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Merchant Hydrogen: Industrial Gas and Energy Markets

Merchant Hydrogen: Industrial Gas and Energy Markets

The global production of merchant hydrogen was 6.8 million metric tons in 2014, and is expected to reach 7.1 million metric tons in 2015 and 8.5 million metric tons by 2020, with a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 3.7% from 2015 to 2020.

This report provides:
Investigation and assessment of the future use of merchant hydrogen and on-site distributed generation.
Analyses of global market trends, with data from 2014, estimates for 2015, and projections of CAGRs through 2020.
Definitions of individual markets and technical applications for hydrogen.
Coverage of cutting-edge developments, areas such as biological processing, localized production, and nanotechnology where considerable research dollars are being spent.
Detailed analyses of research focuses, end-use markets, and production technologies.
Information on patent and intellectual property (IP) activity.
An overview of the structure of the industry and extensive company profiles of the leading organizations in the field.


SCOPE OF STUDY

This BCC Research study focuses on key hydrogen technologies and applications. It provides data about the size and growth of both captive and merchant hydrogen markets, lists company profiles, and discusses patent trends and industry trends. Cutting-edge developments, research priorities, and potential business opportunities are a key focus.

The report includes the following:
Investigation and assessment of the future use of merchant hydrogen as an industrial gas and the roles likely played by the emerging hydrogen energy market.
Analysis of trends in the market, with data for 2014, estimates for 2015, and projected compound annual growth rates (CAGRs) through 2020.
An overview of the structure of the industry and extensive company profiles of the leading organizations.
Detailed analyses of research focuses, end-use markets, and production technologies.
Analysis of patent and intellectual property (IP) activity.

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION
OVERVIEW
COMMERCIAL PRODUCTION AND END-USE MARKETS
SCOPE OF STUDY
INTENDED AUDIENCE
METHODOLOGY
INFORMATION SOURCES
ANALYST'S CREDENTIALS
RELATED BCC RESEARCH REPORTS
BCC RESEARCH WEBSITE
DISCLAIMER
CHAPTER 2 SUMMARY
INDUSTRIAL HYDROGEN AND ITS MARKET SEGMENTS
MERCHANT HYDROGEN
UNITS
MAJOR FINDINGS
SUMMARY TABLE GLOBAL PRODUCTION OF MERCHANT HYDROGEN BY REGION, THROUGH 2020 (MILLION METRIC TONS)
SUMMARY FIGURE GLOBAL PRODUCTION OF MERCHANT HYDROGEN BY REGION, 2014-2020 (MILLION METRIC TONS)
CHAPTER 3 INDUSTRIAL HYDROGEN MARKETS
HYDROGEN
TABLE 1 HYDROGEN PRODUCTION FEEDSTOCKS
GLOBAL PRODUCTION OF HYDROGEN
INDUSTRIAL HYDROGEN MARKETS-NORTH AMERICA
