Cities are increasingly seeing an opportunity to stimulate economic growth by opening up their substantial sources of data to digital services innovators. Differentiation, however, lies in the foundations they set in terms of data strategy, governance structures, and partnerships. Second wave cities and towns lack comprehensive funding for projects so seek experience from larger cities in their regions whilst minimising risk, CAPEX, and OPEX. Successful second wave cities invest in their ability to absorb best practices and new technologies and manage partnerships while strengthening skills in utlising a variety of financial instruments, such as public-private partnerships, grants, and loans. Brussels, Oslo, and Manchester are studied here.
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