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Global Markets and Technologies for Natural Gas Storage

Global Markets and Technologies for Natural Gas Storage

The global natural gas storage market will reach $796.4 billion in 2020, up from $562.2 billion in 2015, registering a CAGR of 7.2% for the period of 2015-2020.

This report provides:
An assessment and quantification of the current global natural gas storage market
Analyses of global market trends, with data from 2014, estimates for 2015, and projections of compound annual growth rates (CAGRs) through 2020
Evaluation of the future global use of storage as a means of primary energy production
Discussion of important current and potential environmental regulations that may affect the growth of this market
Examination of pricing trends for key North American and European wholesale gas markets
Assessment of the impacts of new and proposed infrastructure projects
A detailed patent analysis
Profiles of the top players in the field


BCC Research expects a consistent increase in global natural gas usage with more than 250 years of global supply now well established, and emerging exploration potential, especially in shale gas. BCC Research analysis expects global natural gas demand to increase by 65% from 2015 to 2030, reaching 27% of the primary energy mix globally and within that, strong growth in LNG. BCC Research expects LNG demand to double again to reach 550 million tons by 2030. Meeting this demand growth will require substantial investment in developing storage infrastructure — potentially more than $1.3 trillion. Natural gas storages will ensure continued innovation and enhance interdependency between supplier and consumer centers.

This report is divided into eleven chapters.

Chapter One presents the introduction. The study goal and objectives are identified and the reasons for doing the study advanced. It also provides the contribution of the study and for whom, the scope and format, methodology and intended audience. The credentials of the analyst are presented and the related BCC Research reports listed.

Chapter Two presents a summary of the report, including a summary table and figure which presents some key findings from the study

Chapter Three presents an overview of the natural gas storage industry. The overview describes the importance of the natural gas storage infrastructure in relation to the overall global energy economy, including a brief history and important indications for the industry. Key findings from the study are presented.

Chapter Four quantifies the demand for underground natural gas storage by type including aquifers, cavern, and depleted oil and gas fields. These products are each quantified with global and regional forecasts made up to 2020.

Chapter Five quantifies the demand for above ground natural gas storage by type including LNG tanker, merchant LNG and compressed natural gas. These products are each quantified with global and regional forecasts made up to 2020.

Chapter Six presents the demand for natural gas storage by application such as international LNG trade, seasonal balancing, system optimization and security of supply, arbitrage, transit backup and direct end-users and merchant LNG (now increasingly being used in heavy-duty vehicle transportation) and peak shaving. These are quantified with global and regional forecasts made to 2020.

Chapter Seven presents the demand for natural gas storage infrastructure by technology covering a detailed analysis of the containment systems. It assesses and evaluates the containment technology by type with global and regional breakdown and forecasts to 2020. An evaluation of the demand for natural gas storage intensity by type of storage technology is presented. The natural gas storage industry giants are identified and their market shares presented. The technology developments by industry giants are assessed, including company expertise and know-how, and leaders in research and development are also profiled.

Chapter Eight analyzes the international scene and quantifies global energy demand, population growth, natural gas reserves, production and consumption. It quantifies the growth of unconventional gas production, the price of natural gas and crude oil and looks at the shifts in major metals prices.

Chapter Nine analyzes the structure of the storage industry, including the driving forces of the industry. Important strategies for staying competitive and important shifts in the industry are assessed. Trade practices of the industry and business and the impact of storage on the petroleum and power industries are discussed. Concentration factors, valorization, and company market shares are presented. Other aspects covered in this section include competition and market segmentation/fragmentation.

Chapter Ten discusses the government environmental/energy regulation scene as it applies to natural gas storage infrastructure and business. The report also describes the environmental regulatory changes and agencies involved, including industry compliance and quantification of economic effects.

Chapter Eleven presents company profiles of more than 100 companies involved in the natural gas storage infrastructure, and business are profiled with highlights of their major activities in the storage business including the company name, telephone number, fax number, and contact name and number.