FIGURE 1 HYDROGEN INDUSTRY TAXONOMY, 2013 (MILLION METRIC TONS)
TABLE 2 GLOBAL HYDROGEN PRODUCTION BY SEGMENT, 2013 (MILLION METRIC TONS)
TABLE 3 GLOBAL AND U.S. HYDROGEN PRODUCTION, 2009-2013 (MILLION METRIC TONS/YEAR)
MERCHANT HYDROGEN MARKET
TABLE 4 PRODUCTION AND VALUE OF THE U.S. MERCHANT HYDROGEN MARKET, THROUGH 2020 (MILLION METRIC TONS/$ BILLIONS)
TABLE 5 NORTH AMERICAN SHARE OF MERCHANT HYDROGEN CAPACITY BY INDUSTRY TYPE, 2014 (%)
TABLE 6 NORTH AMERICAN SHARE OF MERCHANT HYDROGEN CAPACITY BY COMPANY, 2014 (%)
FIGURE 2 PROBABLE RANGE OF VALUE OF MERCHANT HYDROGEN MARKET, 2020 ($ MILLIONS)
LARGE-SCALE MERCHANT HYDROGEN PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES
STEAM METHANE REFORMATION OF NATURAL GAS
COAL GASIFICATION
DISTRIBUTED HYDROGEN PRODUCTION
REFORMATION OF BIO-DERIVED LIQUIDS
COAL AND BIOMASS GASIFICATION
MERCHANT MARKET DELIVERY MODES
TABLE 7 MERCHANT MARKET DELIVERY MODES (%)
DELIVERY STATE: LIQUEFACTION AND GASIFICATION
ECONOMICS
FIGURE 3 THEORETICAL VOLATILITY IN PRICE OF HYDROGEN FROM NATURAL GAS, 2005-2014
PLANT CAPITAL COSTS
ROLE IN OIL REFINERY COST
TABLE 8 HYDROGEN'S SHARE OF OIL REFINERY FIXED AND VARIABLE OPERATING COSTS, 2014 (%)
AS AN ENERGY FUEL
TABLE 9 FUEL CELL VEHICLE COST PER MILE USING DISTRIBUTED, NATURAL GAS–SOURCED HYDROGEN FUEL
FIGURE 4 HYPOTHETICAL NET NON-DISCOUNTED CASH FLOW: FUEL CELLS VS. BATTERIES BY YEAR OF OPERATION ($ MILLIONS)
FIGURE 5 HYPOTHETICAL ANNUALIZED TOTAL COST OF OWNERSHIP, CLASS III FORKLIFT, 2014
PIPELINE ECONOMICS
U.S. DEMAND FOR MERCHANT HYDROGEN
TABLE 10 U.S. MERCHANT HYDROGEN PRODUCTION, THROUGH 2020 (MILLION METRIC TONS)
MERCHANT HYDROGEN COSTS AND END USERS
HYDROGEN PRODUCTION CAPACITY AT REFINERIES
TABLE 11 GLOBAL PRODUCTION CAPACITY OF HYDROGEN AT PETROLEUM REFINERIES, 2008-2013 (MILLION STANDARD CUBIC FEET/DAY)
CHAPTER 4 GLOBAL MERCHANT HYDROGEN MARKETS
GLOBAL MERCHANT HYDROGEN MARKET OVERVIEW
TABLE 12 REGIONAL END USES OF HYDROGEN PRODUCTION, 2013 (%)
EUROPEAN MARKETS
EUROPEAN PRODUCTION
TABLE 13 MERCHANT HYDROGEN PRODUCTION IN EUROPE, 2003-2013
TABLE 14 FORECAST FOR MERCHANT HYDROGEN PRODUCTION IN EUROPE, THROUGH 2020
TABLE 15 MERCHANT LIQUID AND COMPRESSED GAS HYDROGEN
PRODUCTION CAPACITY IN EUROPE BY COMPANY AND LOCATION,2014
EUROPEAN PIPELINES
TABLE 16 EUROPEAN HYDROGEN PIPELINE MILES BY COUNTRY, 2014
TABLE 17 EUROPEAN HYDROGEN PIPELINE MILES BY OWNER, 2014
CHINA
TABLE 18 CHINESE CONSUMPTION OF HYDROGEN BY END USE, 2014 (MILLION METRIC TONS)
GLOBAL MERCHANT HYDROGEN PRODUCTION
TABLE 19 GLOBAL PRODUCTION OF MERCHANT HYDROGEN BY REGION, THROUGH 2020 (MILLION METRIC TONS)
CHAPTER 5 NORTH AMERICAN MERCHANT HYDROGEN DEMAND
MARKET DEMAND AND END-USE MARKETS
MERCHANT INDUSTRIAL HYDROGEN MARKET DEMAND DRIVERS
OIL REFINING
FOOD INDUSTRY/EDIBLE OIL
CHEMICAL INDUSTRY
Hydrogen Peroxide
Methanol
Ammonia
Alcohols
