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World Hydrogen

World Hydrogen

World demand to rise 3.5% annually through 2018
Global consumption of merchant and captive hydrogen is forecast to increase 3.5 percent annually through 2018 to 290 billion cubic meters, driven by strong growth in petroleum hydrotreating and hydrocracking refining operations. These advances will be particularly robust in developing countries as per capita vehicle ownership rates rise, and as countries adopt and enforce more stringent emissions regulations to combat increasingly difficult air pollution problems. Merchant supply from industrial gas companies will expand rapidly as hydrogen consumption in upgraded petroleum refineries exceeds the refineries’ available captive resources.

Low-sulfur fuel regulations to continue driving demand
Over the past two decades, the adoption by many developed countries of motor vehicle emissions regulations has led to the need for low-sulfur and ultra-lowsulfur gasoline and diesel fuels, greatly increasing the consumption of hydrogen in refinery hydrotreating operations. This trend will continue to drive demand going forward as developing countries begin to combat persistently difficult air quality issues by implementing and/or enforcing more stringent fuel sulfur regulations. While tightening motor vehicle fuel sulfur regulations will be one factor driving refinery hydrogen demand in developing countries, growth will also be aided by rising per capita vehicle ownership rates and higher demand for fuels. Additionally, the shift in the world’s crude oil supply toward heavier crudes and rising demand for distillate fuels globally will support the increased use of hydrogen in refinery hydrocracking processes to break down heavier petroleum fractions into more valuable products.

Outside of refining, hydrogen is used in the production of many important chemicals; as well as in the metals, electronics, and thin-film solar industries; edible oil processing; and a variety of other applications. Although the chemical industry is the largest of these, more rapid growth is expected in several smaller markets. Additionally, the adoption of hydrogen energy technologies continues to proceed worldwide, and fuel cells will see greater mainstream adoption. Despite technical and other challenges, the emergence of a hydrogen market for fuel cell powered vehicles remains a possibility.

China to claim largest share of new demand growth
Although the United States will remain the world’s largest hydrogen consuming country, the greatest share of growth through 2018 is expected to occur in China. With air pollution in urban areas an increasingly pressing issue, China is expected to aggressively target motor vehicle emissions by enacting and enforcing tighter fuel sulfur regulations. This will drive hydrogen demand growth as the country’s refining industry increases its ability to produce low-sulfur fuels. Other emerging markets such as India and Russia will also seek to export ultralow- sulfur fuels, and will see among the fastest gains in hydrogen demand.

In most developed countries, demand for hydrogen will grow only modestly, if at all. The refining and chemical industries of Western Europe and Japan face stagnant domestic markets as well as strong competition from other areas. The US and Canada, however, will benefit from relatively plentiful raw material supply and the advanced state of their refining industries, allowing for healthier growth in hydrogen demand.