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION
STUDY GOALS AND OBJECTIVES
REASONS FOR DOING THE STUDY
CONTRIBUTION OF THE STUDY AND INTENDED AUDIENCE
SCOPE AND FORMAT
METHODOLOGY
INFORMATION SOURCES
ANALYST’S CREDENTIALS
RELATED BCC RESEARCH REPORTS
BCC RESEARCH WEBSITE
DISCLAIMER
CHAPTER 2 SUMMARY
COMPRESSED NATURAL GAS MARKET VALUE
LNG TANKER TRADE VALUE
UNDERGROUND GAS STORAGE MARKET VALUE
RECEIVING/LIQUEFACTION TERMINAL STORAGE MARKET VALUE
MERCHANT LNG MARKET VALUE
SUMMARY TABLE VALORIZATION OF GAS STORAGE BY SECTOR, THROUGH 2020 ($ BILLIONS)
SUMMARY FIGURE VALORIZATION OF GAS STORAGE BY SECTOR, 012-2020
($ BILLIONS)
CHAPTER 3 INDUSTRY OVERVIEW
WHY STORE NATURAL GAS?
TABLE 1 THE REASONS AND NEED FOR NATURAL GAS STORAGE
THE VALUE AND IMPORTANCE OF STORAGE IN THE NATURAL GAS VALUE
CHAIN
TABLE 2 THE USE OF STORAGE FOR SECURITY OF SUPPLY: RISKS COVERED
DEPENDING ON CONTROL OF STORAGE CAPACITY
TABLE 3 THE "VALUE" OF STORAGE IN THE NATURAL GAS VALUE CHAIN
IMPORTANCE OF STORAGE
TABLE 4 THE IMPORTANCE OF STORAGE IN THE NATURAL GAS VALUE
CHAIN
TYPES OF NATURAL GAS STORAGE FACILITIES
TABLE 5 WORKING GAS CAPACITY FOR NATURAL GAS STORAGE BY LOCATION, THROUGH 2020 (BILLION CUBIC METERS)
TABLE 6 ABOVE GROUND VERSUS UNDERGROUND NATURAL GAS STORAGE
TABLE 7 GLOBAL SHARE OF NATURAL GAS STORAGE FACILITIES BY TYPE, 2015 (%)
UNDERGROUND GAS STORAGE (UGS)
TABLE 8 CHARACTERISTICS OF UGS CONTAINMENT SYSTEMS, 2013
TABLE 9 WORKING GAS CAPACITY FOR UNDERGROUND NATURAL GAS
STORAGE BY TYPE OF TECHNOLOGY, THROUGH 2020 (%)*
COMPRESSED NATURAL GAS STORAGE (CNG)
TABLE 10 DEMAND FOR COMPRESSED NATURAL GAS STORAGE BY TYPE OF TANK TECHNOLOGY, THROUGH 2020 (%)*
LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS (LNG) STORAGE
TABLE 11 DEMAND FOR LNG TANKER, RECEIVING AND LIQUEFACTION
TERMINAL STORAGE BY CAPACITY RANGE, THROUGH 2020 (%)
DELIVERABILITY
TABLE 12 THE DELIVERABILITY OF DIFFERENT NATURAL GAS STORAGES
WHERE LNG AND NATURAL GAS STORAGE INFRASTRUCTURE FITS IN THE GLOBAL ECONOMY
TABLE 13 GLOBAL NATURAL GAS STORAGE AS A PERCENTAGE OF GLOBAL PRODUCTION, THROUGH 2020 (%/BILLION CUBIC METERS)
HISTORY OF THE NATURAL GAS STORAGE INDUSTRY
UNDERGROUND NATURAL GAS STORAGE TECHNOLOGY EVOLUTION
LNG STORAGE TECHNOLOGY EVOLUTION
COMPRESSED NATURAL GAS STORAGE (CNG)
TABLE 14 EVOLUTION OF NATURAL GAS STORAGE INFRASTRUCTURE IN NUMBERS, 1900-2010
ECONOMICS OF NATURAL GAS STORAGE
LNG TANKERS
TABLE 15 COST BREAKDOWN OF A MODERN LNG VESSEL (%)
LNG STORAGE AT IMPORT AND REGASIFICATION TERMINALS
TABLE 16 COST BREAKDOWN OF A MODERN BASE-LOAD LNG REGASIFICATION PLANT (%)
UNDERGROUND NATURAL GAS STORAGE
TABLE 17 COST COMPONENTS OF UNDERGROUND GAS STORAGE (%)
MERCHANT LNG (LNG PEAK SHAVING AND SATELLITE STORAGE)
TABLE 18 COST BREAKDOWN OF A MODERN PEAK-SHAVING AND SATELLITE LNG PLANT (%)
COMPRESSED NATURAL GAS STORAGE
TABLE 19 COST BREAKDOWN OF COMPRESSED NATURAL GAS PROJECT (%)
TABLE 20 COST BREAKDOWN OF COMPRESSED NATURAL GAS STORAGE TANKS (%)
FUTURE OF NATURAL GAS STORAGE INFRASTRUCTURE
TABLE 21 NATURAL GAS SUBSTITUTION IN GLOBAL ENERGY CONSUMPTION
OVERVIEW OF GLOBAL DEMAND FOR NATURAL GAS STORAGE
TABLE 22 GLOBAL DEMAND FOR NATURAL GAS STORAGE BY SEGMENT/SECTOR, THROUGH 2020 (BILLION CUBIC METERS)
CHAPTER 4 DEMAND FOR UNDERGROUND NATURAL GAS STORAGE
TABLE 23 DEMAND FOR GLOBAL UNDERGROUND NATURAL GAS STORAGE AS A PERCENTAGE OF GLOBAL NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION, THROUGH 2020 (%/BILLION CUBIC METERS)
GLOBAL DEMAND FOR DEPLETED OIL & GAS FIELD STORAGE
TABLE 24 DEMAND FOR GLOBAL DEPLETED OIL & GAS FIELD STORAGE AS A PERCENTAGE OF GLOBAL NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION, THROUGH 2020(%/BILLION CUBIC METERS)
TABLE 25 GLOBAL WORKING GAS CAPACITY FOR DEPLETED OIL/GAS FIELD
NATURAL GAS STORAGE BY REGION, THROUGH 2020 (BILLION CUBIC METERS)
NORTH AMERICA
TABLE 26 NORTH AMERICA DEMAND FOR DEPLETED OIL/GAS FIELD NATURAL GAS STORAGE BY TYPE, THROUGH 2020 (BILLION CUBIC METERS)
United States
Depleted Gas Fields
Depleted Oil Fields
TABLE 27 UNITED STATES WORKING GAS CAPACITY FOR OIL/GAS DEPLETED FIELD NATURAL GAS STORAGE BY TYPE, THROUGH 2020 (BILLION CUBIC METERS)
Canada
Depleted Gas Fields
Depleted Oil Fields
TABLE 28 CANADA WORKING GAS CAPACITY FOR DEPLETED OIL/GAS FIELD NATURAL GAS STORAGE BY TYPE, THROUGH 2020 (BILLION CUBIC METERS)
EUROPE
TABLE 29 EUROPE WORKING GAS CAPACITY FOR DEPLETED OIL/GAS FIELD NATURAL GAS STORAGE BY TYPE, THROUGH 2020 (BILLION CUBIC METERS)
Austria
Bulgaria
Croatia
Czech Republic
France
Germany
Hungary
Ireland
Italy
Netherlands
Poland
Romania
Slovak Republic
Spain
Turkey
United Kingdom
TABLE 30 EUROPE WORKING GAS CAPACITY FOR DEPLETED OIL/GAS FIELD NATURAL GAS STORAGE BY COUNTRY, THROUGH 2020 (BILLION CUBIC METERS)
CIS
Russia
Ukraine
Uzbekistan
Kazakhstan
Azerbaijan
TABLE 31 CIS WORKING GAS CAPACITY FOR DEPLETED OIL/GAS FIELD NATURAL GAS STORAGE BY COUNTRY, THROUGH 2020 (BILLION CUBIC METERS)
