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Europe Renewable Energy Policy Handbook 2019

Europe Renewable Energy Policy Handbook 2019

Summary

Europe is the region with the most number of countries actively promoting renewable energy. All European Union (EU) member countries have targets designated by the EU in order for the EU to comply with international emission norms. To achieve this, each country has its own National Renewable Energy Action Plan (NREAP) which includes a target to increase renewable energy generation in order to reduce emissions.

Of the non-EU countries, most are party to the Kyoto protocol and have their own voluntarily decided emission reduction targets which have led to renewable energy targets. All the European countries covered in the report have established renewable energy targets. While all EU countries’ NREAP set a target generation of electricity through renewable sources, the non-EU countries have either capacity or generation targets. For instance, Denmark aims to become independent of fossil fuels in their energy mix by 2050.

Europe Renewable Energy Policy Handbook 2019, offers comprehensive information about the renewable energy policies of the European countries. The report provides a clear overview of the regulatory framework, plans, programs and incentives initiated by the individual countries to promote renewable energy sources.

It provides information regarding the financial incentives, renewable energy auctions, net-metering, renewable targets and other plans implemented by the government or utilities of twenty-six countries- Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Greece, Germany, Ireland, Italy, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia Federation, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine and United Kingdom.

Scope

The report provides the renewable framework of the European countries. Its scope including -

  • Study of regulatory framework for twenty-six key European countries - Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Greece, Germany, Ireland, Italy, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia Federation, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine and United Kingdom.
  • Key policies and regulations supporting the development of renewable energy.
  • Information on strategy, roadmaps and other programs to achieve the renewable targets and goals.
  • Financial incentives including Feed-in-tariff, Feed-in-premium, rebates, loans, grants and other tax credits and exemptions to support the implementation of the renewable energy..
Reasons to buy

The report will allow you to -
  • Facilitate decision-making based on policies, plans, targets and strategies of European countries.
  • Develop business strategies by understanding the regulations shaping and driving the renewable energy market
  • Position yourself to gain the maximum advantage of the European country’s regulatory framework
  • Identify key programs and fiscal incentives of individual country.


  • Executive Summary
    • Table Renewable Energy Policy, Europe
  • Introduction
    • Renewable Energy Policy
    • GlobalData Report Guidance
  • Renewable Energy Policy, Austria
    • Renewable Energy Market, Overview
    • Renewable Energy Policy Framework
      • National Renewable Energy Action Plan (NREAP)
        • Table NREAP Target by Renewable Energy Technology, Austria, 2015–2020
      • Energy Strategy, Austria
        • Table Power Market, Austria, Energy Strategy Targets by Sector
        • Table Power Market, Austria, Energy Strategy Targets by Technology
      • Resource Energy Action Plan
      • Green Electricity Act
      • 2012 Green Electricity Act
      • Feed-in Tariffs
        • Table Renewable Energy Policy, Austria, Feed-in Tariffs, 2018
      • Emission Reduction Target
    • Financial Incentives and Policy Support
      • Investment Subsidy for Hydro
      • Investment Subsidy for Off-grid Installations
        • Table Investment Subsidy for Off-grid Installations, Austria, Eligibility by Renewable Source, 2018
      • Investment Subsidy for Small PV