Chemical Industry Growth
STEEL INDUSTRY/METALLURGY
Annealing
Neutral Hardening
Sintering
Metals Industry Growth
ELECTRONICS INDUSTRY
GLASS PROCESSING INDUSTRY
POWER INDUSTRY
RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT DEMAND
U.S. MERCHANT HYDROGEN DEMAND FORECAST
TABLE 20 U.S. MERCHANT HYDROGEN DEMAND FORECAST BY END USE, THROUGH 2020 (MILLION METRIC TONS)
HYDROGEN ENERGY MARKET DRIVERS
FUEL CELL TECHNOLOGY
TABLE 21 FY2014 AND FY2015 FEDERAL R&D BUDGET BY ACTIVITY ($ MILLIONS)
ENVIRONMENTAL PROFILE OF HYDROGEN
HYDROGEN PURITY
FUEL CELLS AND MERCHANT HYDROGEN
Stationary Power
TABLE 22 PHOSPHORIC ACID FUEL CELL CAPACITY BY STATE, 2014 (MW)
TABLE 23 MOLTEN CARBONATE FUEL CELL CAPACITY BY STATE, 2014 (KW)
TABLE 24 BLOOM ENERGY SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL CAPACITY BY STATE, 2014 (KW)
Vehicles
TABLE 25 U.S. FUEL CELL BUS PROJECTS, 2014
Transportation Infrastructure
TABLE 26 U.S. HYDROGEN FUELING STATIONS, OPERATING OR PLANNED AS OF END OF 2014
Material Handling Equipment
Back-Up and Remote Power Generation
Utility-Scale Energy Storage
Distributed Hydrogen Production Systems
TABLE 27 MANUFACTURING R &D CHALLENGES FOR DISTRIBUTED
HYDROGEN PRODUCTION
High-Purity Hydrogen Market and On-Site Demand
MERCHANT HYDROGEN EQUIPMENT MARKETS
INTEGRATED REFORMERS
TABLE 28 POWER PLANT CAPITAL AND OPERATING COSTS: FUEL CELLS
VERSUS CONVENTIONAL OPTIONS, 2013
INVESTMENT RISK
REGULATIONS, CODES AND STANDARDS
SUBSIDIES AND TAXES
STATE-LEVEL INITIATIVES
California
Connecticut
Florida
New York
Ohio
Texas
CHAPTER 6 NORTH AMERICAN MERCHANT PRODUCTION
CURRENT HYDROGEN PRODUCTION LEVELS
TABLE 29 HYDROGEN PRODUCTION LEVELS, 2010-2014 (MILLION METRIC TONS)
LOCATION OF THE HYDROGEN REFINERY CAPACITY
TABLE 30 TOP U.S. REFINERY HYDROGEN PRODUCERS, 2013
LOCATION OF THE MERCHANT PLANTS
TABLE 31 MERCHANT LIQUID AND COMPRESSED GAS HYDROGEN
PRODUCTION CAPACITY IN THE U.S. AND CANADA BY COMPANY AND LOCATION, 2014
PLANNED EXPANSIONS FOR PRODUCTION
HYDROGEN FROM RENEWABLE RESOURCES
HOW RENEWABLE POWER RELATES TO MERCHANT HYDROGEN
TABLE 32 RENEWABLES-BASED HYDROGEN PRODUCTION PROJECTS, AS OF END 2014
TABLE 33 APPROACHES TO USING RENEWABLE POWER TO PRODUCE
HYDROGEN BY PROJECT CATEGORY
CHAPTER 7 MERCHANT HYDROGEN: TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT
OVERVIEW
EMERGING PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES
ELECTROLYSIS AND THERMOLYSIS
ADVANCED MEMBRANE TECHNOLOGY
HYDROGEN FROM NUCLEAR POWER
COAL TO HYDROGEN
BIOHYDROGEN PATHWAYS
Conversion of Biomass and Wastes
Direct-Fermentation Hydrogen Production
Biological Electrolysis
Bio-Catalyzed Electrolysis
Hydrogen from Microalgae and Cyanobacteria
PLASMA REFORMING
SOLAR THERMOCHEMICAL HYDROGEN PRODUCTION
HYDROGEN VIA WASTEWATER REMEDIATION
DIRECT SUNLIGHT-TO-HYDROGEN CONVERSION
CATALYSTS
OXYGEN AND HYDROGEN EVOLUTION REACTION CATALYSTS
