Brief Excerpt from Industry Overview Chapter:
Companies in this industry take equity positions in target companies, typically owning a controlling interest. Major companies include Berkshire Hathaway, Clark Enterprises, Icahn Enterprises, and Jeffries Financial Group (all based in the US), along with CITIC (Hong Kong), EXOR (Italy), and SoftBank (Japan). The industry also includes the investment arms of major banks, such as JP Morgan Chase, Goldman Sachs, Citigroup, Bank of America, and Deutsche Bank.
Demand is driven by the movement of capital throughout the economy. Profitability depends on the ability to identify targets for investment. Large firms have advantages in access to capital. Small firms can compete by specializing in market segments.
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The main revenue sources for investment firms are interest and dividends (about 70%). Other sources include sales of goods and services, administrative and management services fees, and capital gains from asset sales. Investment firms assemble the capital to acquire and control target firms, often in partnership with large investors such as pension funds, university endowments, or charitable organizations.
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