  • INTRODUCTION
  • EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
    • Table WORLD HYDROGEN DEMAND
  • MARKET ENVIRONMENT
    • General
    • World Economic Overview
      • Recent Historical Trends
      • World Economic Outlook
        • Table WORLD GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT BY REGION
    • World Population Overview
      • Table WORLD POPULATION BY REGION
    • World Manufacturing Overview
      • Table WORLD MANUFACTURING VALUE ADDED BY REGION
    • World Chemical Manufacturing Outlook
      • Table WORLD CHEMICAL MANUFACTURING VALUE ADDED BY REGION
    • World Energy Outlook
      • Table WORLD ENERGY PRODUCTION BY TYPE
      • Table CHART II-1 WORLD ENERGY PRODUCTION BY TYPE, 2003-2023
    • World Petroleum Refining Outlook
      • Table WORLD REFINED PETROLEUM PRODUCTS PRODUCTION BY REGION
    • World Fuel Cell Outlook
      • Table WORLD COMMERCIAL FUEL CELL DEMAND BY REGION
      • Table CHART II-2 WORLD COMMERCIAL FUEL CELL DEMAND BY REGION, 2013
    • Environmental & Regulatory Issues
      • General
      • World Fuel Sulfur Regulations
  • TECHNOLOGY
    • General
    • Petroleum Refining
      • Conversion Processes
      • Treatment Processes
    • Hydrogen Production Methods
      • Steam Methane Reforming
      • Partial Oxidation
      • Water Electrolysis
      • Byproduct Hydrogen
      • Other Production Methods
    • Hydrogen Energy
      • General
      • Fuel Cells
    • Hydrogen Storage & Transportation
  • OVERVIEW
    • General
      • Table WORLD HYDROGEN DEMAND
    • World Hydrogen Demand by Region
      • Table WORLD HYDROGEN DEMAND BY REGION
      • Table CHART IV-1 WORLD HYDROGEN DEMAND BY REGION, 2013
      • Table CHART IV-2 SHARE OF WORLD HYDROGEN MARKET GROWTH BY REGION, 2013-2018
    • World Hydrogen Demand by Market
      • Table WORLD HYDROGEN DEMAND BY MARKET
      • Table CHART IV-3 WORLD HYDROGEN DEMAND BY MARKET, 2013
      • Petroleum Refining
        • Table WORLD PETROLEUM REFINING MARKET FOR HYDROGEN
      • Petroleum Refining Hydrogen Demand by Process
        • Table WORLD PETROLEUM REFINING MARKET FOR HYDROGEN BY APPLICATION & SOURCE
      • Chemical Manufacturing
        • Table WORLD CHEMICAL MANUFACTURING MARKET FOR HYDROGEN
      • Other Markets for Hydrogen
        • Table OTHER MARKETS FOR HYDROGEN BY REGION & MARKET
    • Pricing Trends
      • Table HYDROGEN PRICING & VALUATION
  • NORTH AMERICA
    • North America: Macroeconomic Environment
      • Table NORTH AMERICA: MARKET ENVIRONMENT FOR HYDROGEN
    • North America: Hydrogen Demand
      • Table NORTH AMERICA: HYDROGEN DEMAND BY MARKET
      • Table CHART V-1 NORTH AMERICA: HYDROGEN DEMAND BY COUNTRY, 2013
    • North America: Suppliers & Market Share
      • Table CHART V-2 NORTH AMERICA: MERCHANT HYDROGEN MARKET SHARE, 2013
    • United States
      • United States: Macroeconomic Environment
        • Table UNITED STATES: MARKET ENVIRONMENT FOR HYDROGEN
      • United States: Hydrogen Demand
        • Table UNITED STATES: HYDROGEN DEMAND BY MARKET
    • Canada
      • Canada: Macroeconomic Environment
        • Table CANADA: MARKET ENVIRONMENT FOR HYDROGEN
      • Canada: Hydrogen Demand
        • Table CANADA: HYDROGEN DEMAND BY MARKET
    • Mexico
      • Mexico: Macroeconomic Environment
        • Table MEXICO: MARKET ENVIRONMENT FOR HYDROGEN
      • Mexico: Hydrogen Demand
        • Table MEXICO: HYDROGEN DEMAND BY MARKET
