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Micro Mobility in Japan

Micro Mobility in Japan

Mobility Challenges

The urbanization rate in Japan was 􂀀% in 2014, higher than in Western Europe and North America (about 􂀀%). Urban areas are more congested.

The rail system is well established in Japan’s urban areas. While rural areas suffer from lack of public transport infrastructure, urban areas face first mile and last mile connectivity issues.

Japan is the most ageing society in the world. Over a quarter of the population is 􂀀 years or older and this number is expected to reach 􂀀% by 2060. Mobility for seniors is a key challenge.

Reducing CO2 emissions from transportation is a mobility challenge globally, including in Japan.

Micro Mobility Potential

Micro mobility has the potential to solve mobility challenges because of its compact size, body type, ease of driving, and being electricity driven.

It is expected to address mobility needs for different users such as city dwellers, rural residents, tourists, the elderly, and business users.

The potential is high as city dwellers’ first mile and last mile connectivity, for business use for delivery, and elderly personal mobility.

About this report

Micro mobility is a small vehicle that accommodates 1–2 passengers. At present, many micro mobility models are not allowed on public roads in Japan, as they do not fall under any existing vehicle category. However, social experiments are being conducted in many cities to test the feasibility and usage of micro mobility. This study explains the case studies of such social experiments. It also includes an executive summary, mobility challenges, micro mobility potential, and demonstration experiments of micro mobility.


  • Executive Summary
    • Key Findings
  • Mobility Challenges
    • Challenges of Urbanization and Depopulation
    • Challenge of Connectivity
    • Challenge of Ageing Population
      • Table Ranking of Percent Population Aged 65+, Global, 2014
    • Challenge of Energy and Environment
      • Table Primary Energy Supply by Source, Japan, 1980-2012
      • Table CO2 Emission Share by Category, Japan, 1990-2013
  • Micro Mobility Potential
    • Benefits of Micro Mobility
    • Micro Mobility Solutions for Different Users
    • Scope of Micro Mobility for Travellers
    • Scope of Micro Mobility for Foreign Tourists
    • Scope of Micro Mobility for Delivery Businesses
    • Potential Market Size for Micro Mobility
    • Micro Mobility Options in Japan
  • Demonstration Experiments on Micro Mobility
    • List of Demonstration Experiments
    • Locations of Demonstration Experiments
    • Autonomous Driving-Kumejima, Okinawa
    • One-Way Car Sharing-Yokohama
    • Multimodal Network-Toyota
    • Renewable Energy-Miyakojima, Okinawa
    • Robotics-Tsukuba, Ibaraki
    • Mobility in Vehicle-Restricted Areas-Towada, Aomori
    • Mobility Support for Elderly-Tatebayashi, Gunma
    • Transport with Low-Carbon Emission-Saitama
    • Efficient Logistics in City-Chiyoda, Tokyo
    • Postal Delivery-Nagoya, Aichi
  • Appendix
    • Abbreviations

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