ASIA-PACIFIC
Australia
New Zealand
China
TABLE 32 ASIA-PACIFIC WORKING GAS CAPACITY FOR DEPLETED OIL/GAS FIELD NATURAL GAS STORAGE BY COUNTRY, THROUGH 2020 (BILLION CUBIC METERS)
ROW
Latin America
Middle East
TABLE 33 ROW WORKING GAS CAPACITY FOR DEPLETED OIL/GAS FIELD NATURAL GAS STORAGE BY COUNTRY, THROUGH 2020 (BILLION CUBIC METERS)
GLOBAL DEMAND FOR DEPLETED AQUIFER FIELD STORAGE BY TYPE
TABLE 34 GLOBAL WORKING GAS CAPACITY FOR DEPLETED AQUIFER FIELD
NATURAL GAS STORAGE BY REGION, THROUGH 2020 (BILLION CUBIC METERS)
NORTH AMERICA
TABLE 35 NORTH AMERICA DEMAND FOR DEPLETED AQUIFER FIELD NATURAL GAS STORAGE BY COUNTRY, THROUGH 2020 (BILLION CUBIC METERS)
United States
East
West
Producing Region
Alaska
TABLE 36 UNITED STATES WORKING GAS CAPACITY FOR DEPLETED AQUIFER FIELD STORAGE BY REGION, THROUGH 2020 (BILLION CUBIC METERS)
EUROPE AND CIS
TABLE 37 EUROPE AND CIS WORKING GAS CAPACITY FOR DEPLETED AQUIFER FIELD STORAGE BY REGION, THROUGH 2020 (BILLION CUBIC METERS)
Europe
Czech Republic
Denmark
France
Germany
Latvia
Spain
Other
TABLE 38 EUROPE WORKING GAS CAPACITY FOR DEPLETED AQUIFER FIELD STORAGE BY COUNTRY, THROUGH 2020 (BILLION CUBIC METERS)
Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS)
Russia
Other
TABLE 39 CIS WORKING GAS CAPACITY FOR DEPLETED AQUIFER FIELD STORAGE BY COUNTRY, THROUGH 2020 (BILLION CUBIC METERS)
GLOBAL DEMAND FOR CAVERN STORAGE BY TYPE
TABLE 40 WORKING GAS CAPACITY FOR GLOBAL CAVERN NATURAL GAS STORAGE AS A PERCENTAGE OF GLOBAL NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION, THROUGH 2020 (%/BILLION CUBIC METERS)
TABLE 41 WORKING GAS CAPACITY FOR CAVERN NATURAL GAS STORAGE BY GEOGRAPHIC REGION, THROUGH 2020 (BILLION CUBIC METERS)
NORTH AMERICA
TABLE 42 DEMAND FOR NORTH AMERICA NATURAL GAS STORAGE BY TYPE OF CAVERN, THROUGH 2020 (BILLION CUBIC METERS)
United States
TABLE 43 DEMAND FOR UNITED STATES SALT CAVERN NATURAL GAS STORAGE BY U.S. REGION, THROUGH 2020 (BILLION CUBIC METERS)
Canada
Salt Cavern
Rock Cavern
TABLE 44 DEMAND FOR CANADA CAVERN NATURAL GAS STORAGE BY TYPE, THROUGH 2020 (BILLION CUBIC METERS)
EUROPE
TABLE 45 DEMAND FOR EUROPE CAVERN NATURAL GAS STORAGE BY TYPE, THROUGH 2020 (BILLION CUBIC METERS)
Denmark
France
Germany
The Netherlands
Poland
Portugal
United Kingdom
TABLE 46 EUROPE'S DEMAND FOR CAVERN NATURAL GAS STORAGE BY COUNTRY, THROUGH 2020 (BILLION CUBIC METERS)
Sweden
Czech Republic
Other
TABLE 47 EUROPE'S DEMAND FOR ROCK CAVERN STORAGE BY COUNTRY, THROUGH 2020 (BILLION CUBIC METERS)
COMMONWEALTH OF INDEPENDENT STATES (CIS)
Russia
Other
TABLE 48 DEMAND BY CIS FOR SALT CAVERN NATURAL GAS STORAGE
BY COUNTRY, THROUGH 2020 (BILLION CUBIC METERS)
CHAPTER 5 DEMAND FOR ABOVE GROUND STORAGE
TABLE 49 DEMAND FOR GLOBAL ABOVE GROUND NATURAL GAS STORAGE AS
A PERCENTAGE OF GLOBAL NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION, THROUGH 2020
(%/BILLION CUBIC METERS)
GLOBAL DEMAND FOR LNG STORAGE
TABLE 50 GLOBAL DEMAND FOR LNG STORAGE AS A PERCENTAGE OF GLOBAL NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION, THROUGH 2020 (%/BILLION CUBIC METERS)
GLOBAL DEMAND FOR LNG TANKER STORAGE
TABLE 51 GLOBAL WORKING GAS CAPACITY FOR LNG TANKER TRADE STORAGE BY EXPORTING REGION, THROUGH 2020 (BILLION CUBIC METERS)
NORTH AMERICA
United States of America
Canada
TABLE 52 WORKING GAS CAPACITY FOR NORTH AMERICA LNG TANKER STORAGE BY EXPORTING COUNTRY, THROUGH 2020 (BILLION CUBIC METERS)
TABLE 53 MAJOR LIQUEFACTION PROJECTS IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, THROUGH 2020 *(BILLION CUBIC METERS PER YEAR/%)
EUROPE
TABLE 54 WORKING GAS CAPACITY FOR EUROPE LNG TANKER STORAGE CAPACITY BY EXPORTING COUNTRY, THROUGH 2020 (BILLION CUBIC METERS)
CIS
TABLE 55 WORKING GAS CAPACITY FOR CIS LNG TANKER STORAGE BY EXPORTING COUNTRY, THROUGH 2020 (BILLION CUBIC METERS)
ASIA-PACIFIC
Indonesia
Malaysia
Australia
Other Asia-Pacific
TABLE 56 WORKING GAS CAPACITY FOR ASIA-PACIFIC LNG TANKER STORAGE BY EXPORTING COUNTRY, THROUGH 2020 (BILLION CUBIC METERS)
ROW
TABLE 57 WORKING GAS CAPACITY FOR ROW LNG TANKER STORAGE BY TYPE OF EXPORTING REGION, THROUGH 2020 (BILLION CUBIC METERS)
Central and South America
Trinidad and Tobago
Other
TABLE 58 WORKING GAS CAPACITY FOR CENTRAL AND SOUTH AMERICA LNG TANKER STORAGE BY EXPORTING COUNTRY, THROUGH 2020 (BILLION CUBIC METERS)
Africa
Nigeria
Algeria
Equatorial Guinea
Angola
Other Africa
TABLE 59 WORKING GAS CAPACITY FOR AFRICA LNG TANKER STORAGE BY EXPORTING COUNTRY, THROUGH 2020 ( CUBIC METERS)
Middle East
Qatar
Oman
Yemen
Brunei
UAE
TABLE 60 WORKING GAS CAPACITY FOR MIDDLE EAST TANKER STORAGE BY EXPORTING COUNTRY, THROUGH 2020 (BILLION CUBIC METERS)
GLOBAL DEMAND FOR LIQUEFACTION PLANT LNG STORAGE BY REGION
TABLE 61 GLOBAL WORKING GAS CAPACITY FOR LIQUEFACTION PLANT LNG STORAGE BY COUNTRY. 2015
