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Polymeric Foams

Polymeric Foams

The U.S market for polymeric foam was nearly 7.9 billion pounds in 2014. This market is predicted to reach nearly 8.1 billion pounds in 2015 and nearly 9.3 billion pounds in 2020, with a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 2.8%.

This report provides:

An overview of the global markets for polymeric foams.

Analyses of global market trends, with data from 2014, estimates for 2015, and projections of compound annual growth rates (CAGRs) through 2020.

Analysis of three classes of major commodity thermoplastic resins used to produce foams: polyolefins (primarily polyethylenes and polypropylene), polystyrene and PS copolymers, and polyvinyl chloride and copolymers.

Coverage of key application areas including:

Appliances, primarily thermal insulation.

Building/construction, primarily insulation and PVC profiles/shapes.

Electrical/electronics, with the largest market in acoustical and noise-control foams.

Furniture and furnishings, mainly comfort cushioning.

Medical applications.

Packaging, both functional and product protection.

Transportation, primarily cushioning.

Information on technologies including new blowing agents, polyol technology, microcellular foams, and discussion of polymer recycling technology.

Details concerning the structure of the polymeric foams industry with emphasis on major domestic producers and suppliers, as well as trends in the industry.


SCOPE AND FORMAT

This BCC Research study covers in depth many of the most important technological, economic, political and environmental considerations in the U.S. polymeric foams industry. It is basically a study of U.S. markets, but because of the global nature of polymer and packaging chemistry, it touches on some noteworthy international activities, primarily those that impact the U.S. market such as the significant number of foreign firms that operate on U.S. soil.

As noted at the beginning of this chapter, the polymeric foams covered in the scope of this study are the older conventional foams made from synthetic plastics produced from chemical and petrochemical feedstocks. New foams made from the growing bioplastics industry are outside our scope.

All market estimate figures are rounded to the nearest million pounds, and all growth rates are compounded and signified as percent compounded annual growth rates (CAGR%). Because of this rounding, some growth rates may not agree exactly with figures in the market tables, especially for differences in small volumes. All market figures are at the manufacturer’s or producer’s level.