  • WESTERN EUROPE
    • Western Europe: Macroeconomic Environment
      • Table WESTERN EUROPE: MARKET ENVIRONMENT FOR HYDROGEN
    • Western Europe: Hydrogen Demand
      • Table WESTERN EUROPE: HYDROGEN DEMAND BY MARKET
      • Table CHART VI-1 WESTERN EUROPE HYDROGEN DEMAND BY COUNTRY, 2013
    • Western Europe: Suppliers & Market Share
      • Table CHART VI-2 WESTERN EUROPE: MERCHANT HYDROGEN MARKET SHARE, 2013
    • Germany
      • Germany: Macroeconomic Environment
        • Table GERMANY: MARKET ENVIRONMENT FOR HYDROGEN
      • Germany: Hydrogen Demand
        • Table GERMANY: HYDROGEN DEMAND BY MARKET
    • Italy
      • Italy: Macroeconomic Environment
        • Table ITALY: MARKET ENVIRONMENT FOR HYDROGEN
      • Italy: Hydrogen Demand
        • Table ITALY: HYDROGEN DEMAND BY MARKET
    • Netherlands
      • Netherlands: Macroeconomic Environment
        • Table NETHERLANDS: MARKET ENVIRONMENT FOR HYDROGEN
      • Netherlands: Hydrogen Demand
        • Table NETHERLANDS: HYDROGEN DEMAND BY MARKET
    • Spain
      • Spain: Macroeconomic Environment
        • Table SPAIN: MARKET ENVIRONMENT FOR HYDROGEN
      • Spain: Hydrogen Demand
        • Table SPAIN: HYDROGEN DEMAND BY MARKET
    • France
      • France: Macroeconomic Environment
        • Table FRANCE: MARKET ENVIRONMENT FOR HYDROGEN
      • France: Hydrogen Demand
        • Table FRANCE: HYDROGEN DEMAND BY MARKET
    • United Kingdom
      • United Kingdom: Macroeconomic Environment
        • Table UNITED KINGDOM: MARKET ENVIRONMENT FOR HYDROGEN
      • United Kingdom: Hydrogen Demand
        • Table UNITED KINGDOM: HYDROGEN DEMAND BY MARKET
    • Other Western Europe
      • Other Western Europe: Macroeconomic Environment
        • Table OTHER WESTERN EUROPE: MARKET ENVIRONMENT FOR HYDROGEN
      • Other Western Europe: Hydrogen Demand
        • Table OTHER WESTERN EUROPE: HYDROGEN DEMAND BY MARKET
  • ASIA/PACIFIC
    • Asia/Pacific: Macroeconomic Environment
      • Table ASIA/PACIFIC: MARKET ENVIRONMENT FOR HYDROGEN
    • Asia/Pacific: Hydrogen Demand
      • Table ASIA/PACIFIC: HYDROGEN DEMAND BY MARKET
      • Table CHART VII-1 ASIA/PACIFIC: HYDROGEN DEMAND BY COUNTRY, 2013
    • Asia/Pacific: Suppliers & Market Share
      • Table CHART VII-2 ASIA/PACIFIC: MERCHANT HYDROGEN MARKET SHARE, 2013
    • China
      • China: Macroeconomic Environment
        • Table CHINA: MARKET ENVIRONMENT FOR HYDROGEN
      • China: Hydrogen Demand
        • Table CHINA: HYDROGEN DEMAND BY MARKET
    • Japan
      • Japan: Macroeconomic Environment
        • Table JAPAN: MARKET ENVIRONMENT FOR HYDROGEN
      • Japan: Hydrogen Demand
        • Table JAPAN: HYDROGEN DEMAND BY MARKET
    • South Korea
      • South Korea: Macroeconomic Environment
        • Table SOUTH KOREA: MARKET ENVIRONMENT FOR HYDROGEN
      • South Korea: Hydrogen Demand
        • Table SOUTH KOREA: HYDROGEN DEMAND BY MARKET
    • India
      • India: Macroeconomic Environment
        • Table INDIA: MARKET ENVIRONMENT FOR HYDROGEN
      • India: Hydrogen Demand
        • Table INDIA: HYDROGEN DEMAND BY MARKET
    • Singapore
      • Singapore: Macroeconomic Environment
        • Table SINGAPORE: MARKET ENVIRONMENT FOR HYDROGEN
      • Singapore: Hydrogen Demand
        • Table SINGAPORE: HYDROGEN DEMAND BY MARKET
    • Taiwan
      • Taiwan: Macroeconomic Environment
        • Table TAIWAN: MARKET ENVIRONMENT FOR HYDROGEN