TABLE 62 GLOBAL WORKING GAS CAPACITY FOR LIQUEFACTION PLANT STORAGE CAPACITY BY REGION, THROUGH 2020 (MILLION CUBIC METERS)
NORTH AMERICA
United States
Canada
TABLE 63 NORTH AMERICA WORKING GAS CAPACITY FOR LIQUEFACTION PLANT STORAGE BY COUNTRY, THROUGH 2020 (MILLION CUBIC METERS)
EUROPE AND CIS
Europe
CIS
TABLE 64 EUROPE AND CIS WORKING GAS CAPACITY FOR LIQUEFACTION PLANT STORAGE BY COUNTRY, THROUGH 2020 (MILLION CUBIC METERS)
ASIA-PACIFIC
Indonesia
Australia
Other
TABLE 65 ASIA-PACIFIC WORKING GAS CAPACITY FOR LIQUEFACTION PLANT STORAGE BY COUNTRY, THROUGH 2020 (MILLION CUBIC METERS)
ROW
TABLE 66 ROW WORKING GAS CAPACITY FOR LIQUEFACTION PLANT STORAGE CAPACITY BY REGION, THROUGH 2020 (MILLION CUBIC METERS)
Latin American
Trinidad and Tobago
Peru
TABLE 67 LATIN AMERICA'S WORKING GAS CAPACITY FOR LIQUEFACTION PLANT STORAGE BY COUNTRY, THROUGH 2020 (MILLION CUBIC METERS)
Middle East
Qatar
Yemen
Brunei
UAE
TABLE 68 MIDDLE EAST'S WORKING GAS CAPACITY FOR LIQUEFACTION PLANT STORAGE BY COUNTRY, THROUGH 2020 (MILLION CUBIC METERS)
Africa
Algeria
Nigeria
Egypt
Angola
Eq. Guinea
Other
TABLE 69 AFRICA WORKING GAS CAPACITY FOR LIQUEFACTION PLANT STORAGE BY COUNTRY, THROUGH 2020 (MILLION CUBIC METERS)
GLOBAL DEMAND FOR RECEIVING TERMINAL LNG STORAGE BY REGION
TABLE 70 GLOBAL WORKING GAS CAPACITY FOR RECEIVING TERMINAL LNG STORAGE BY REGION THROUGH 2020 (BILLION CUBIC METERS)
NORTH AMERICA
United States of America
Canada
Mexico
TABLE 71 NORTH AMERICA'S WORKING GAS CAPACITY FOR RECEIVING TERMINAL LNG STORAGE BY COUNTRY, THROUGH 2020 (BILLION CUBIC METERS)
TABLE 72 WORKING GAS CAPACITY OF U.S. FOR REGASIFICATION AND STORAGE, 2015 (MILLION CUBIC METERS)
TABLE 73 CANADA'S WORKING GAS CAPACITY REGASIFICATION AND STORAGE, 2015
TABLE 74 MEXICO’S WORKING GAS CAPACITY FOR REGASIFICATION AND STORAGE, 2015
EUROPE
TABLE 75 EUROPE WORKING GAS CAPACITY FOR RECEIVING TERMINAL
LNG STORAGE BY COUNTRY, THROUGH 2020 (BILLION CUBIC METERS)
Spain
TABLE 76 EUROPE WORKING GAS CAPACITY FOR REGASIFICATION AND STORAGE BY COUNTRY, 2015
ASIA-PACIFIC
TABLE 77 ASIA-PACIFIC WORKING GAS CAPACITY FOR RECEIVING TERMINAL LNG STORAGE CAPACITY BY COUNTRY, THROUGH 2020 (BILLION CUBIC METERS)
Japan
China
South Korea
India
TABLE 78 ASIA-PACIFIC WORKING GAS CAPACITY FOR REGASIFICATION AND STORAGE BY COUNTRY, 2015
ROW
TABLE 79 ROW'S WORKING GAS CAPACITY FOR RECEIVING TERMINAL LNG STORAGE CAPACITY BY COUNTRY, THROUGH 2020 (MILLION CUBIC METERS)
TABLE 80 ROW WORKING GAS CAPACITY FOR REGASIFICATION AND STORAGE BY COUNTRY, 2015
GLOBAL DEMAND FOR MERCHANT AND SMALL-SCALE LNG STORAGE BY REGION
TABLE 81 GLOBAL WORKING GAS CAPACITY FOR MERCHANT AND SMALL-SCALE LNG STORAGE BY REGION, THROUGH 2020 (BILLION CUBIC METERS)
NORTH AMERICA
United States
Canada
Mexico
TABLE 82 NORTH AMERICA'S WORKING GAS CAPACITY FOR MERCHANT OR SMALL-SCALE LNG STORAGE BY COUNTRY, THROUGH 2020 (BILLION CUBIC METERS)
EUROPE AND CIS
Netherlands
Spain
Norway
CIS
TABLE 83 EUROPE WORKING GAS CAPACITY FOR MERCHANT OR SMALL-SCALE LNG STORAGE BY COUNTRY, THROUGH 2020 (BILLION CUBIC METERS)
ASIA-PACIFIC
China
Japan
Thailand
Korea
Other
TABLE 84 ASIA-PACIFIC WORKING GAS CAPACITY FOR MERCHANT OR SMALL-SCALE LNG STORAGE BY COUNTRY, THROUGH 2020 (BILLION CUBIC METERS)
ROW
Latin America
Middle East
Africa
TABLE 85 ROW WORKING GAS CAPACITY FOR MERCHANT OR SMALL-SCALE LNG STORAGE BY REGION, THROUGH 2020 (BILLION CUBIC METERS)
DEMAND FOR COMPRESSED NATURAL GAS (CNG) STORAGE
TABLE 86 GLOBAL WORKING GAS CAPACITY FOR CNG STORAGE AS A PERCENTAGE OF GLOBAL NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION, THROUGH 2020 (%/BILLION CUBIC METERS)
TABLE 87 GLOBAL WORKING GAS CAPACITY FOR CNG STORAGE TANK BY TYPE, THROUGH 2020 (BILLION CUBIC METERS)
TYPE I TANKS
North America
Europe
Asia-Pacific
ROW
TABLE 88 GLOBAL WORKING GAS CAPACITY FOR CNG TYPE I STORAGE TANKS BY REGION, THROUGH 2020 (BILLION CUBIC METERS)
TYPE II TANKS
North America
Europe
Asia-Pacific
ROW
TABLE 89 GLOBAL WORKING GAS CAPACITY FOR CNG TYPE II STORAGE TANKS BY REGION, THROUGH 2020 (BILLION CUBIC METERS)
TYPE III/IV TANKS
North America
Europe
Asia-Pacific
ROW
TABLE 90 GLOBAL WORKING GAS CAPACITY FOR CNG TYPE III/IV STORAGE TANKS BY REGION, THROUGH 2020 (BILLION CUBIC METERS)
TYPE V CNG STORAGE TANKS
North America
Europe
Asia-Pacific
ROW
TABLE 91 GLOBAL WORKING GAS CAPACITY FOR TYPE V CNG STORAGE TANKS BY REGION, THROUGH 2020 (BILLION CUBIC METERS)
CHAPTER 6 DEMAND FOR NATURAL GAS STORAGE BY APPLICATION
TABLE 92 GLOBAL DEMAND FOR NATURAL GAS STORAGE BY APPLICATION, THROUGH 2020 (BILLION CUBIC METERS)
DEMAND FOR UNDERGROUND NATURAL GAS STORAGE BY APPLICATION AND REGION
TABLE 93 GLOBAL DEMAND FOR UNDERGROUND NATURAL GAS STORAGE BY APPLICATION, THROUGH 2020 (BILLION CUBIC METERS)
SEASONAL BALANCING
NORTH AMERICA
EUROPE
CIS
ASIA-PACIFIC
ROW
TABLE 94 GLOBAL DEMAND FOR NATURAL GAS STORAGE FOR SEASONAL BALANCING BY REGION, THROUGH 2020 (BILLION CUBIC METERS)