      • Investment Subsidy for PV on Buildings
        • Table Investment Subsidy for PV on Buildings, Austria, Fixed Tariff by Size, 2015–2017
      • Investment subsidy for PV installations in the agricultural and forestry sector
      • Other Amendments in Green Electricity Act, 2017
  • Renewable Energy Policy, Belgium
    • Renewable Energy Market, Overview
    • Renewable Energy Policy Framework
      • National Renewable Energy Action Plan (NREAP)
      • Energy Efficiency Policy
        • Table Power Market, Belgium, Energy Efficiency Targets 2020
      • Electricity Law
      • Nuclear Policy
      • National Climate Plan
      • Green Certificates
        • Table Belgium, Multiplicative Coefficients for Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Installations
        • Table Belgium, Quotas for Green Energy Certificates
      • Subsidies
        • Table Belgium, Amount allocated as subsidies
      • Other support schemes in Belgium
    • Net Metering in Brussels, Flanders, and Wallonia
  • Renewable Energy Policy, Bulgaria
    • Renewable Energy Market, Overview
    • Renewable Energy Policy Framework
      • National Renewable Energy Action Plan (NREAP)
      • European Union Energy Directives
      • Bulgaria Energy Strategy
      • Energy from Renewable Sources Act (ERSA)
      • Feed-in Tariff
        • Table Renewable Energy Feed-in Tariffs, Bulgaria, Eligible Technologies, 2018
        • Table Renewable Energy Feed-in Tariffs, Bulgaria, Amount, 2018
      • Contracts for Difference (CfD) Scheme for Renewable Energy Companies
  • Renewable Energy Policy, Croatia
    • Renewable Energy Market, Overview
    • Renewable Energy Policy Framework
      • National renewable energy action plan, Croatia
        • Table Renewable Energy, Croatia, Capacity targets, 2015–2020
      • Energy policy, Croatia
      • RES support policy
      • Energy Act
      • Premium Tariff support scheme
      • Renewable Energy Sources and High Efficiency Cogeneration Act
      • Regional Energy Efficiency Programme
      • Environment Protection and Energy Efficiency Fund
      • The Environmental Protection Programme of the Croatian Bank for Reconstruction and Development HBOR
  • Renewable Energy Policy, Czech Republic
    • Renewable Energy Market, Overview
    • National Renewable Energy Action Plan
    • National Climate Change Plan
    • State Energy Policy
    • Green Investment Scheme: New Green Savings 2014
    • Energy Management Act
    • Feed-in-tariff
      • Feed-in-tariff
        • Table Renewable Energy Market, Czech Republic, Feed in Tariffs
      • Premium Tariff (Green Bonus)
        • Table Renewable Energy Market, Czech Republic, Premium Tariffs
    • Auctions
    • Tax Exemption for Renewable Energy Use
    • State Program to Promote Energy Savings and Use of Renewable and Secondary Energy Sources
    • Operation Programme Environment
    • Operational Programme Entrepreneurship and Innovation for Competitiveness 2014-2020 – OP IK
  • Renewable Energy Policy, Denmark
    • Renewable Energy Market, Overview
    • Electricity Supply Act
    • National Renewable Energy Action Plan
    • Energy Strategy 2050
    • Promotion of Renewable Energy Act
    • Subsidy scheme for wind and solar power 2018-2019
    • Auctions
      • Table Renewable Energy Auctions, Denmark, 2016-2018
      • Mixed auction
        • Table Denmark, Results of renewable auctions, 2018
      • Cross-border auctions
      • Solar auctions
    • Premium Tariff
      • Wind Power
      • Solar Power
      • Hydropower
      • Biogas and Biomass
    • Tenders for Offshore Wind
    • Net-metering
    • Loan guarantee for construction of wind energy plants
  • Renewable Energy Policy, Finland
    • Renewable Energy Market, Overview
    • National Energy and Climate Strategy of Finland for 2030
      • Renewable Energy Targets
    • Feed-in Tariffs (Premium)
      • Wind
      • Biomass
      • Biogas
    • Net metering
    • New Support Scheme for Renewable Energy (Competitive Tender)
    • Renewable Energy Auctions
    • Ban on Coal in 2029
    • Additional Aid for Biofuel and other Technologies