ATOMICALLY DISPERSED PLATINUM CATALYST
MOLYBDENUM SULFIDE AS PLATINUM CATALYST REPLACEMENT
STANFORD NICKEL IRON CATALYST
NANOSTRUCTURED NICKEL HYDROXIDE
CHAPTER 8 MERCHANT HYDROGEN DELIVERY MODES
TABLE 34 TYPICAL HYDROGEN SALE QUANTITIES (KG/SCF)
PIPELINES
TABLE 35 U.S. HYDROGEN PIPELINE MILES BY STATE, 2006-2014
TABLE 36 NORTH AMERICAN HYDROGEN PIPELINE MILES BY OWNER, 2014
MAJOR PIPELINE ADDITIONS
ECONOMICS OF PIPELINE TRANSPORT
CYLINDER AND TRUCK DELIVERY
ON-SITE PRODUCTION
HYDROGEN INFRASTRUCTURE ISSUES
POLICY CONTEXT (GENERAL)
POLICY CONTEXT (HYDROGEN-SPECIFIC)
TECHNOLOGY CONTEXT
DEVELOPMENT OF A HYDROGEN ENERGY SYSTEM
CHAPTER 9 HYDROGEN STORAGE
STORAGE AND HYDROGEN-FUELED VEHICLES
HYDROGEN-FUELED VEHICLE STORAGE OPTIONS
TABLE 37 EXAMPLES OF VEHICLE COMPRESSED HYDROGEN STORAGE
SYSTEMS
HYDRIDE SOLID-STATE STORAGE
TABLE 38 HYDROGEN SOLID-STATE STORAGE MATERIALS AND TRADE-OFFS
ALUMINUM HYDRIDE STORAGE MATERIAL
METAL HYDRIDE CLUSTERS
METAL-ORGANIC FRAMEWORK OPTIMIZED FOR HYDROGEN STORAGE
CHAPTER 10 INDUSTRY STRUCTURE AND COMPANY PROFILES
MARKET CONCENTRATION
TABLE 39 TOP U.S. REFINERY HYDROGEN PRODUCERS BASED ON CAPACITY, 2013 (MILLION STANDARD CUBIC FEET PER DAY/%)
TABLE 40 MERCHANT HYDROGEN PRODUCTION BY SUPPLIER, 2013 (MILLION METRIC TONS)
COMPANY PROFILES
OVERVIEW
INDUSTRIAL GAS PROVIDERS
Airgas Inc.
Air Liquide
Air Products and Chemicals
Equistar Chemicals LP
General Hydrogen
Iwatani International Corp.
Linde AG
Praxair Inc.
Sinopec Maoming Co.
United Hydrogen Group
REFINERS AND REFINERIES
Amec Foster Wheeler Ltd.
BP plc
Chevron
ConocoPhillips
Exxon Mobil Corp.
Flint Hills Resources
MarkWest Javelina
Motiva Enterprises LLC
Shell Deer Park Refining
Shell Oil
Tesoro Corp.
Valero Energy Corp.
FUEL CELLS
Ballard Power Systems
Bloom Energy Corp.
Ceramatec
FuelCell Energy Inc.
Hydrogenics Corp.
Mitsubishi Hitachi Power Systems Ltd.
VEHICLES
Asia Pacific Fuel Cell Technologies Ltd.
Bayerische Motor Werke
Eden Energy (formerly Hythane)
Hyundai Motors
Magna International Inc.
Toyota Motors
US Hybrid
ELECTROLYZERS AND DISTRIBUTED REFORMERS
Acta SpA
Hyster-Yale Materials Handling Inc.
Intelligent Energy
ITM Power Plc.
NEL Hydrogen AS
Proton OnSite Inc.
HYDROGEN PURIFICATION AND SENSORS
Chart Industries (formerly Engineered Gas Systems)
Element One
H2scan
Hy9 Corp.
Makel Engineering Inc.
Xebec Adsorption Inc.
CATALYSTS
E. I. Du Pont de Nemours and Co.
Haldor Topsoe A/S
Membrane Technology and Research Inc.
Nanomix Inc.
STORAGE
Quantum Technologies
Toshiba Corp.
START-UPS AND R&D
Advanced Materials Corp.
AlumiFuel Power Corporation
American Hydrogen Corp.
Batelle Memorial Institute
BC Hydro
Gas Technology Institute (GTI)
Hydrogen Union Equipment Ltd.
Jetstream Energy Technologies Inc.
Mo-Sci Corp.
National Center for Hydrogen Technology
Yangtze Energy Technologies Inc.