SYSTEM OPTIMIZATION AND SECURITY OF SUPPLY
NORTH AMERICA
EUROPE
CIS
ASIA-PACIFIC
ROW
TABLE 95 GLOBAL DEMAND FOR NATURAL GAS STORAGE FOR SYSTEM OPTIMIZATION AND SECURITY OF SUPPLY BY REGION, THROUGH 2020 (BILLION CUBIC METERS)
ARBITRAGE, TRANSIT BACK-UP AND DIRECT END-USE
NORTH AMERICA
EUROPE
CIS
ASIA-PACIFIC
ROW
TABLE 96 GLOBAL DEMAND FOR ARBITRAGE, TRANSIT BACK-UP AND DIRECT END-USE BY REGION, THROUGH 2020 (BILLION CUBIC METERS)
LNG TRADE
TABLE 97 DEMAND FOR LNG STORAGE IN INTERNATIONAL AND MERCHANT TRADE, THROUGH 2020 (BILLION CUBIC METERS)
DEMAND FOR LNG STORAGE IN INTERNATIONAL TRADE
United States of America
Qatar
Australia
TABLE 98 DEMAND FOR LNG STORAGE IN INTERNATIONAL TRADE BY EXPORTING COUNTRY, THROUGH 2020 (BILLION CUBIC METERS)
DEMAND FOR LNG STORAGE IN LIQUEFACTION AND RECEIVING
TERMINALS
TABLE 99 DEMAND FOR LNG STORAGE IN LIQUEFACTION AND RECEIVING TERMINALS, THROUGH 2020 (BILLION CUBIC METERS)
DEMAND FOR LNG STORAGE IN MERCHANT AND SMALL-SCALE TRADE
TABLE 100 DEMAND FOR LNG STORAGE IN MERCHANT AND SMALL-SCALE TRADE BY APPLICATION, THROUGH 2020 (BILLION CUBIC METERS)
NORTH AMERICA
Peak Shaving
Remote and Stranded Supply
LNG as Transport Fuel
EUROPE AND CIS
Peak Shaving
Remote and Stranded Supply
LNG as Transport Fuel
ASIA-PACIFIC
Peak Shaving
Remote and Stranded Supply
LNG as Transport Fuel
ROW
Latin America
Peak Shaving
Remote and Stranded Supply
LNG as Transport Fuel
Middle East
Peak Shaving
Remote and Stranded Supply
LNG as Transport Fuel
Africa
Peak Shaving
Remote and Stranded Supply
LNG as Transport Fuel
TABLE 101 GLOBAL WORKING GAS CAPACITY FOR MERCHANT AND SMALL-SCALE LNG STORAGE BY REGION, THROUGH 2020 (BILLION CUBIC METERS)
DEMAND FOR COMPRESSED NATURAL GAS IN TRANSPORT
TABLE 102 DEMAND FOR CNG TANK STORAGE IN TRANSPORT BY REGION, THROUGH 2020 (BILLION CUBIC METERS)
NORTH AMERICA
EUROPE
CIS
ASIA-PACIFIC
ROW
Middle East
Latin America
Africa
TABLE 103 ROW DEMAND FOR GAS STORAGE IN TRANSPORT BY REGION, THROUGH 2020 (BILLION CUBIC METERS)
CHAPTER 7 TECHNOLOGY
TABLE 104 GLOBAL DEMAND FOR NATURAL GAS STORAGE BY CONTAINMENT TECHNOLOGY TYPE, THROUGH 2020 (MILLION CUBIC METERS)
DEMAND FOR UNDERGROUND CONTAINMENT BY POROSITY
TABLE 105 DEMAND FOR UNDERGROUND GAS STORAGE CONTAINMENT BY POROSITY TECHNOLOGY (BILLION CUBIC METERS)
NONPOROUS UNDERGROUND CONTAINMENT TECHNOLOGY
Leached Salt
Other
TABLE 106 DEMAND FOR CAVERN STORAGE BY CONTAINMENT TECHNOLOGY, THROUGH 2020 (BILLION CUBIC METERS)
RESERVOIR CONTAINMENT TECHNOLOGY BY TYPE OF FLUID DEPLETION
Oil Depleted Reservoir Containment Technology
Gas Depleted Reservoir Containment Technology
Water Depleted Reservoir (Aquifer) Containment Technology
TABLE 107 DEMAND FOR WORKING GAS CAPACITY FOR FLUID DEPLETED RESERVOIRS CONTAINMENT BY TYPE, THROUGH 2020 (BILLION CUBIC METERS)
DEMAND FOR LNG CONTAINMENT TECHNOLOGY
MEMBRANE CONTAINMENT TECHNOLOGY
MOSS CONTAINMENT TECHNOLOGY
TABLE 108 GLOBAL DEMAND FOR MEMBRANE GAS STORAGE TECHNOLOGY BY MATERIAL TYPE, THROUGH 2020 (MILLION CUBIC METERS)
DEMAND FOR LNG STORAGE TANK CONTAINMENT TECHNOLOGY
Single Containment LNG Storage Tank Technology
Double Containment LNG Storage Tank Technology
Full Containment LNG Storage Tank Technology
TABLE 109 GLOBAL DEMAND FOR LNG TANK STORAGE BY CONTAINMENT TECHNOLOGY, THROUGH 2020 (MILLION CUBIC METERS)
DEMAND FOR CNG STORAGE TANK BY CONTAINMENT TECHNOLOGY
TABLE 110 GLOBAL DEMAND FOR CNG STORAGE TANK BY CONTAINMENT MATERIALS, THROUGH 2020 (MILLION CUBIC METERS)
METALLIC
CrMoSteel
Modified CrMoSteel
TABLE 111 GLOBAL DEMAND FOR CNG STORAGE METALLIC TANKS BY CONTAINMENT TECHNOLOGY, THROUGH 2020 (BILLION CUBIC METERS)
METALLIC COMPOSITE
Steel and Glass Fiber
Steel and Carbon Fiber
Aluminum and Carbon Fiber
TABLE 112 DEMAND FOR CNG STORAGE METALLIC COMPOSITE TANKS BY CONTAINMENT TECHNOLOGY, THROUGH 2020 (BILLION CUBIC METERS)
NONMETALLIC COMPOSITE
Polymer and Glass/Carbon Hybrid
Polymer and Carbon Fiber
Collapsible or Sacrificial Mandrel and Carbon Fiber
Collapsible or Sacrificial Mandrel / Glass Fiber
TABLE 113 DEMAND FOR CNG STORAGE NONMETALLIC TANKS BY CONTAINMENT TECHNOLOGY, THROUGH 2020 (BILLION CUBIC METERS)
CONTAINMENT TECHNOLOGY COMPARISON
UNDERGROUND GAS STORAGE
TABLE 114 TECHNOLOGY COMPARISON OF UGS CONTAINMENT
SYSTEMS
LNG CARGO CONTAINMENT TECHNOLOGIES
TABLE 115 TECHNOLOGY COMPARISON OF LNG CARGO CONTAINMENT
SYSTEMS
SMALL-SCALE LNG CARGO CONTAINMENT TECHNOLOGIES
TABLE 116 TECHNOLOGY COMPARISON OF SMALL-SCALE LNG STORAGE
(SSLNGS) TANK CONTAINMENT SYSTEMS
COMPRESSED GAS CONTAINMENT TECHNOLOGY
TABLE 117 TECHNOLOGY COMPARISON OF UGS CONTAINMENT
SYSTEMS
DEMAND FOR CONTAINMENT TECHNOLOGY INTENSITY
TABLE 118 DEMAND FOR CONTAINMENT TECHNOLOGY INTENSITY, THROUGH 2020 (CUBIC METERS/MILLION CUBIC METERS)
DEMAND FOR MERCHANT LNG STORAGE TECHNOLOGY INTENSITY
TABLE 119 DEMAND FOR MERCHANT LNG STORAGE TECHNOLOGY INTENSITY, THROUGH 2020 (MILLION CUBIC METERS)