    • Biofuel obligation in Transport, Heating, and Machinery
    • Smart Metering in Finland
    • Centralized Information Exchange System for the Electricity Retail Market
    • National Energy Efficiency Action Plan
      • Table Power Market, Finland, Energy Saving Targets
      • Energy Efficiency Agreement for Municipalities 2017–2025
    • Energy Aid Scheme
      • Table Power Market, Finland, Investment Aid in Renewable Energy Projects (%), 2018
    • Methane to Markets Partnership
    • BioRefine Technology Program for New Biomass Products
    • Energy Grants for Residential Buildings
  • Renewable Energy Policy, France
    • Renewable Energy Market, Overview
      • Table Renewable Energy, Policy Environment Summary, France
    • National Renewable Energy Action Plan (NREAP), France
    • Energy Transition Act
    • France's Multiannual Energy Programme (Programmation pluriannuelle de l'énergie or PPE)
      • Table Renewable Energy, Multiannual Energy Programme (Programmation pluriannuelle de l'énergie or PPE), France
    • Current Support Environment (Incentives) for Renewable Energy in France
      • Table Renewable Energy, Overview of Current Support Schemes, France
    • Feed-in Tariffs and Feed-in Premiums
      • Table Renewable Energy, Feed-in Tariffs and Premiums, France, 2018
    • The Renewable Energy Tendering System in France
      • Table Renewable Energy, Tender Categories for Renewable Energy Systems, France, 2012–2019
      • Table Renewable Energy, Tenders for Onshore Wind, France, 2016–2020
      • Regulatory Frameworks are blocking the increase in Onshore Wind Capacity
      • Tenders for Offshore Wind
        • Table Renewable Energy, Tenders for Offshore Wind, France, 2011–2018
      • Solar Tenders under PPE
        • Table Renewable Energy, Tenders for Solar Tenders under PPE, France, 2019–2024
      • Solar Tender for Fessenheim Nuclear Conversion Plan
      • Auctions/Competitive Bidding
        • Table Renewable Energy, Awarded/Announced Renewable Energy Auctions ($/MWh), France, 2017–June 2020
    • Heat Fund
      • National
      • Regional
    • France's Carbon Tax and Regulation of Electricity Prices
    • Green Innovation Funding Program
    • National Strategy for Research and Development in the Field of Energy
    • Government Crediting and Loan Guarantee for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Investment
    • Renewable Energy Market Development
    • Tax Credit for Energy Transition (CITE)
    • Reduced VAT for Residential Renewable Energy Equipment
  • Renewable Energy Policy, Germany
    • Renewable Energy Market, Overview
    • Energy Act
    • National Renewable Energy Action Plan
    • Target Grid 2050 Concept
    • Renewable Energy Sources Act, 2017
      • Table Expansion Corridor Targets, Germany, 2020–2050
    • Offshore Wind Act 2017
    • Renewable Energy Auctions
      • Table Renewable Energy Auctions, Germany, 2015-2018
      • Onshore wind energy auctions
      • Offshore wind energy auctions
      • Photovoltaics auctions
        • Table Germany, Solar PV Auction Results, 2015-2018
      • Biomass auctions
        • Table Biopower Market, Germany, Auctions, 2017–2018
      • Cross Border Auctions
      • Joint Auctions for Large Scale Onshore Wind and Solar Power Projects
      • Market Premium
    • Offshore Grid Development Plan 2030 (2017)
    • Emission Trading Scheme
    • Initiatives to Reduce Greenhouse and Carbon Dioxide Emissions
    • Tenants' Solar Power Supply
    • Law on Energy and Climate fund
    • Seventh Energy Research Program- Innovations for the Energy Transition
    • Feed-in Tariff for Geothermal
    • Feed-in Tariff for Solar PV
      • Table Renewable Energy Feed-in Tariff, Germany, Solar Power
    • Feed-in Tariff for Wind Power
      • Table Renewable Energy Feed-in Tariff, Germany, Wind Power
    • Feed-in Tariff for Hydropower
      • Table Renewable Energy Feed-in Tariff, Germany, Hydropower
    • Feed-in-Tariff for Biopower
      • Table Renewable Energy Feed-in Tariff, Germany, Biopower
    • Renewable Energies Heat Act
