Temporomandibular Disorders (TMD) and Use of Oral Appliance for Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome in the United States
Temporomandibular Disorders (TMD) is a complex condition that effects joint connecting lower jaw to the skull called temporomandibular joint (TMJ).
Electrosonography (ESG): Digital electrosonography is conducted by a pair of ultra-sensitive transducers placed over temporomandibular joints in the form of headsets. Vibrations from each TMD joint during the jaw movement are recorded and evaluated by the computer using spectral analysis. ESG is an important tool when used in combination with other diagnostic tools to diagnose and confirm TMD pathology.
Computerized Mandibular Scanning (CMS): It measures the rotational movement of the jaw in three dimensions of space and time to within 0.1 mm of accuracy, thus, leading to a thorough assessment of jaw function.
Electromyography (EMG): This measures the activity and dysfunction of the head, face, and neck muscles. EMG consists of a series of tests that more specifically identify and define the hypertonic musculature of the temporomandibular joint. Hyperactivity of the face and jaw muscles are then recorded to determine whether or not the jaw is in a strained position.
Cephalometric analysis is the analysis of dental and skeletal relationships in the head. It is done by using a Cephalometer and it constitutes radiography.
Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation (TENS): It is a physical, therapeutic equipment used to relax acute as well as chronic muscle contraction. The device when placed over the TMD joint stimulates the facial muscles, resulting in full muscle relaxation and increased blood and oxygen flow to the surrounding areas. Once the jaw is completely relaxed, jaw position can be determined accurately.
Oral Appliance (OA) therapy for Sleep Apnea involves selection, fitting and usage of specially designed oral appliance that maintains open and unobstructed airway while sleeping.
OA for TMD involves selection, fitting and usage of a specially designed oral appliance that maintains necessary gap between upper and lower mandibles so that the TMJ heals.