOR PIEZOELECTRIC SENSORS BY TYPE FOR 2015 AND 2020
ULTRASONIC TRANSDUCERS
TABLE 48: GLOBAL MARKET SIZE/PERCENTAGE SHARE FOR ULTRASONIC TRANSDUCERS BY PRODUCT TYPE, 2015 AND 2020
FIGURE 26: MARKET SHARE FOR ULTRASONIC TRANSDUCERS BY TYPE, 2015 AND 2020
MARKET SEGMENTATION BY REGION
TABLE 49: GLOBAL MARKET SIZE/PERCENTAGE SHARE FOR PIEZOELECTRIC SENSORS AND ULTRASONIC TRANSDUCERS COMBINED BY REGION, 2015 AND 2020
FIGURE 27: REGIONAL PERCENTAGES OF MARKET SHARE FOR PIEZOELECTRIC SENSORS AND ULTRASONIC TRANSDUCERS COMBINED, 2015 AND 2020
NEW DEVELOPMENTS
PIEZOELECTRIC SENSOR ARRAYS USED IN STRUCTURAL HEALTH MONITORING
TABLE 50: COMPONENTS OF STRUCTURAL HEALTH MONITORING ARCHITECTURE
TACTILE SENSORS
TABLE 51: EXAMPLES OF TACTILE SENSORS
PIEZOELECTRIC WAFER ACTIVE SENSORS (PWAS)
PIEZOELECTRIC MICROMACHINED ULTRASONIC TRANSDUCERS (PMUT)
WIRELESS VIBRATION SENSORS
APPENDIX I – LISTING OF COMPANIES MANUFACTURING PIEZOELECTRIC SENSORS AND ULTRASONIC TRASDUCERS
ANNON PIEZO TECHNOLOGY CO., LTD.
APC INTERNATIONAL, LTD.
AVL LIST GMBH
SPM INSTRUMENTS
TOSHIBA POWER SYSTEMS INSPECTION SERVICES CO., LTD.
WILXION RESEARCH
APPENDIX II – RAW MATERIALS (QUARTZ PIEZO CRYSTALS, CERAMICS, PVDF AND COMPOSITE) SUPPLIERS TO SENSORS AND TRANSDUCERS MANUFACTURERS
AIRMAR TECHNOLOGY CORPORATION
ANNON TECHNOLOGY CO. LTD.
APC INTERNATIONAL, LTD.
TRS TECHNOLOGIES INC.
WILLOW TECHNOLOGIES LTD.
ZONARE MEDICAL SYSTEMS

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