    • Market Incentive Program
    • KfW Renewable Energy Program
      • KfW Program for Offshore Wind Energy
    • Biofuel Sustainability Ordinance
    • Biofuel Quota
    • Biogas Subsidy
      • Flexibility Premium
      • Flexibility Surcharge
  • Renewable Energy Policy, Greece
    • Renewable Energy Market, Overview
    • Energy Policy, Greece
    • National Renewable Energy Action Plan
      • Table Renewable Energy Policy, Greece, Renewable Energy Targets (%), 2020
    • Generation of Electricity using Renewable Energy Sources
    • New Support Scheme for RES and CHP Producers (Law 4414/2016)
      • Operational Support Scheme
      • ETMEAR Levy
        • Table ETMEAR Rates per Voltage Level, Greece, 2015–2017
    • Feed-in-Tariffs for Renewable Energy Sources
      • Feed-in-Tariff -I
        • Table Renewable Energy Policy, Greece, Wind Energy, Feed-in Tariffs
        • Table Renewable Energy Policy, Greece, Solar PV, Feed-in-Tariffs
        • Table Renewable Energy Policy, Greece, Concentrated Solar Power (CSP), Feed-in-Tariffs
        • Table Renewable Energy Policy, Greece, Geothermal Energy, Feed-in Tariffs
        • Table Renewable Energy Policy, Greece, Biomass and Biofuel, Feed-in Tariffs
        • Table Renewable Energy Policy, Greece, Hydro Power, Feed-in Tariffs
        • Table Renewable Energy Policy, Greece, Existing Hydro Power, Feed-in Tariffs
      • Feed-in-Tariff -II
      • Feed-in-Tariff –III (Feed-In premium exemptions)
        • Table Renewable Energy Policy, Greece, Feed-In Tariffs ( Feed-in premium exemptions)
    • Premium Tariff (Feed-in Premium)
      • Table Renewable Energy Policy, Greece, Feed-In Premium
    • Renewable Energy Auctions
      • Table Renewable Energy Auctions, Greece, 2018
    • The Development Law
      • Subsidies
      • Tax Regulation Mechanism
    • Licensing Procedure for Renewable Energy
    • National Operational Program for Competitiveness II
    • Net Metering
      • Virtual Net Metering
    • Biofuel Quota
  • Renewable Energy Policy, Ireland
    • Renewable Energy Market, Overview
    • Renewable Energy Support Scheme
      • Auction Design
        • Table RESS Auction Stages, Ireland
    • National Renewable Energy Action Plan
      • Feed-In Tariff
        • Table Renewable Energy Feed-in Tariff, Ireland, 2016–2018
      • Biofuel Obligation
    • Solar PV Pilot Scheme
    • Offshore Renewable Energy Development Plan
    • Micro generation Support Scheme
    • White Paper for Sustainable Future of Ireland
    • Climate Change targets
      • Renewable Energy Targets, Ireland
        • Table Renewable and Energy Efficiency Targets, Ireland, 2020
      • Carbon Tax
    • Project Ireland 2040
      • National Development Plan, 2018–2027 and National Planning Framework
    • Better Energy Homes Scheme
  • Renewable Energy Policy, Italy
    • Renewable Energy Market, Overview
    • Renewable Energy for Heating and Cooling and Small Interventions Increasing Energy Efficiency Support Scheme
    • National Energy Strategy 2030
    • National Renewable Energy Action Plan (NREAP)
      • Table Renewable Energy Targets (%), Italy, 2020
    • Renewable Energy Development
    • Feed-in Premium for Renewable Energy Sources Other Than Photovoltaic
      • Table Maximum Time to Reach Operation from Registration (Months), Italy, 2017
      • Table Premium Tariffs for Renewable Technologies, Italy, 2017
    • Regular Feed-in Tariffs
      • Feed-in-tariff I
        • Table Regular Feed-in Tariffs for Renewable Technologies, Italy, 2017
      • Feed-in-tariff II
    • Decree on the Cut of Incentives for Photovoltaic Plants
    • Feed-in Premium for Solar Thermodynamic Energy
      • Table Premium Tariff for Solar Thermodynamic Energy, Italy, 2017
    • Net-Metering Scheme
    • Tendering (Auction) Process
      • Table Price and Volume Caps for Renewable Energy Tenders, Italy, 2016
      • Table Upcoming Renewable Auctions, Italy, 2019-2021
    • New Energy Strategy, 2020–2030
    • New Regulation to Promote Solar and Renewables in Non–Interconnected Islands
    • Kyoto Fund
    • Biomethane subsidies
    • Biodiesel Aid Scheme