DEMAND FOR UNDERGROUND GAS STORAGE TECHNOLOGY INTENSITY
TABLE 120 DEMAND FOR UGS TECHNOLOGY INTENSITY, THROUGH 2020 (BILLION CUBIC METERS/MILLION CUBIC METERS)
DEMAND FOR COMPRESSED NATURAL GAS STORAGE TECHNOLOGY
INTENSITY
TABLE 121 DEMAND FOR CNG STORAGE TECHNOLOGY INTENSITY, THROUGH 2020 (BILLION CUBIC METERS/MILLIONS/CUBIC METERS PER VEHICLE)
DEMAND FOR LNG STORAGE TANK TECHNOLOGY INTENSITY
TABLE 122 DEMAND FOR LNG STORAGE TANK TECHNOLOGY INTENSITY, THROUGH 2020 (MILLION CUBIC METERS)
DEMAND FOR LNG STORAGE CARRIER TECHNOLOGY INTENSITY
TABLE 123 DEMAND FOR LNG STORAGE CARRIER TECHNOLOGY INTENSITY, THROUGH 2020 (MILLION CUBIC METERS)
NATURAL GAS STORAGE INFRASTRUCTURE TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT
TABLE 124 NATURAL GAS STORAGE INFRASTRUCTURE TECHNOLOGY
DEVELOPMENT
NATURAL GAS STORAGE INFRASTRUCTURE PRODUCT DEVELOPMENTS
TABLE 125 NATURAL GAS STORAGE INFRASTRUCTURE PRODUCT
DEVELOPMENTS/IMPORTANT APPROACHES
NATURAL GAS STORAGE INFRASTRUCTURE PROCESS APPLICATION
TABLE 126 NATURAL GAS STORAGE INFRASTRUCTURE
PROCESS/APPLICATION
COMPANY MARKET SHARES
UGS OPERATING COMPANIES
Gazprom
Storengy
Ukrtransgaz SC
STOGIT
TABLE 127 COMPANY SHARES FOR UGS OPERATING COMPANIES (WORKING GAS CAPACITY)
COMPANY SHARES FOR LNG TANKER CAPACITY
Hyundai
Samsung
Daewoo
TABLE 128 LNG TANKERS UNDER CONSTRUCTION BY PROJECTED DELIVERY AND CAPACITY, 2015-2020 (CUBIC METERS)
COMPANY SHARES FOR CNG PRESSURE VESSEL MANUFACTURERS
Faber Industrie
Luxfer
Inflex Argentoil S.A.
Hexagon Lincoln
TABLE 129 COMPANY SHARES FOR PRESSURE VESSEL
MANUFACTURERS
CHAPTER 8 INTERNATIONAL OVERVIEW
POPULATION
TABLE 130 GLOBAL POPULATION GROWTH, THROUGH 2020 (MILLION)
UNITED STATES AND CANADA
ASIA-PACIFIC
SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA
OTHERS
TABLE 131 GLOBAL POPULATION GROWTH BY REGION, THROUGH 2020 (MILLIONS)
GLOBAL GDP AND GDP PER CAPITA
GLOBAL GDP
TABLE 132 GLOBAL GDP AND GDP PER CAPITA, THROUGH 2020 (2005 $ BILLIONS)
GLOBAL ENERGY CONSUMPTION BY FEEDSTOCK
PETROLEUM
NATURAL GAS
COAL
NUCLEAR
HYDROELECTRIC
RENEWABLES
TABLE 133 GLOBAL ENERGY CONSUMPTION BY FEEDSTOCK, THROUGH 2020 (MILLION TONS OF OIL EQUIVALENT)
GLOBAL NATURAL GAS PROVEN RESERVES BY REGION
TABLE 134 GLOBAL NATURAL GAS RESERVES, THROUGH 2020 (TRILLION CUBIC FEET)
NORTH AMERICA
EUROPE
ASIA-PACIFIC
ROW
TABLE 135 GLOBAL NATURAL GAS RESERVES BY REGION, THROUGH 2020 (TRILLION CUBIC FEET)
South America
Africa
Middle East
TABLE 136 ROW'S NATURAL GAS RESERVES BY REGION, THROUGH 2020 (TRILLION CUBIC FEET)
GLOBAL OIL AND GAS EXPLORATION AND PRODUCTION INVESTMENTS
TABLE 137 GLOBAL OIL AND GAS EXPLORATION & PRODUCTION INVESTMENTS, THROUGH 2020 ($ BILLIONS)
NORTH AMERICA
EUROPE
ASIA-PACIFIC
ROW
TABLE 138 GLOBAL OIL AND GAS EXPLORATION AND PRODUCTION INVESTMENTS BY REGION, THROUGH 2020 ($ BILLIONS)
Central and South America
Africa
Middle East
TABLE 139 ROW'S OIL AND GAS EXPLORATION AND PRODUCTION INVESTMENTS BY REGION, THROUGH 2020 ($ BILLIONS)
GLOBAL NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION BY REGION
TABLE 140 GLOBAL NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION,THROUGH 2020 (BILLION CUBIC METERS)
NORTH AMERICA
EUROPE
ASIA-PACIFIC
ROW
TABLE 141 GLOBAL NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION BY REGION,THROUGH 2020 (BILLION CUBIC METERS)
South America
Middle East
Africa
TABLE 142 ROW NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION BY REGION, THROUGH 2020 (BILLION CUBIC METERS)
GLOBAL NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION BY TYPE
CONVENTIONAL NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION
TABLE 143 GLOBAL NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION BY TYPE,THROUGH 2020 (BILLION CUBIC METERS)
UNCONVENTIONAL NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION
TABLE 144 GLOBAL UNCONVENTIONAL NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION BY GEOGRAPHIC REGION, THROUGH 2020 (BILLION CUBIC METERS)
North America
United States
Canada
Mexico
Europe
Asia-Pacific
Australia
China
Middle East, Latin America and Africa
TABLE 145 GLOBAL UNCONVENTIONAL NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION BY COUNTRY/REGION, THROUGH 2020 (BILLION CUBIC METERS)
GLOBAL NATURAL GAS CONSUMPTION BY REGION
TABLE 146 GLOBAL NATURAL GAS CONSUMPTION, THROUGH 2020 (BILLION CUBIC METERS)
TABLE 147 GLOBAL NATURAL GAS CONSUMPTION BY REGION, THROUGH 2020 (BILLION CUBIC METERS)
NORTH AMERICA
EUROPE
ASIA-PACIFIC
ROW
INTERNATIONAL CURRENCY EXCHANGE RATES
EURO/DOLLAR
YEN/DOLLAR
RMB/DOLLAR
TABLE 148 YEARLY AVERAGE EXCHANGE RATES FOR CONVERTING FOREIGN CURRENCIES INTO U.S. DOLLARS* (2012-2020)
NATURAL GAS AND OIL PRICES
CRUDE OIL
NATURAL GAS
TABLE 149 NATURAL GAS PRICES, THROUGH 2020 (U.S. $ PER MILLION BTU)
THE METAL MARKET
STEEL
IRON ORE
NICKEL
ALUMINUM
COPPER
COBALT
ZINC
TIN
CHROMIUM
MOLYBDENUM
LEAD
SILVER