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION
STUDY GOALS AND OBJECTIVES
REASONS FOR DOING THE STUDY
CONTRIBUTION OF THE STUDY AND INTENDED AUDIENCE
SCOPE AND FORMAT
REPORT ORGANIZATION
REPORT SCOPE AND NOTATION
METHODOLOGY AND INFORMATION SOURCES
RELATED BCC RESEARCH REPORTS
ANALYST'S CREDENTIALS
BCC RESEARCH WEBSITE
DISCLAIMER
CHAPTER 2 SUMMARY
SUMMARY TABLE U.S. MARKET FOR POLYMERIC FOAM BY RESIN FAMILY, THROUGH 2020 (MILLION POUNDS)
SUMMARY FIGURE U.S. MARKET FOR POLYMERIC FOAM BY RESIN FAMILY, 2014-2020 (MILLION POUNDS)
CHAPTER 3 OVERVIEW
THE PETROCHEMICAL AND PLASTIC RESIN INDUSTRIES
PETROCHEMICALS
TABLE 1 VALUE OF U.S. CHEMICAL INDUSTRY SHIPMENTS, THROUGH 2012 ($ BILLIONS)
PLASTIC RESINS
History
Modern Polymer Chemistry
Bulk Resin Manufacture
Plastic Resin Fabrication
Commodity vs. Specialty Resins
Commodity Resins
TABLE 2 NORTH AMERICAN PRODUCTION OF MAJOR THERMOPLASTIC RESINS, 2006-2013 (MILLION POUNDS)
Specialty Resins
Bioplastics
POLYMERIC FOAMS
CLOSED- AND OPEN-CELL FOAMS
POLYMER FOAM BLOWING AGENTS
RESINS USED TO PRODUCE POLYMER FOAMS
POLYOLEFIN FOAMS
POLYSTYRENE (PS) FOAMS
POLYURETHANE (PUR) FOAMS
Polyurethane Raw Materials
Isocyanates
Polyols
Flexible Polyurethane Foams
Rigid Polyurethane Foams
Semirigid (Integral-Skin) PUR Foams
POLYVINYL CHLORIDE (PVC) FOAMS
OTHER POLYMERIC FOAMS
PHENOLIC FOAMS
STRUCTURAL FOAMS
COMPETITIVE FOAM MATERIALS AND PRODUCTS
NATURAL FOAM MATERIALS
THERMOFORMED SHEET
PAPER AND OTHER FIBER PRODUCTS
CHAPTER 4 POLYMER FOAM MARKETS BY MATERIAL TYPES
OVERALL MARKET ESTIMATE AND FORECAST
TABLE 3 U.S. MARKET FOR POLYMERIC FOAM BY RESIN FAMILY THROUGH 2020 (MILLIONS POUNDS)
BLOWING AGENTS
MARKET ESTIMATE AND FORECAST
TABLE 4 U.S. MARKET FOR POLYMERIC FOAM BLOWING AGENTS, THROUGH 2020 (MILLION POUNDS)
PHYSICAL BLOWING AGENTS
CFCs, HCFCs and HFCs
Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs)
Hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs)
Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs)
TABLE 5 FOAM BLOWING APPLICATIONS OF HCFCS AND HFCS
TABLE 6 FOAM PRODUCTS/APPLICATIONS BLOWN WITH FLUOROCARBONS
CFC, HCFC, and HFC Nomenclature
Hydrofluoroolefins (HFOs)
Hydrocarbons
Carbon Dioxide
Nitrogen
Other Physical Blowing Agents
CHEMICAL BLOWING AGENTS
Inorganic (Endothermic) Chemical Blowing Agents
Organic (Exothermic) Chemical Blowing Agents
TABLE 7 TYPICAL USE OF EXOTHERMIC CHEMICAL BLOWING AGENTS BY RESIN
TABLE 8 OPERATING TEMPERATURE RANGES FOR EXOTHERMIC
BLOWING AGENTS
TABLE 9 APPLICATIONS FOR EXOTHERMIC BLOWING AGENTS
Advantages and Disadvantages of Each Type of CBA
TABLE 10 ADVANTAGES OF ENDOTHERMIC VS. EXOTHERMIC
BLOWING AGENTS
TABLE 11 ADVANTAGES OF EXOTHERMIC VS. ENDOTHERMIC
BLOWING AGENTS
Endo/Exo Combinations
POLYOLEFIN FOAMS
POLYOLEFIN FOAM MARKET ESTIMATE AND FORECAST
TABLE 12 U.S. MARKET FOR POLYOLEFIN FOAM BY TYPE AND APPLICATION, THROUGH 2020 (MILLION POUNDS)
RESINS AND PROCESSES
Properties and Applications
Cross-Linked Polyolefin Foams
POLYSTYRENE FOAMS
XPS AND EPS FOAMS COMPARED