    • National Energy Strategy 2017
    • Tax Regulation Mechanism I
    • Tax Regulation Mechanism II
    • Tax Credit for energy efficiency measures
    • Biofuel Quota Obligation
    • White certificates
  • Renewable Energy Policy, Netherlands
    • Renewable Energy Market, Overview
    • National Renewable Action Plan
      • Table Renewable Energy Targets (%), Netherlands, 2020
    • Offshore Wind Energy Act
    • Offshore Wind Tender Regulation
    • Offshore Wind Tenders (Auctions)
      • Table Renewable Energy Auctions (€/MWh and $/MWh), Netherlands, 2016–2018
    • Offshore Wind Energy 2030 Roadmap
    • Energy Agreement for Sustainable Growth
    • Topsector Energie – the Support Scheme for Innovative Energy Projects
    • New CO2 reduction Target in Netherlands
    • Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS)
    • Ban on Coal Power Plants by 2030
    • Carbon Floor Price
    • Subsidies for Co-firing of Biomass in Coal based Plants to end after 2024
    • Phase-out of Natural Gas
    • Feed-in Premium Program SDE+
    • SDE+ 2018
      • Table Power Market, Netherlands, Renewable Energy Subsidy Available under Spring SDE+ Scheme (€ and $), March 2018–April 2018
      • Table Power Market, Netherlands, Renewable Energy Subsidy Available under Autumn SDE+ Scheme (€ and $), October 2018–November 2018
    • Net-Metering
    • "Terugleversubsidie" – A Scheme to end Net Metering from 2020
    • Tax regulation mechanism I (Reduction of Environmental Protection tax)
    • Tax regulation mechanism II (Energy Investment Allowance, EIA scheme)
    • MIA/Vamil: Tax Relief Schemes for Environmentally Friendly Investments
    • Environment Related Budget Proposals for 2019
    • Biofuel Quota
      • Table Biofuel Obligations for Fuel Suppliers Based on Energy Content (%), Netherlands, 2010–2020
    • Green Certificate Trading
    • Green Fund Scheme
    • Guarantee Scheme for Geothermal Energy
    • Grants and Tax Breaks for Green Electricity
    • Green Bonds
    • Green Bonds to be issued in 2019
  • Renewable Energy Policy, Norway
    • Renewable Energy Market, Overview
    • Norway–Sweden Green Certificate Scheme for Electricity Production (Quota System)
      • Table Renewable Energy Quota (MWh), Norway, 2017–2035
    • Guarantees of Origin (GO)
    • National Renewable Energy Action Plan
    • Energi21
    • ENERGIX program: Research Council of Norway
    • Act on Offshore Renewable Energy Production (The Offshore Energy Act)
    • Centers for Environmentally-Friendly Energy Research
    • White Paper on Energy Policies, Norway
    • Horizon 2020: the EU Framework Programme for Research
    • Strategy for Small Scale Hydropower Plants
    • Policy Support for Energy Efficiency
      • Implementation of EU Directives on Energy Efficiency
      • Automobile Fuel Economy
      • Information and Advice on Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy
      • Investment aid for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Measures through Enova SF
    • Transnova
  • Renewable Energy Policy, Poland
    • Renewable Energy Market, Overview
    • Renewable Energy Sources Act (RES Act)
      • Amendments under the RES Act
        • Table Auction baskets, Poland, 2018
    • Renewable Energy Auctions
      • Table Renewable Energy Auctions, Poland, 2016–2018
    • Feed-in-Tariff
      • Table Reference prices for the installation of renewable energy sources, Poland, 2018
    • Feed-in-Premium
    • Declarations under COP24
    • Loan-National Fund for Environmental Protection and Water Management
      • Table Renewable Energy Market, Maximum Cost of Installation, Poland
    • BOCIAN-support for distributed energy sources
      • Table Renewable Energy Loan Beneficiaries, Poland, 2017
    • National Renewable Energy Action Plan
      • Table Renewable Energy Targets (%), Poland, 2020
    • Direction of development for agricultural biogas plants in Poland 2010–2020
    • Polish Energy Policy 2030
    • Polish Energy Policy 2040 (Drafted)
    • Green Investment Scheme
    • Improving Air Quality Programme
    • Energy Law Act