TABLE 150 GLOBAL MARKET FOR METALS USED FOR NATURAL GAS STORAGE BY TYPE,THROUGH 2020 ($/TONNE)
CHAPTER 9 INDUSTRY STRUCTURE
TABLE 151 STORAGE ALONG THE NATURAL GAS CHAIN
BARRIERS TO FURTHER DEVELOPMENT AND DEPLOYMENT
TABLE 152 CHALLENGES FOR STORAGE
CONCENTRATION OF UNDERGROUND STORAGE BY GEOGRAPHY AND TYPE
TABLE 153 WORKING GAS CAPACITY FOR UNDERGROUND NATURAL GAS STORAGE BY REGION AND STORAGE TYPE, THROUGH 2020 (BILLION CUBIC METERS)
CONCENTRATION OF ABOVE GROUND STORAGE BY REGION AND TYPE
TABLE 154 WORKING GAS CAPACITY FOR ABOVE GROUND NATURAL GAS STORAGE CONTAINMENT BY REGION, THROUGH 2020 (BILLION CUBIC METERS)
CONCENTRATION BY GEOLOGY
TABLE 155 GLOBAL NATURAL GAS STORAGE BY GEOLOGY, THROUGH 2020 (BILLION CUBIC METERS)
NONGEOLOGIC STORAGE
TABLE 156 CONCENTRATION OF GLOBAL NONGEOLOGIC NATURAL GAS STORAGE BY SECTOR, THROUGH 2020 (BILLION CUBIC METERS)
Other Nongeologic Natural Gas Storage
TABLE 157 DEMAND FOR NONGEOLOGIC GLOBAL NATURAL GAS STORAGE BY OTHER SECTORS, THROUGH 2020 (BILLION CUBIC METERS)
GEOLOGIC
Porous Reservoirs
Cavern
TABLE 158 DEMAND FOR GEOLOGICAL GLOBAL NATURAL GAS STORAGE BY TYPE, THROUGH 2020 (BILLION CUBIC METERS CONCENTRATION IN INTERCONTINENTAL LNG STORAGE TANKER TRADE
TABLE 159 CONCENTRATED GLOBAL LNG TRADE BY TYPE OF EXPORTING COUNTRY, THROUGH 2020 (BILLION CUBIC METERS/%)
RECEIVING/REGASIFICATION TERMINAL LNG STORAGE
TABLE 160 CONCENTRATED GLOBAL LNG TRADE BY TYPE OF IMPORTING COUNTRY, THROUGH 2020 (%/BILLION CUBIC METERS)
UNDERGROUND STORAGE
TABLE 161 WORKING GAS CAPACITY OF UNDERGROUND NATURAL GAS STORAGE, THROUGH 2020 (BILLION CUBIC METERS)
COMPRESSED NATURAL GAS STORAGE
TABLE 162 CONCENTRATION OF NATURAL GAS VEHICLE, STORAGE TANK TECHNOLOGIES AND REFUELING STATIONS
REVENUE STREAMS
COMPRESSED NATURAL GAS MARKET VALUE
LNG TANKER TRADE VALUE
UNDERGROUND GAS STORAGE MARKET VALUE
RECEIVING/LIQUEFACTION TERMINAL STORAGE MARKET VALUE
MERCHANT LNG MARKET VALUE
TABLE 163 VALUE OF NATURAL GAS STORAGE BY SEGMENT/SECTOR, THROUGH 2020 ($ BILLIONS)
MARKET CONCENTRATION BY REGION
NORTH AMERICA
EUROPE AND CIS
ASIA-PACIFIC
ROW
TABLE 164 CONCENTRATION OF NATURAL GAS STORAGE BY REGION, THROUGH 2020 ($ BILLIONS)
NATURAL GAS STORAGE TRENDS
TABLE 165 TREND IN NATURAL GAS STORAGE SITES BY NUMBERS, THROUGH 2020
NUMBER OF LNG IMPORTING AND EXPORTING COUNTRIES
LNG Exporting Countries
LNG Importing Countries
TABLE 166 NUMBER OF LNG IMPORTING AND EXPORTING
COUNTRIES, THROUGH 2020
NUMBER OF UNDERGROUND GAS STORAGE SITES
North America
Europe
Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS)
Asia-Pacific
Rest of the World (ROW)
TABLE 167 NUMBER OF UNDERGROUND GAS STORAGE SITES BY REGION, THROUGH 2020
Depleted Oil and Gas Reservoirs
Salt Caverns
Aquifers
Other
TABLE 168 NUMBER OF UNDERGROUND GAS STORAGE SITES BY STORAGE TYPES, THROUGH 2020
NUMBER OF COMPRESSED NATURAL GAS VEHICLES
Passenger Cars and Light-Duty Vehicles
Medium-Duty Vehicles/Heavy-Duty Vehicles
Other
TABLE 169 TRENDS IN THE NUMBER OF COMPRESSED NATURAL GAS VEHICLES, THROUGH 2020 (MILLIONS)
CHAPTER 10 GOVERNMENT REGULATIONS AND LEGISLATION
ACTIVITIES OF U.S. LNG REGULATORY AGENCIES
TABLE 170 ACTIVITIES OF US LNG REGULATORY AGENCIES
INTERNATIONAL REGULATORY ASPECTS ON UNDERGROUND NATURAL GAS
STORAGE
UNITED STATES
TABLE 171 KEY REGULATIONS AFFECTING NATURAL GAS STORAGE
INFRASTRUCTURE
ACTIVITIES OF REGULATORY AGENCIES OUTSIDE THE UNITED STATES
TABLE 172 KEY REGULATIONS AFFECTING NATURAL GAS STORAGE
INFRASTRUCTURE OUTSIDE THE UNITED STATES
CHAPTER 11 COMPANY PROFILES
NATURAL GAS STORAGE INFRASTRUCTURE REGULATORY AGENCIES
THE UNITED STATES COAST GUARD
THE UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION
THE UNITED STATES FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION
THE UNITED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
THE UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY
LNG RECEIVING TERMINAL OPERATORS
AES CORP.
AMERICAN ELECTRIC POWER CO.
DOMINION TRANSMISSION INC.
ELECTRABEL
ENEL SPA
FPL GROUP
IBERDROLA SA
KANSAI ELECTRIC POWER CO. INC.
KOREA ELECTRIC POWER CORP.
TOKYO ELECTRIC POWER CO. INC.
TOKYO GAS
UNDERGROUND NATURAL GAS STORAGE COMPANIES
ABS
ATMOS ENERGY CORP.
CONSTELLATION ENERGY GROUP INC.
ENCANA CORP.
ENCANA GAS STORAGE INC.
ENERGEN CORP.
EXELON CORP.
GAZPROM
NATIONAL FUEL GAS CO.
NISOURCE INC.
NORTHEAST UTILITIES
PUGET ENERGY INC.
SCANA CORP.
STORENGY
TECO ENERGY INC.
TRANSCANADA CORP.
UGI CORP.
UKRTRANSGAZ
WGL HOLDINGS, INC.
WILLIAMS COMPANIES INC.
WISCONSIN ENERGY CORP.
LNG STORAGE TANKS AND LNG CONTAINMENT SYSTEMS
BRAEMAR LNG BV,
CHICAGO BRIDGE & IRON CO. (CB&I)
ISHIKAWAJIMA-HARIMA HEAVY INDUSTRIES CO. LTD.
KAWASAKI KISEN KAISHA LTD.
KOGAS GAS TECHNOLOGY CORP.
MITSUBISHI HEAVY INDUSTRIES LTD.
OSAKA GAS CO. LTD.
OFFSHORE LNG TERMINALS
BLUEWATER OFFSHORE PRODUCTION SYSTEMS USA INC.
EL PASO GLOBAL LNG
EXCELERATE ENERGY
HEXAGON LINCOLN INC.
MARINTEK (USA) INC.
COMPRESSED NATURAL GAS CYLINDER STORAGE