POLYSTYRENE FOAM MARKET ESTIMATE AND FORECAST
TABLE 13 U.S. MARKET FOR POLYSTYRENE FOAM BY TYPE AND APPLICATION, THROUGH 2020 (MILLION POUNDS)
EXTRUDED POLYSTYRENE (XPS) FOAM SHEET
XPS Foam Sheet Blowing Agents
EXTRUDED POLYSTYRENE (XPS) EXPANDED BOARD
XPS Foam Board Blowing Agents
EXPANDABLE POLYSTYRENE (EPS) BEADS
EPS Bead Blowing Agents
POLYURETHANE FOAMS
RAW MATERIALS DEMAND AND USE
Isocyanates
Foam Market Estimates for Isocyanates
TABLE 14 U.S. MARKET FOR ISOCYANATES IN POLYURETHANE FOAMS, THROUGH 2020 (MILLION POUNDS)
Polyols
Foam Market Estimates for Polyols
TABLE 15 U.S. MARKET FOR POLYOLS IN POLYURETHANE FOAMS, THROUGH 2020 (MILLION POUNDS)
Chain Extenders and Cross-Linkers
Polyurethane Blowing Agents
Fluorinated Hydrocarbons
Hydrocarbons
Auxiliary Blowing Agents
High-Water Formulations (HWFs)
Carbon Dioxide
Vacuum Panels
POLYURETHANE FOAM MARKET ANALYSIS AND FORECAST
Method of Calculation for Total PUR Foam Demand
TABLE 16 U.S. MARKET FOR POLYURETHANE FOAM BY TYPE AND APPLICATION, THROUGH 2020 (MILLION POUNDS)
FLEXIBLE POLYURETHANE FOAMS
Properties and Types of Foams Produced
Flexible Slabstock
Molded Flexible Foams
Applications
Acoustical Applications
Cushioning
Flexible Foam Filters
Reticulated Foams
RIGID POLYURETHANE FOAMS
Properties and Applications of Rigid PUR Foams
Appliance Insulation
Rigid Foam Boardstock
Sandwich Panels
Spray Foam Insulation
Rigid Polyisocyanurate Foams
Reaction Injection Molding (RIM)
INTEGRAL-SKIN AND MISCELLANEOUS PUR FOAMS
POLYVINYL CHLORIDE (PVC) FOAMS
PVC FOAM MARKET ESTIMATE AND FORECAST
TABLE 17 U.S. MARKET FOR POLYVINYL CHLORIDE FOAM BY TYPE AND APPLICATION, THROUGH 2015-2020 (MILLION POUNDS)
RESINS AND PROCESSES
Flexible PVC Foams
Rigid PVC Foams
PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS
TABLE 18 MAJOR APPLICATIONS OF PVC FOAMS, BY PROCESS AND APPLICATION
OTHER POLYMERIC FOAMS AND COMPETING MATERIALS
MARKET ESTIMATE AND FORECAST
TABLE 19 U.S. MARKET FOR OTHER FOAM BY APPLICATION THROUGH 2020 (MILLION POUNDS)
PHENOLIC FOAMS
STRUCTURAL FOAMS
Production Processes
Materials and Applications
FLUOROPOLYMER FOAMS
COMPETITIVE MATERIALS
Competition in Cushioning
TABLE 20 GENERAL PERFORMANCE FACTOR COMPARISON OF CUSHIONING MATERIALS
TABLE 21 CATEGORIES AND TYPICAL PRODUCTS THAT REQUIRE
PROTECTIVE PACKAGING
Competition in Building Insulation
Competition in Packaging of Electronic Products
TABLE 22 POLYETHYLENE FOAM VS. FOAM-IN-PLACE POLYURETHANE
FOAM FOR ELECTRONIC PRODUCT PACKAGING
Competition in Food-Service Packaging
CHAPTER 5 POLYMER FOAM MARKETS BY APPLICATION
OVERALL MARKET ESTIMATE AND FORECAST
TABLE 23 U.S. MARKET FOR POLYMERIC FOAM BY APPLICATION, THROUGH 2020 (MILLION POUNDS)
APPLIANCE INSULATION
TABLE 24 U.S. MARKET FOR PLASTIC FOAMS IN APPLIANCE INSULATION, THROUGH 2020 (MILLION POUNDS)
ALTERNATIVE BLOWING AGENTS
BUILDING/CONSTRUCTION
TABLE 25 U.S. MARKET FOR PLASTIC FOAMS IN BUILDING/CONSTRUCTION, THROUGH 2020 (MILLION POUNDS)
TABLE 26 TYPICAL THERMAL INSULATION 'R' VALUES (BTU)
ELECTRICAL/ELECTRONICS