      • Table Renewable Energy Share Levels, Poland, 2013–2021
    • Quota System (Renewable Portfolio Standards)
    • Renewable Energy Tax Excise 2002
    • Subsidy (National Fund for Environmental Protection and Water Management - Prosumer)
    • Environmental Protection Law
    • Energy Efficiency Action Plan
  • Renewable Energy Policy, Portugal
    • Renewable Energy Market, Overview
    • Renewable Energy Guidelines
    • National Renewable Energy Action Plan
      • Table National Renewable Energy Action Plan, Portugal, Renewable Energy Targets (%), 2020
    • Green Growth Commitment 2030
    • Feed-in Tariffs
      • Table Renewable Energy Feed-in-Tariffs, Portugal
    • Renewable Energy Auctions
    • Emissions Trading System (ETS)
    • Carbon Capture and Storage
  • Renewable Energy Policy, Romania
    • Renewable Energy Market, Overview
    • Power Sector Reforms
    • National Renewable Energy Action Plan
    • National Strategy for Sustainable Development 2030
    • Renewable Energy Law
    • Quota System
      • Table Annual quota of E-RES (%), Romania, 2010–2020
      • Table Allocation of Green Certificates , Romania, 2017
    • Subsidy Schemes
      • Measure 4 "Investments in physical assets"
      • Scheme to support less exploited energy sources
    • Biofuel Quota
  • Renewable Energy Policy, Russian Federation
    • Renewable Energy Market, Overview
    • Decree No. 449 on the Mechanism for the Promotion of Renewable Energy on the Wholesale Electricity and Market
      • Auction Process and Localization Requirements
        • Table Minimum Local Content Requirement (%), Russia, 2014–2021
        • Table Annual Limits on Renewable Capacity Addition (MW), Russia, 2014–2020
      • Renewable Energy Auction Results
        • Table Renewable Energy Auction, Russia, 2013-2018
    • Renewable Energy Targets
    • Russia Renewable Energy Program
    • Federal Program for Energy Savings and Energy Efficiency
    • Energy Strategy of Russia to 2030
    • National Climate Doctrine
    • Premium and Certificates Scheme
    • Russia's Climate Plan
  • Renewable Energy Policy, Slovakia
    • Renewable Energy Market, Overview
      • Table Renewable Energy, Sectoral Structure and Policy Environment, 2019
    • Act No. 251/2012 on Energy and amendments to certain acts
    • Act No. 250/2012 on Regulatory Office for Network Industries
    • National Renewable Energy Action Plan (NREAP)
    • Energy Policy 2014 (2035 and 2050 Horizon)
    • Act No. 309/2009 on Support of RES and High Efficiency CHP
    • Major Reform to Slovakia's Renewable Energy Sources Act
    • Implementation of Auctions for Renewable Energy Development
    • Feed-in Tariffs
      • Table Slovakia, Renewable Energy Feed-in Tariffs (€/kWh and $/kWh), 2019
    • `Green to the Households' Program
    • Subsidy (Operational Programme Quality of Environment)
    • Tax Regulation Mechanism (Exemption from excise tax)
    • Regulation no. 295/2011 on the promotion of RES and high efficient cogeneration
    • Act No. 587/2004 on Environmental Fund
    • Slovak Energy Efficiency and RES Finance Facility (SLOVSEFF III)
  • Renewable Energy Policy, Slovenia
    • Renewable Energy Market, Overview
    • National Renewable Action Plan
    • Renewable Energy Support Policy
    • The RES and CHP Support Schemes – Competitive Tender and FiTs
      • Eligibility and Bidding Procedure
        • Table Renewable Energy, Slovenia, Standard Feed-in Tariffs (€/MWh and $/MWh)
    • Premium tariffs
    • Net-Metering System
    • Loan (Eko Fund)
    • Subsidy Scheme of the Ministry for Infrastructure
    • Grid Requirements for Renewable Power Producers
  • Renewable Energy Policy, Spain
    • Renewable Energy Market, Overview
    • Renewable Energy Policy Framework, Major Policies and Incentives
      • Renewable Energy, Targets
      • New Climate Change Plan
      • Legislation Enacted in 2012 and 2013
      • The Royal Decree Law 1/2012
      • The Royal Decree Law 13/2012
      • The Royal Decree Law 15/2012
      • Royal Decree 900/2015 on Self-consumption
      • Royal Decree 413/2014 on Electricity Generation
