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Autonomous cars


Therace to develop the first level 5 car

With new players emerging and rapid advances in key autonomous drivingtechnologies, the car and mobility markets are on the verge of majordisruptions that are likely to greatly impact how people travel.

This report presents the underlying technologies needed to achieveautomation. It describes the different levels of autonomy and evaluatesthe potential of such vehicles.

It also analyses the strategies of carmakers andInternet players, who are, newcomers to the car market.

It then reviews the main drivers and barriers to autonomous cardeployment on the market and finally presents sales forecasts for fullyautonomous cars

1. Executive Summary

2. General methodology of IDATE Digiworld’s reports

3. Underlying technologies
3.1. Differences between connected and autonomous cars
3.1.1. Autonomous cars
3.1.2. Connected cars
3.2. Artificial intelligence
3.3. Surroundings detection technology
3.3.1. Lidar
3.3.2. Radar
3.3.3. Cameras
3.3.4. Other sensors
3.4. Connectivity and communication
3.4.1. V2V
3.4.2. V2I
3.4.3. 5G/Cellular V2X
3.4.4. Space-navigation systems
3.4.5. eSIM

4. Issues around autonomous cars
4.1. Levels of autonomous driving
4.2. Autonomous car potential
4.2.1. Safety
4.2.2. Increased convenience
4.2.3. Traffic
4.2.4. Mobility for some non-drivers

5. Strategies
5.1. Major car manufacturers
5.1.1. Overview
5.1.2. General Motors
5.1.3. Ford
5.1.4. BMW
5.1.5. Volkswagen
5.1.6. Tesla
5.2. Internet players
5.2.1. Overview
5.2.2. Google
5.2.3. Apple
5.2.4. Baidu
5.2.5. Uber

6. Autonomous car deployment
6.1. Drivers
6.2. Barriers


List of tables and figures

Table 1: Differences between short-range and long-range radars
Table 2: Benefits and drawbacks of radar for self-driving vehicles
Table 3: 5G scope and automotive applications
Table 4: Autonomous driving levels
Table 5: Possible uses for self-driving taxis
Table 6: Major connected-car deployments
Table 7: Driving assistance features and partners of main carmakers
Table 8: Self-driving focus for main Internet players in the automotive market
Table 9: Uber’s car-sharing services
Table 10: Level 5 car availability
Table 11: Possible impacts of the self-driving cars on vehicle ownership

Figure 1: Fields involved in AI development
Figure 2: Multiple sensors work together for autonomous driving
Figure 3: Lidar using a spinning mirror
Figure 4: How lidar senses the environment
Figure 5: Quanergy solid-state lidar sensors
Figure 6: Velodyne Velarray – a solid-state lidar system
Figure 7: Radar’s applications in Advanced Driving Assistance Systems (ADAS)
Figure 8: Camera applications in autonomous vehicles
Figure 9: Mobileye’s camera-based system for pedestrian detection (for buses and lorries)
Figure 10: Ultrasonic sensors in autonomous driving
Figure 11: Main scenarios where V2V can prevent accidents
Figure 12: Visual representation of V2V and V2I communication
Figure 13: Car displaying the remaining time before a traffic light goes green
Figure 14: Scope of 5G
Figure 15: Direct communications (left) and network communications
Figure 16: Deployment using eUICC
Figure 17: Major causes of traffic accidents
Figure 18: Causes of stress and anxiety in the car
Figure 19: Park Assist (BMW)
Figure 20: OnStar data plans
Figure 21: Testing a self-driving Chevy Bolt electric vehicle
Figure 22: GM’s car-sharing service – Maven
Figure 23: Ford SYNC 3
Figure 24: Autonomous Ford Fusion Hybrid vehicle
Figure 25: BMW ConnectedDrive
Figure 26: Sensor system of BMW autonomous driving
Figure 27: Volkswagen’s Car-Net service
Figure 28: VW Sedric concept car for level 5 autonomous driving
Figure 29: Sensor components enabling Audi A8 level 3 autonomous driving
Figure 30: Model S main connected functions
Figure 31: Enhanced Autopilot systems for autonomous driving
Figure 32: Waze interface
Figure 33: Waymo’s “Firefly” (retired in August 2017)
Figure 34: Chrysler Pacifica Hybrid minivans joining Waymo’s test fleet
Figure 35: Control with CarPlay: Siri Eyes-free button, touchscreen and knob twist
Figure 36: Apple’s self-driving car spotted in California
Figure 37: Baidu-Chery autonomous driving prototype car
Figure 38: Uber-Volvo self-driving car in development
Figure 39: Main reason provided by Americans who would want to ride in a driverless vehicle
Figure 40: Personal vehicles sales (left) and commercial vehicle sales (right)
Figure 41: Most common job in every state
Figure 42: Broad public support for policies limiting the impact of workforce automation
Figure 43: Public is more worried than enthusiastic about self-driving vehicles
Figure 44: Majority of Americans would not want to ride in a driverless vehicle if given the chance
Figure 45: Registered light-duty vehicles per person, per licensed driver and per household, 1984-2011
Figure 46: Sales of autonomous cars (level 5)

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