      • Taiwan: Hydrogen Demand
        • Table TAIWAN: HYDROGEN DEMAND BY MARKET
    • Other Asia/Pacific
      • Other Asia/Pacific: Macroeconomic Environment
        • Table OTHER ASIA/PACIFIC: MARKET ENVIRONMENT FOR HYDROGEN
      • Other Asia/Pacific: Hydrogen Demand
        • Table OTHER ASIA/PACIFIC: HYDROGEN DEMAND BY MARKET
  • OTHER REGIONS
    • Central & South America
      • Central & South America: Macroeconomic Environment
        • Table CENTRAL & SOUTH AMERICA: MARKET ENVIRONMENT FOR HYDROGEN
      • Central & South America: Hydrogen Demand
        • Table CENTRAL & SOUTH AMERICA: HYDROGEN DEMAND BY MARKET
      • Central & South America: Suppliers & Market Share
        • Table CHART VIII-1 CENTRAL & SOUTH AMERICA: MERCHANT HYDROGEN MARKET SHARE, 2013
      • Brazil
        • Table BRAZIL: MARKET ENVIRONMENT FOR HYDROGEN
        • Table BRAZIL: HYDROGEN DEMAND BY MARKET
      • Other Central & South America
        • Table OTHER CENTRAL & SOUTH AMERICA: MARKET ENVIRONMENT FOR HYDROGEN
        • Table OTHER CENTRAL & SOUTH AMERICA: HYDROGEN DEMAND BY MARKET
    • Eastern Europe
      • Eastern Europe: Macroeconomic Environment
        • Table EASTERN EUROPE: MARKET ENVIRONMENT FOR HYDROGEN
      • Eastern Europe: Hydrogen Demand
        • Table EASTERN EUROPE: HYDROGEN DEMAND BY MARKET
      • Eastern Europe: Suppliers & Market Share
        • Table CHART VIII-2 EASTERN EUROPE: MERCHANT HYDROGEN MARKET SHARE, 2013
      • Russia
        • Table RUSSIA: MARKET ENVIRONMENT FOR HYDROGEN
        • Table RUSSIA: HYDROGEN DEMAND BY MARKET
      • Poland
        • Table POLAND: MARKET ENVIRONMENT FOR HYDROGEN
        • Table POLAND: HYDROGEN DEMAND BY MARKET
      • Other Eastern Europe
        • Table OTHER EASTERN EUROPE: MARKET ENVIRONMENT FOR HYDROGEN
        • Table OTHER EASTERN EUROPE: HYDROGEN DEMAND BY MARKET
    • Africa/Mideast
      • Africa/Mideast: Macroeconomic Environment
        • Table AFRICA/MIDEAST: MARKET ENVIRONMENT FOR HYDROGEN
      • Africa/Mideast: Hydrogen Demand
        • Table AFRICA/MIDEAST: HYDROGEN DEMAND BY MARKET
      • Africa/Mideast: Suppliers & Market Share
        • Table CHART VIII-3 AFRICA/MIDEAST: MERCHANT HYDROGEN MARKET SHARE, 2013
      • Saudi Arabia
        • Table SAUDI ARABIA: MARKET ENVIRONMENT FOR HYDROGEN
        • Table SAUDI ARABIA: HYDROGEN DEMAND BY MARKET
      • Other Africa/Mideast
        • Table OTHER AFRICA/MIDEAST: MARKET ENVIRONMENT FOR HYDROGEN
        • Table OTHER AFRICA/MIDEAST: HYDROGEN DEMAND BY MARKET
  • INDUSTRY STRUCTURE
    • General
      • Table MERCHANT HYDROGEN SALES BY COMPANY, 2013
    • Market Share
      • Table CHART IX-1 WORLD MERCHANT HYDROGEN MARKET SHARE, 2013
    • Acquisitions & Divestitures
      • Table SELECTED ACQUISITIONS & DIVESTITURES
    • Cooperative Agreements
      • Table SELECTED COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS
    • Supply Agreements
      • Table SELECTED SUPPLY AGREEMENTS
    • Distribution
      • On-Site & Pipeline Distribution
      • Liquid & Compressed Gas Distribution
    • Company Profiles
      • Air Liquide Group
      • Air Products and Chemicals Incorporated
      • Airgas Incorporated
      • Iwatani International Corporation
      • Linde Group
      • Messer Group GmbH
      • Praxair Incorporated
      • Showa Denko KK
      • Taiyo Nippon Sanso Corporation

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