      • Suspension of Solar Power Tax
      • Sustainable Economy Act
      • Feed-in Tariffs for Renewable Power
      • Feed-in Premiums
      • Auctions for Renewable Energy
      • Tax Regulation Mechanisms
      • Energy Saving and Diversification Investment Fund
      • Certification Program for RES Installation
    • PAREER Program
    • Financial Incentives and Policy Support for Solar Power
    • Financial Incentives and Policy Support for Wind Power
      • Mandatory Local Content Requirement
      • Grid Connection of Small Wind Turbines
      • Offshore Wind Power Regulations
      • Offshore Wind Power Demonstration Projects
    • Financial Incentives and Policy Support for Bioenergy
    • Policy Support for Energy Efficiency
      • Technical Building Code
      • Energy Saving and Efficiency Action Plan
  • Renewable Energy Policy, Sweden
    • Renewable Energy Market, Overview
    • National Renewable Energy Action Plan
    • Green Certificate Scheme
      • Quota Obligation
        • Table Renewable Energy Market, Sweden, Quota Obligation per MWh of electricity sold or consumed, 2018–2045
    • Subsidy for Photovoltaic Installations
    • 2018 solar rebate scheme
    • Cancellation of Solar Tax for commercial PV
    • Removal of the building permit for solar systems
    • Tax Regulation Mechanism I
    • Tax Regulation Mechanism II
      • Table Renewable Energy Market, Sweden, Energy Tax
    • Tax Regulation Mechanism III
    • Energy Efficiency
    • Municipal energy and Climate advisory service
    • New support to municipalities for more wind power
    • Vehicle fleet independent of fossil fuel by 2030
    • Energy, and CO2 tax
      • Table Renewable Energy Market, Sweden, Energy and CO2 Tax Deductions
    • Carbon Tax 2018
      • Table CO2 tax rates, Sweden, 2018
  • Renewable Energy Policy, Switzerland
    • Renewable Energy Market, Overview
    • Electricity Supply Act (ESA)
    • Intended Nationally Determined Contribution (INDC) to the Paris Agreement
    • Energy Strategy 2050
      • Increasing energy efficiency:
      • Renewable energy promotions:
      • Ban on new nuclear power plants
      • Measures in the field of power grids
      • The Swiss Energy Programme
      • Electricity Grid Strategy
    • Switzerland Planning to Harness Solar Power at Mountain Level Elevations
    • Action Plan for a Coordinated Swiss Energy Research
    • Renewable Energy Feed-in Tariffs
      • Wind Energy
        • Table Renewable Energy Feed-in Tariffs, Wind Energy, Switzerland, 2018
      • Solar
        • Table Renewable Energy Feed-in Tariffs, Solar Energy, Switzerland, 2016–2019
      • Geothermal Energy
        • Table Renewable Energy Feed-in Tariffs, Geothermal Energy, Switzerland, 2017
        • Table Current and Proposed Renewable Energy Feed-in Tariffs, Geothermal Energy (CHF/kWh and $/kWh), Switzerland, 2018–2019
      • Hydropower
        • Table Renewable Energy Feed-in Tariffs, Hydropower, Base Payment, Switzerland, 2019
        • Table Renewable Energy Feed-in Tariffs, Hydropower, Compression Bonus, Switzerland, 2019
        • Table Renewable Energy Feed-in Tariffs, Hydropower, Hydraulic Engineering Bonus, Switzerland, 2019
      • Biomass
        • Table Renewable Energy Feed-in Tariffs, Biomass, Base Payment, Switzerland, 2019
        • Table Renewable Energy Feed-in Tariffs, Biomass, Wood Bonus, Switzerland, 2019
        • Table Renewable Energy Feed-in Tariffs, Biomass, Agriculture Bonus, Switzerland, 2019
      • Biogas
        • Table Renewable Energy Feed-in Tariffs, Biogas, Switzerland, 2019
    • Nature-made Labeling Scheme
    • Obligation for Carbon Dioxide Compensation by Fuel Importers
    • Technology Fund for Innovative Technologies
    • Incentive Scheme for Solar plus storage
    • Mineral Oil Tax Exemption for Biofuels
    • Tenders for efficient use of electricity
    • Risk Guarantee Scheme for Geothermal Power Projects
    • Energy Research Program
  • Renewable Energy Policy, Turkey
    • Renewable Energy Market, Overview
    • Regulatory Authorities
    • Electricity Market Law
    • Natural Gas Market Law
