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The Global Market for Carbon Nanotubes and Graphene in Energy

The Global Market for Carbon Nanotubes and Graphene in Energy

Developing clean and renewable energy is crucial for meeting increasingly world energy needs (it is estimated that the world will need to double its energy supply by 2050) that have arisen from population increases and economic expansion in countries such as China and Brazil.

The need to reduce dependence on fossil fuels, global warming and pollution is also of vital importance. As a result, there is a drive for new technologies for energy storage (batteries and supercapacitors) and energy conversion (solar cells and fuel cells). As the performance of these technologies is dependent on the materials utilized, nanomaterials are providing the impetus for new product innovation.

Numerous studies have demonstrated the potential of graphene and CNT–nanocomposite hybrids to improve the performance of energy storage/conversion devices (e.g., Li ion batteries, supercapacitors, fuel cells, and solar cells).

Graphene has unique properties, including high specific surface area (2630 m2/g), good chemical stability and excellent electrical conductivity. These properties make graphene to be an excellent candidate as a catalyst support for energy conversion and storage applications. Graphene nanoplatelets can increase the effectiveness of lithium-ion batteries when used to formulate electrodes, yielding vastly shorter recharge times. The potential of graphene as hydrogen storage materials is also under investigation, as it has a large surface for hydrogen adsorption

A number of companies are developing energy storage applications for graphene, where it could potentially replace the graphite electrodes found in batteries, supercapacitors and fuel cells. Most activity at present is utilizing graphene as an additive for lithium-ion batteries (LIB) and supercapacitors. Companies are also developing graphene as an ITO replacement material in organic solar cells.

Lithium ion battery electrode designs employing carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have recently demonstrated increased battery energy densities through use as a conductive additive and as a current collector replacement. CNTs as current collectors provide a flexible, lightweight, conductive structure to effectively support high capacity, nanostructured anode active materials like Si and Ge.

The Global Market for Carbon Nanotubes and Graphene in Energy examines opportunities, products, revenues and companies.


RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
1. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
CARBON NANOTUBES
Exceptional properties
Products and applications
Threat from the graphene market
Production
Multi-walled nanotube (MWNT) production
Single-walled nanotube (SWNT) production
Global demand for carbon nanotubes
Current products
Future products
Market drivers and trends
Electronics
Market and production challenges
Safety issues
Dispersion
Synthesis and supply quality
Cost
Competition from other materials
GRAPHENE
Remarkable properties
Global funding
Products and applications
Production
Market drivers and trends
Production exceeds demand
Market revenues remain small but are growing
Scalability and cost
Applications hitting the market
Wait and see?
Asia and US lead the race
Competition from other materials
Market and technical challenges
Supply quality
Cost
Product integration
Regulation and standards
2. INTRODUCTION
Properties of nanomaterials
Categorization
CARBON NANOTUBES
Multi-walled nanotubes (MWNT)
Single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWNT)
Single-chirality
Double-walled carbon nanotubes (DWNTs)
Few-walled carbon nanotubes (FWNTs)
Carbon Nanohorns (CNHs)
Fullerenes
Boron Nitride nanotubes (BNNTs)
Properties
Applications of carbon nanotubes
High volume applications
Low volume applications
Novel applications
GRAPHENE
3D Graphene
Graphene Quantum Dots
Properties
CARBON NANOTUBES VERSUS GRAPHENE
Cost and production
Carbon nanotube-graphene hybrids
3. PATENTS AND PUBLICATIONS
Carbon nanotubes
Graphene
Fabrication processes
Academia
Regional leaders
4. TECHNOLOGY READINESS LEVEL
5. END USER MARKET SEGMENT ANALYSIS
Carbon nanotubes production volumes 2010-2025
Regional demand for carbon nanotubes
Japan
China
Main carbon nanotubes producers
SWNT production
OCSiAl
FGV Cambridge Nanosystems
Zeon Corporation
Price of carbon nanotubes-MWNTs, SWNTs and FWNTs
Graphene production volumes 2010-2025
6. ENERGY STORAGE, CONVERSION AND EXPLORATION
BATTERIES
MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS
MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY
PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS
CHALLENGES
SUPERCAPACITORS
MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS
Problems with activated carbon
MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY
PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS
Challenges
PHOTOVOLTAICS
MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS
MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY
PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS
FUEL CELLS
MARKET DRIVERS
MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY
PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS
Challenges
LED LIGHTING AND UVC
Market drivers and trends
Market size
Properties and applications
OIL AND GAS
MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS
MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY
PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS
PRODUCT DEVELOPERS
Carbon nanotubes
Graphene
6. CARBON NANOTUBES ENERGY COMPANY PROFILES 137-
7. GRAPHENE ENERGY COMPANY PROFILES 155-
REFERENCES
TABLES
Table 1: Properties of CNTs and comparable materials.
Table 2: Carbon nanotubes target markets-Applications, stage of
commercialization and potential addressable market size.
Table 3: Annual production capacity of MWNT and SWNT producers.
Table 4: SWNT producers production capacities 2014.
Table 5: Global production of carbon nanotubes, 2010-2025 in tons/year.
Base year for projections is 2014.
Table 6: Graphene target markets-Applications, stage of
commercialization and potential addressable market size.
Table 7: Graphene producers annual production capacities.
Table 8: Global production of graphene, 2010-2025 in tons/year. Base
year for projections is 2014.
Table 9: Graphene types and cost per kg.
Table 10: Categorization of nanomaterials.
Table 11: Comparison between single-walled carbon nanotubes
(SWCNT) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes.
Table 12: Properties of carbon nanotubes.
Table 13: Properties of graphene.
Table 14: Comparative properties of carbon materials.
Table 15: Comparative properties of graphene with nanoclays and
carbon nanotubes.
Table 16: Published patent publications for graphene, 2004-2014.
Table 17: Leading graphene patentees.
Table 18: Industrial graphene patents in 2014.
Table 19: Market penetration and volume estimates (tons) for carbon
nanotubes and graphene in key applications.
Table 20: Global production of carbon nanotubes, 2010-2025 in
tons/year. Base year for projections is 2014.
Table 34: Current carbon nanotubes prices.
Table 22: Global production of graphene, 2010-2025 in tons/year. Base
year for projections is 2014.
Table 23: Carbon nanotubes in the energy market-Applications, stage of
commercialization and addressable market size.
Table 24: Graphene in the energy market-Applications, stage of
commercialization and addressable market size.
Table 25: Comparative properties of graphene supercapacitors and
lithium-ion batteries.
Table 26: Carbon nanotubes product and application developers in the
energy industry.
Table 27: Graphene product and application developers in the energy
industry.
FIGURES
Figure 1: Molecular structures of SWNT and MWNT.
Figure 2: Production capacities for SWNTs in kilograms, 2005-2014.
Figure 3: Global production of carbon nanotubes, 2010-2025 in tons/year. Base year for projections is 2014.
Figure 4: Global government funding for graphene.
Figure 5: Global market for graphene 2010-2025 in tons/year.
Figure 6: Conceptual diagram of single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) (A) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNT) (B) showing typical dimensions of length, width, and separation distance between graphene layers in MWNTs.
Figure 7: Schematic of single-walled carbon nanotube.
Figure 8: Figure 8: Double-walled carbon nanotube bundle cross-section micrograph and model.
Figure 9: Schematic representation of carbon nanohorns.
Figure 10: Fullerene schematic.
Figure 11: Schematic of Boron Nitride nanotubes (BNNTs). Alternating B and N atoms are shown in blue and red.
Figure 12: Graphene layer structure schematic.
Figure 13: Graphite and graphene.
Figure 14: Graphene and its descendants: top right: graphene;; top left: graphite = stacked graphene;; bottom right: nanotube=rolled graphene;; bottom left: fullerene=wrapped graphene.
Figure 15: Graphene can be rolled up into a carbon nanotube, wrapped
into a fullerene, and stacked into graphite.
Figure 16: CNT patents filed 2000-2014.
Figure 17: Patent distribution of CNT application areas to 2014.
Figure 18: Published patent publications for graphene, 2004-2014.
Figure 19: Technology Readiness Level (TRL) for Carbon Nanotubes.
Figure 20: Technology Readiness Level (TRL) for graphene.
Figure 21: Regional demand for CNTs utilized in transparent conductive films and displays.
Figure 22: Regional demand for CNTs utilized in batteries.
Figure 23: Regional demand for CNTs utilized in Polymer reinforcement.
Figure 24: Global production of graphene, 2010-2025 in tons/year. Base year for projections is 2014.
Figure 25: Nano Lithium X Battery.
Figure 26: Skeleton Technologies ultracapacitor.
Figure 27: Zapgo supercapacitor phone charger.
Figure 28: Suntech/TCNT nanotube frame module.
Figure 74: Solar cell with nanowires and graphene electrode.

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