TABLE 27 U.S. MARKET FOR PLASTIC FOAMS IN ELECTRICAL/ELECTRONICS, THROUGH 2020 (MILLION POUNDS)
FURNITURE AND FURNISHINGS
TABLE 28 U.S. MARKET FOR PLASTIC FOAMS IN FURNITURE/FURNISHINGS MARKETS, THROUGH 2020 (MILLION POUNDS)
MEDICAL APPLICATIONS
TABLE 29 U.S. MARKET FOR PLASTIC FOAMS IN MEDICAL APPLICATIONS, THROUGH 2020 (MILLION POUNDS)
PACKAGING
TABLE 30 U.S. MARKET FOR PLASTIC FOAMS IN PACKAGING MARKETS, THROUGH 2020 (MILLION POUNDS)
TRANSPORTATION
TABLE 31 U.S. MARKET FOR PLASTIC FOAMS IN TRANSPORTATION
MARKETS, THROUGH 2020 (MILLION POUNDS)
MISCELLANEOUS OTHER MARKETS AND APPLICATIONS
TABLE 32 SOME MISCELLANEOUS OTHER APPLICATIONS FOR POLYMERIC FOAMS
TABLE 33 U.S. MARKET FOR PLASTIC FOAMS IN MISCELLANEOUS OTHER MARKETS, THROUGH 2020 (MILLION POUNDS)
CHAPTER 6 TECHNOLOGY
PLASTIC RESIN CHEMISTRY, MANUFACTURE AND PROPERTIES
POLYMERIC FOAM PROPERTIES AND CHARACTERISTICS
MECHANICAL PROPERTIES
CHEMICAL PROPERTIES
ELECTRICAL PROPERTIES
ACOUSTICAL PROPERTIES
LIGHT PENETRATION
SAFETY AND HEALTH ISSUES
CONVENTIONAL POLYMER FOAM TECHNOLOGY
POLYOLEFIN FOAM PROCESSES
Extruded Polyolefin Foams
Molded Polyolefin Foams
Cross-Linked Polyolefin Foams
POLYSTYRENE FOAM PROCESSES
XPS Foam Sheet Process
XPS Foam Board Process
Expandable Bead (EPS) Process
POLYURETHANE FOAM CHEMISTRY AND PROCESSES
Isocyanate Reactions
Polyol Equivalent Weight and Functionality
TABLE 34 POLYURETHANE FOAM-POLYOL DEPENDENCY BASED ON POLYOL EQUIVALENT WEIGHT AND FUNCTIONALITY
Polyurethane Foaming Processes
Chemistry
One-Shot System
Two-Component (Prepolymer) System
Quasi (Semi) Prepolymer System
Flexible Polyurethane Foam Process
Rigid Polyurethane Foam Process
Nonisocyanate Polyurethane Processes
CELLULAR FOAM STABILIZATION
Chemical Stabilization
Physical Stabilization
DEVELOPMENTS IN POLYMER FOAM TECHNOLOGY
NEW BLOWING AGENTS
HCFC and CFC Replacements for CFCs
Hydrocarbons
Carbon Dioxide
Foam Blowing Without Auxiliary Blowing Agents
Variable-Pressure Foaming
Vacuum Forming
MICROCELLULAR FOAMS
POLYMER RECYCLING TECHNOLOGY
RECYCLING STATISTICS AND TRENDS
CONVENTIONAL (MECHANICAL OR PHYSICAL) RECYCLING
ADVANCED (CHEMICAL) RECYCLING
Depolymerization to Monomers
Depolymerization to Feedstocks
Waste-to-Energy Recycling (Incineration)
POLYURETHANE RECYCLING TECHNOLOGIES
Automobile Recycling
PUR Foam Recycling Technologies
CHAPTER 7 INDUSTRY STRUCTURE AND COMPETITIVE ANALYSIS
TRENDS IN THE U.S. PLASTIC RESINS INDUSTRY
PLAYERS IN THE U.S. PLASTIC FOAMS INDUSTRY
STRUCTURE OF THE U.S. POLYMERIC FOAMS INDUSTRY
BLOWING AGENT SUPPLIERS
PHYSICAL BLOWING AGENTS
CHEMICAL BLOWING AGENTS
Endothermic Agents
Exothermic Agents
PLASTIC RESIN SUPPLIERS
TABLE 35 NORTH AMERICAN PRODUCTION OF MAJOR THERMOPLASTIC RESINS, 2006-2013 (MILLION POUNDS)
POLYURETHANE RAW MATERIAL SUPPLIERS
ISOCYANATES
POLYOLS
POLYURETHANE FOAM SYSTEM SUPPLIERS
FOAM FABRICATORS AND MOLDERS
COMPANY CONSOLIDATION, RESTRUCTURING, ETC.
INTERNATIONAL ASPECTS
MAJOR FOREIGN PLAYERS
TRENDS OUTSIDE THE U.S.
New Applications for Foamed Plastics
Environmental Aspects