    • Omnibus Law
    • Energy Strategy for the 2015–2019 period
    • The Use of Renewable Energy Resources for the Generation of Electrical Energy (Law No. 5346)
    • National Climate Change Action Plan
    • Intended Nationally Determined Condition (INDC)
    • COP24
    • Law on Geothermal Sources and Natural Mineral Water
    • Renewable Energy Law, 2010
    • Feed-in Tariff
      • Table Turkey, Renewable Energy Feed-in Tariffs and Local Content Bonus (€c/kWh and $c/kWh), 2019
      • Table Turkey, Renewable Power Market, Additional Price Incentive for Renewable Power Plants using Local Components
    • Renewable Energy Auctions
      • Table Renewable Energy Auctions, Turkey, 2017-2018
    • Electricity Market Licensing Regulation
      • Amendments to Electricity Market Licensing Regulation
    • Climate Investment Funds
    • Energy Efficiency Law, 2007 (Law No. 5627)
    • Support Scheme for Energy Efficiency in Industry
    • Improving Energy Efficiency in Building Sector
    • Improving Energy Efficiency in All Sectors
  • Renewable Energy Policy, UK
    • Renewable Energy Market, Overview
    • Electricity Market Reform 2011
    • Renewable Energy Targets
    • Climate Change Act
      • Ambitious 2030 Carbon Reduction target
    • Renewable Energy Strategy 2009
    • Renewable Energy Guarantees of Origin
    • Renewable Obligation Order
      • Table Renewable Obligation, Technology Eligibility, UK
      • Table Renewable Obligation (ROC/MWh), UK, 2009–2019
    • Contracts for Difference
      • Table Renewable Energy, CFD First Allocation Round Results , UK, 2015
      • Table Renewable Energy, CFD Second Allocation Round Results , UK, 2017
    • Impact of Brexit on UK energy Industry
    • Carbon Emissions Tax 2018
    • Carbon Price Floor
    • Carbon Price Support
    • Climate Change Levy
      • Table Climate Change Levy (£/kWh/kg), UK, 2016–2019
      • Table Percentage Discount for CCA holders (%), UK, 2016–2019
      • Table Carbon Price Support Rates* for Climate Change Levy, UK, 2015–2019
    • UK green energy investment halves after policy changes
    • Feed-in-Tariffs
      • Solar Power FiT
        • Table Solar Power Feed-in Tariffs, UK (GBP/kWh), 2017–2019
        • Table Solar Power Feed-in Tariffs, UK ($/kWh), 2017–2019
      • Wind Power FiT
        • Table Wind Power Feed-in Tariffs, UK (GBP/kWh), 2017–2019
        • Table Wind Power Feed-in Tariffs, UK ($/kWh), 2017–2019
      • Hydropower FiT
        • Table Hydropower Feed-in Tariffs, UK (GBP/kWh), 2017–2019
        • Table Hydropower Feed-in Tariffs, UK ($/kWh), 2017–2019
      • Biopower FiT
        • Table Biopower Feed-in Tariffs, UK (GBP/kWh), 2017–2019
        • Table Biopower Feed-in Tariffs, UK ($/kWh), 2017–2019
    • Feed in tariffs to end in 2019
    • Policy Support for Energy Efficiency
      • Carbon Reduction Commitment Energy Efficiency Scheme
      • Enhanced Capital Allowances
  • Renewable Energy Policy, Ukraine
    • Renewable Energy Market, Overview
      • Key Electricity Policies, Ukraine
      • Rules of the Wholesale Electricity Market of Ukraine vide Resolution of NERC No 921, September 12, 2003 (Radchenko et al., 2015) Market Liberalization
    • Ukraine's Electricity Market Law (Law no 4493)
    • Law on Alternative Energy Sources
      • Objective
      • Regulation
    • National Renewable Energy Action Plan
    • Feed-in Tariffs (Green Tariffs)
      • Table Renewable Energy Market, Green Coefficients, Ukarine, 2019
    • Auctions for Renewable Energy Projects
    • Other Renewable Energy Programs
    • Energy Efficiency
  • Appendix
    • Market Definitions
      • Power
      • Installed Capacity
      • Electricity Generation
      • Electricity Consumption
      • Thermal Power Plant
      • Hydropower Plant
      • Nuclear Power
      • Renewable Energy Resources
    • Abbreviations
      • Table Abbreviations
    • Bibliography
    • Methodology
    • Coverage
      • Secondary Research
      • Primary Research
      • Modeling and Forecasting
    • Contact Us
    • Disclaimer

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