CHAPTER 11 PATENT ANALYSIS
HYDROGEN PRODUCTION, STORAGE, AND UTILIZATION
TABLE 41 DISTRIBUTION OF HYDROGEN PATENTS BASED ON MAJOR FIELD OF APPLICATION, 2014 (NUMBER OF PATENTS/%)
FUEL CELL SPECIFIC PATENTS
SAMPLE PATENTS
GAS DETECTION SYSTEM, FUEL CELL SYSTEM, AND VEHICLE
INTEGRATED SYSTEM FOR HYDROGEN AND METHANE PRODUCTION FROM
INDUSTRIAL ORGANIC WASTES AND BIOMASS
HYDROGEN STORAGE METHOD, HYDROGEN GENERATING METHOD,
HYDROGEN STORAGE APPARATUS AND HYDROGEN GENERATING
APPARATUS
PROCESS FOR THE PREPARATION OF HYDROGEN AND CARBON MONOXIDE
CONTAINING GAS
INTEGRATED SYSTEM FOR HYDROGEN AND METHANE PRODUCTION FROM
INDUSTRIAL ORGANIC WASTES AND BIOMASS
HYDROGEN COMBUSTION CATALYST AND METHOD FOR PRODUCING
THEREOF, AND METHOD FOR COMBUSTING HYDROGEN
HYDROGEN STORAGE MATERIALS AND HYDROGEN FUEL CELLS
CONTINUOUS HYDROGEN PRODUCTION DEVICE AND METHOD THEREOF
ELECTROLYSER MODULE
REFORMING SYSTEM, FUEL CELL SYSTEM, AND ITS OPERATION METHOD
SYSTEM AND METHOD FOR MANAGING FUEL CELL OPERATING
CONDITIONS IN A MOBILE COMMUNICATION DEVICE
METHOD TO COLD-START FUEL CELL SYSTEM AT SUB-ZERO
TEMPERATURES
INTEGRATION OF AN ORGANIC RANKINE CYCLE WITH A FUEL CELL
CARBOHYDRATE ANODE FOR FUEL CELL AND BATTERY APPLICATIONS
AIR-COOLED FUEL CELL VEHICLE
HYDROGEN DETECTION SYSTEM
FUEL CELL POWER PRODUCTION SYSTEM WITH AN INTEGRATED
HYDROGEN UTILIZATION DEVICE
HYBRID HYDROGEN STORAGE SYSTEM AND METHOD USING THE SAME
CATALYST FOR GENERATING HYDROGEN AND METHOD FOR GENERATING
HYDROGEN
FUEL CELL UNIT AND FUEL CELL DEVICE COMPRISING A NUMBER OF SAID
FUEL CELL UNITS
GAS SEPARATION PROCESS FOR PRODUCTION OF HYDROGEN BY AUTOTHERMAL REFORMING OF NATURAL GAS, WITH CARBON
DIOXIDE RECOVERY SYSTEM
HYDROGEN PRODUCING UNIT
PHOTOCATALYTIC HYDROGEN PRODUCTION IN CYANOBACTERIA.
CATALYTIC METHOD FOR OBTAINING HYDROGEN OR A HYDROGEN-RICH
GAS STARTING FROM BIOETHANOL AND/OR ETHANOL
HYDROGEN STORAGE MATERIAL AND METHOD OF PRODUCING THE SAME
THERMALLY PRIMED HYDROGEN-PRODUCING FUEL CELL SYSTEM
HYDROGEN PRODUCTION SYSTEM AND REFORMING APPARATUS
HYDROGEN DETECTING SURFACE PLASMON RESONATOR, SURFACE
PLASMON RESONANCE OPTICAL HYDROGEN DETECTOR AND METHOD
FOR OPTICALLY DETECTING HYDROGEN USING SURFACE PLASMON
RESONANCE
NANOENGINEERED MATERIAL FOR HYDROGEN STORAGE
HYDROGEN-PRODUCING FUEL CELL SYSTEMS WITH LOAD-RESPONSIVE
FEEDSTOCK DELIVERY SYSTEMS
SENSORS FOR HYDROGEN, AMMONIA
HOLLOW POROUS-WALL GLASS MICROSPHERES FOR HYDROGEN STORAGE
COMPOSITE HYDROGEN STORAGE MATERIAL AND METHODS RELATED
THERETO
MONITORABLE HYDROGEN SENSOR SYSTEM
HYDROGEN PRODUCTION DEVICE AND METHOD FOR PRODUCING
HYDROGEN
CHAPTER 12 HYDROGEN GLOSSARY AND ACRONYMS
HYDROGEN GLOSSARY AND ACRONYMS

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