Polystyrene Foam Recovery
Polyurethane Recycling
Replacement of CFCs as Blowing Agents
CHAPTER 8 ENVIRONMENTAL, REGULATORY, AND PUBLIC POLICY
ISSUES
FOAM PACKAGING ISSUES
FOOD SERVICE
PROTECTIVE SHIPPING PRODUCTS
Loose-Fill
CFC- AND HCFC-REPLACEMENT ISSUES
OZONE DEPLETION
CHRONOLOGY OF MAJOR EVENTS
The Clean Air Act and Amendments
Sherwood-Molina
United Nations Environment Programme
Montreal Protocol
Action by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendment
CFC Ban
Ozone Layer Conference
EPA'S 1993 FINAL RULE AND SUBSEQUENT ACTIVITIES
OZONE-DEPLETION POTENTIAL
OPTIONS AVAILABLE FOR HCFC REDUCTION AND REPLACEMENT
TABLE 36 TECHNICAL OPTIONS FOR PLASTIC FOAM PROCESSORS FOR REPLACEMENT OF HCFCS AS BLOWING AGENTS
GREENHOUSE GASES
TABLE 37 OZONE DEPLETION AND GLOBAL-WARMING POTENTIALS
(FRACTION OF CFC-11 ODP = 1.0)
FOAM RECYCLING AND RECOVERY
POLYSTYRENE FOAMS
POLYURETHANE FOAM
PERFORMANCE STANDARDS
THERMAL INSULATING STANDARDS (R-VALUES)
COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH, DIMENSIONAL STABILITY
POLYMER FOAM HEALTH AND SAFETY ISSUES
FLAMMABILITY
Polymeric Foams
Polyurethane Foams and Raw Materials
Flame Retardance
Upholstered Furniture
Recent Actions Regarding Foam Flammability
TOXICITY
Polyurethane Foams
TABLE 38 POTENTIAL HAZARDS OF POLYURETHANE FOAM
COMPONENTS
Other Foams
ENVIRONMENTAL LAWS AND REGULATIONS
FEDERAL
STATE AND LOCAL
PUBLIC PERCEPTIONS
CHAPTER 9 COMPANY PROFILES
INTRODUCTION
SUPPLIER COMPANIES
20/20 CUSTOM MOLDED PLASTICS LTD.
ACH FOAM TECHNOLOGIES LLC
ADDIVANT
AIR PRODUCTS AND CHEMICALS INC.
AMERICAN EXCELSIOR INC.
AMERICHEM INC.
AMPACET CORP.
ARCH CHEMICALS INC. - SEE LONZA GROUP LTD.
ARKEMA INC.
BASF CORP.
BAYER MATERIAL SCIENCE LLC
BERGEN INTERNATIONAL LLC
BIDDLE SAWYER CORP.
BOYD CORP.
ER CARPENTER COMPANY
CELLOFOAM NORTH AMERICA INC.
CHEMTURA CORP.
CLARIANT CORP.
COIM USA INC.
CREATIVE FOAM CORP.
CREST FOAM INDUSTRIES INC.
CYLATEC INC.
DART CONTAINER CORP.
DOW CHEMICAL COMPANY (THE)
E.I. DU PONT DE NEMOURS AND CO.
EFP CORP.
ENDEX INTERNATIONAL
EVONIK FOAMS INC.
EXPANCEL
FERRO CORP.
FOAM PRODUCTS CORP.
FOAM SUPPLIES INC.
FREE FLOW PACKAGING INTERNATIONAL INC.
FUTURE FOAM INC.
FXI
GALATA CHEMICALS LLC
GENERAL FOAM PLASTICS CORP.
HONEYWELL INTERNATIONAL INC.
HSM SOLUTIONS
HUNTSMAN CORP.
IGLOO PRODUCTS CORP.
JOHNSON CONTROLS INC.
LEAR CORP.
LONZA GROUP LTD.
LONZA INC. AND LONZA AMERICA INC.
LYONDELLBASELL INDUSTRIES
PACTIV LLC
PINTA ACOUSTIC INC.
PLASTOMER CORP.
REEDY CHEMICAL FOAM & SPECIALTY ADDITIVES
RMAX INC.
ROGERS CORP.
RUBICON LLC
SAINT-GOBAIN PERFORMANCE PLASTICS
SEALED AIR CORP.
SEKISUI AMERICA CORP.
SONOCO PRODUCTS CORP.
SPAN-AMERICA MEDICAL SYSTEMS INC.
STEPAN COMPANY
STOROPACK INC.
TEKNI-PLEX INC./DOLCO PACKAGING
TEXTILE RUBBER & CHEMICAL CO. INC.
TORAY PLASTICS (AMERICA) INC., PEF DIVISION
TREXEL INC.
UFP TECHNOLOGIES INC.
WFI GLOBAL LLC
WOODBRIDGE SALES & ENGINEERING INC.
ZOTEFOAMS INC.
CHAPTER 10 APPENDIX
GLOSSARY OF IMPORTANT TERMS, ABBREVIATIONS, AND ACRONYMS

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