3B
CENERGY SOLUTIONS
FABER INDUCTRIE SPA
INFLEX ARGENTOIL S.A.
LUXFER GAS CYLINDERS
MITSUBISHI RAYON FIBER AND COMPOSITES INC.
NAT G CNG
PSI TECHNOLOGIES
QUANTUM FUEL SYSTEMS TECHNOLOGIES WORLDWIDE INC.
TORAY INDUSTRIES
COMPRESSION MACHINERY
GE POWER SYSTEMS
SIEMENS AG
ADHESIVES
HUNTSMAN ADVANCED MATERIALS AMERICAS INC.
AIR SEPARATION UNITS
CRYOSTAR USA EAST
ALTERNATIVE FUEL VEHICLES TECHNOLOGIES
NEXTGEN FUELING
BOIL-OFF GAS HANDLING TECHNOLOGIES
HAMWORTHY PLC
HYUNDAI HEAVY INDUSTRIES CO. LTD.
COLD BOXES
AIR PRODUCTS AND CHEMICALS INC.
COMBUSTION SYSTEMS
T-THERMAL COMPANY
COUPLING SYSTEMS
PARKER HANNIFIN
CRYOGENIC SYSTEM COMPONENTS
CHART INDUSTRIES
ELECTRONIC CONTROL UNITS
ENERGY CONVERSIONS INC.
EXPANDERS
EBARA INTERNATIONAL CORPORATION
FLANGES AND PIPING
INTERNATIONAL STEEL SUPPLIES INC.
FLEXIBLE HOSES/HOSES
MARINTEK
FSO/FPSO UNITS
BLUEWATER ENERGY SERVICES B.V.
GAS/OIL/WATER SEPARATION UNITS
ACS INDUSTRIES INC.
GAS PROCESSING SYSTEMS AND COMPONENTS
MARLBORO ENTERPRISES INC.
HEAT EXCHANGERS/HEAT TRANSFER TECHNOLOGY
ALFA LAVAL INC.
INSULATION (CRYOGENIC) SYSTEMS
INSULATIONS INC.
LNG TANKER BERTH AND LNG LOADING ARMS
ADVANCED PRODUCTION AND LOADING AS
FMC CORPORATION
FMC TECHNOLOGIES
LNG PEAK-SHAVING AND SATELLITE SYSTEMS
CH IV CRYOGENICS CORPORATION
CLEAN ENERGY FUELS CORP.
CROYOGENIC INDUSTRIES
GAS TECHNOLOGY INSTITUTE (GTI)
MARLIN GAS TRANSPORT INC.
UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (U.S. DOE)
PIPE SECTIONS
CHIYODA CORPORATION
PIPE SUPPORTS
NAVARRO CHEMICALS PTY. LTD.
PRESSURE VESSELS (CRYOGENIC)
CROMPTON TECHNOLOGY GROUP LTD.
CRYOGENIC PUMPS
CRYOSTAR SAS
TURBINES
SIEMENS CORPORATION
FLOW METERS, FLOW COMPUTERS & FLOW INDICATORS
ALICAT SCIENTIFIC
EMERSON PROCESS MANAGEMENT
IMPCO TECHNOLOGIES INC.
INVENSYS
SAGE METERING INC.
SIEMENS ENERGY & AUTOMATION INC.
YOKOGAWA CORPORATION OF AMERICA
ANALYZERS, DETECTORS, SENSORS, CONTROLS & INSTRUMENTATION
DAVIDSON INSTRUMENTS
EXTECH INSTRUMENTS, INC.
OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH DYNAMICS
PARKER INSTRUMENTATION
LNG VALUE CHAIN COMPANIES
BG GROUP PLC
BP PLC
CHEVRONTEXACO CORP.
CONOCOPHILLIPS
ENI SPA
EXXONMOBIL CORP.
REPSOL-YPF SA
ROYAL DUTCH/SHELL PETROLEUM COMPANY
SEMPRA ENERGY LNG CORP
TOTALFINAELF SA
NATURAL GAS EXPLORATION AND PRODUCTION COMPANIES
E.ON AG
MARATHON OIL COMPANY
SERVICE SUPPLY COMPANIES
AMEC PROCESS AND ENERGY LTD.
DEN NORSKE STATS OLJESELSKAP AS (STATOIL)
HALLIBURTON CO.
SCHLUMBERGER LTD
ENGINEERING AND CONSTRUCTION COMPANIES
ABB LUMMUS GLOBAL GMBH
ABS
BAKER HUGHES INC.
BLACK AND VEATCH PRITCHARD INC.
CHICAGO BRIDGE & IRON COMPANY
FLUOR DANIEL
PITT-DES MOINES INC.
INVESTMENT ADVISORY COMPANY
THE MITCHELL GROUP INC.
LNG SHIP CONSTRUCTION AND PROPULSION SYSTEMS
CHANTIERS DE L'ATLANTIQUE
DAEWOO SHIPBUILDING & MARINE ENGINEERING CO.
HYUNDAI HEAVY INDUSTRIES
ISHIKAWAJIMA-HARIMA HEAVY INDUSTRIES
IZAR CONSTRUCCIONES NAVALES S.A.
MCDERMOTT INTERNATIONAL INC.
MITSUBISHI HEAVY INDUSTRIES (MHI)
MITSUI ENGINEERING AND SHIPBUILDING CO.
LNG TANKER OPERATORS
MITSUI OSK LINES
LNG PROCESS TECHNOLOGY LICENSORS
AIR PRODUCTS AND CHEMICALS INC.
LINDE
TECHNIP
LEGAL ADVISORY SERVICE
WHITE & CASE LLP
FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS AND MATERIALS
MARIOFF CORPORATION OY
PPG INDUSTRIES, INC.
FLARE SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT
ABB GAS TECHNOLOGY AS
ALMAC GROUP
HYDRAULICS AND ELECTROCHEMICAL EQUIPMENT
BHP PETROLEUM (BHPP) PTY LTD
HYDROGRAPHIC AND METEOROLOGY
ASAMS LTD.
PIC ENERGY GROUP
LIFTING EQUIPMENT, CRANES AND WINCHES
HYDRALIFT ASA
INGERSOLL-RAND
MOLDECRANE
LIGHTING
CHINA LIGHT & POWER HOLDINGS
LININGS, SEALS, AND GASKETS
BAL SEAL ENGINEERING COMPANY INC.
PIPELINES AND PIPING COMPONENTS
3M
CECO PIPELINE SERVICES CO. INC.
NKT FLEXIBLES
TIMET (TITANIUM METALS CORP.
WELD-TECH MANUFACTURING LTD.
POWER GENERATION AND PROPULSION MACHINERY
ORMAT
PROCESSING AND SEPARATION SYSTEMS
CHICAGO BRIDGE & IRON COMPANY
FOSTER WHEELER CORP.
KVAERNER ASA
MINOX TECHNOLOGY AS
PETRECO INTERNATIONAL
PROJECT MANAGEMENT, CONSULTANCY AND CERTIFICATION
ABS MARINE SERVICES
MULTIPHASE SOLUTIONS INC.
SCHLUMBERGER OILFIELD SERVICES
VIKING ENERGY ROYALTY TRUST
PUMPS (NON-CRYOGENIC)
CAT PUMPS
RECRUITMENT AND PERSONNEL
OMEGA SELECTION SERVICES LTD
ROCK DUMPING
VAN OORD ACZ BV
SEISMIC MONITORING
OMNI ENERGY SERVICES
PETROPHYSICS INC.
TIDELANDS GEOPHYSICAL CO.
STEEL, SPECIAL METALS AND WELDING
KRUPP THYSSEN NIROSTA (KTN)
WEIR MATERIALS & FOUNDRIES
SUPPORT VESSELS, SUPPLY AND CONTAINERS
SETEC CONTRACTING AS
SURPLUS AND USED EQUIPMENT
ACM ENGINEERING LTD.
ZEUS SALES & SERVICES LTD
SURVIVAL, SAFETY AND PROTECTION
BRADY CORPORATION
GEXCON
SANDIA NATIONAL LABORATORIES
WELL EQUIPMENT
WELLTEC
CHAPTER 12 APPENDIX CONVERSION TABLES
TABLE A FREQUENTLY USED CONVERSIONS
TABLE B TYPICAL VAPOR-LIQUID CONVERSIONS*
TABLE C CONVERSION FACTORS

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