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Global Markets for Oleochemical Fatty Acids

Global Markets for Oleochemical Fatty Acids

The global market for natural fatty acids reached nearly $17.1 billion and $18.3 billion in 2013 and 2014, respectively. This market is expected to grow at a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 7.1% to $25.7 billion for the period 2014-2019.

This report provides:

An overview of the global markets for oleochemicals, including natural fatty acids, biodiesel and methyl esters, glycerine, as well as derivatives such as soaps, dimers, branched fatty acids, and fatty alcohols.

Analyses of global market trends, with data from 2013 and 2014, and projections of CAGRs through 2019.

Examination of applications by end market, such as household, personal care, oil field, and lubricants.

Discussion of current and potential legislation that will affect the industry.

Coverage of consumer trends that drive many of the end markets, such as cleaning, beauty, and food.


SCOPE AND FORMAT

As the social condition of citizens in the developing nations rises so too will the demand from these communities for more premium and westernized products, reflecting the higher standard of living status.

Oleochemicals, such as fatty acids, will be a vital link in the supply chain as their outstanding functionality and versatility make them ideal to be used in a multitude of applications. On top of this, the high reactivity of this acid enables the production of a range of derivatives that can be tailored to meet the needs of a number of end-using industries, working with the formulators to produce the ideal blend of functionality and performance.

The range of derivatives is dependent on the reaction site used. Derivatives can be produced using the acid functionality such as saponification, esterification, ethoxylation or amination, while derivatives based on the unsaturation include isomerization, dimerization, epoxidation and hydrogenation acids.

Fatty acids and their derivatives have a range of functionality that can be used to support the move away from the petrochemical-based platform that is reliant on the rapidly reducing fossil fuel industry since all the easy oil has been extracted and the remaining oil is more inaccessible, more remote and located in more inhospitable environments. While the equivalent renewable biorefinery-type platform has a long way to go to be commercially viable and suitable to replace the petrochemical platform, oleochemicals will be a major contributor to such development. For instance the ester derivatives have the functionality of surfactancy, lubricity and solvency, which deliver the following benefits:

The ability to reduce the surface tension between a polar and an apolar medium, which is important for cleaning and emulsification.
The ability to reduce friction, which is needed for lubricant applications.
The ability to dissolve chemicals, which is key to providing a greener solvent substitution for cleaning.

This report provides an understanding of how the composition of various fats and oils transform into the range, quality and types of acids produced and the applications for which those acids can be used. It explores the various attributes of different acid types and how these cuts compete with synthetic formed products from the petrochemical route and the major applications outlets.

This study will reveal the developments and research that demonstrate the green credentials of the oleochemical family and how these credentials are changing the environmental profile of the chemical-using industry. This is helpful to the transformation from that of a major polluter to an industry working in harmony with its environment to meet the needs of the current generation without detrimental effects on its surroundings that would impact the generations to come.

The study is divided into a number of sections and covers the following fatty acid types:

Stearic acid.
Distilled fatty acids.
Fractionated fatty acids.
Polyunsaturated acids, including tall oil fatty acids.
Oleic acids.

The fatty acid oleochemical business is important for the following reasons:

It is a major source of surfactants, which are starting materials for the detergent, cleaning and personal care industries.
The functionality and performance combination enables formulators to deliver tailored solutions to meet a variety of customers’ needs.
It is an important cornerstone in the development of a sustainable chemical platform to reduce the reliance on fossil-fuel-based chemistry.
It promotes the development of green chemistry that is environmentally friendly.
Conversion of solid fats and liquid vegetable oils into a straight chain saturated or unsaturated carboxylic acid can be used in edible and nonedible markets.

CHAPTER 1 Introduction
STUDY GOALS AND OBJECTIVES
REASONS FOR DOING THE STUDY
CONTRIBUTION OF THE STUDY AND INTENDED AUDIENCE
SCOPE AND FORMAT
METHODOLOGY AND INFORMATION SOURCES
ANALYSTS' CREDENTIALS
RELATED BCC RESEARCH REPORTS
BCC RESEARCH WEBSITE
DISCLAIMER
CHAPTER 2 SUMMARY
SUMMARY TABLE GLOBAL MARKET FOR NATURAL FATTY ACIDS, THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS)
SUMMARY FIGURE GLOBAL MARKET FOR NATURAL FATTY ACIDS, 2013-2019 ($ MILLIONS)
CHAPTER 3 OVERVIEW OF THE INDUSTRY
INTRODUCTION
CHANGES IN THE OLEOCHEMICAL WORLD
RECENT AND FUTURE DEVELOPMENTS IN BRIEF
WHAT ARE OLEOCHEMICALS?
TABLE 1 AN OVERVIEW OF OLEOCHEMICALS
FIGURE 1 BASIC OVERVIEW OF THE OLEOCHEMICAL INDUSTRY
NATURAL FATTY ACIDS AND GLYCERIN
FIGURE 2 SATURATED FATTY ACID
FIGURE 3 UNSATURATED FATTY ACID
TABLE 2 NATURAL SATURATED FATTY ACIDS WITH CARBON CHAIN LENGTH, CHEMICAL STRUCTURE AND EXAMPLES OF ORIGIN
TABLE 3 NATURAL UNSATURATED FATTY ACIDS WITH CARBON CHAIN LENGTH, CHEMICAL STRUCTURE AND EXAMPLES OF ORIGIN
Tall Oil Fatty Acids (TOFA)
Castor Oil
Branched Fatty Acids
Glycerin(e)
FIGURE 4 GLYCERIN MOLECULE
Biodiesel and Glycerin
Synthetic Glycerin and the Glycerin Market
FATTY ACID DERIVATIVES
FATTY ALCOHOLS
SOAPS
DIMERS
ESTERS
FIGURE 5 ESTER MOLECULE: THE ''R'' IS THE VARIABLE, COMMONLY AN ACID ''REST'' GROUP
Esterification/Transesterification Process
AMIDES
FIGURE 6 ETHANAMIDE, AN EXAMPLE OF AN AMIDE MOLECULE
AMINES
FIGURE 7 AMINES
SULFONATES
FIGURE 8 SULFONATE
FUNCTIONALITY AND BUILDING BLOCKS
NONIONIC SURFACTANTS FROM METHYL ESTERS
BUILDING BLOCKS FOR POLYMERS
RAW MATERIALS
GLOBAL PRODUCTION OF OILS AND FATS
TABLE 4 WORLD PRODUCTION OF OILS AND FATS BY SOURCE, THROUGH 2019 (MILLION METRIC TONS)
FIGURE 9 ESTIMATED WORLD PRODUCTION OF FATS AND OILS BY SOURCE, 2013 (%)
FIGURE 10 ESTIMATED VEGETABLE/ANIMAL FATS AND OILS, 2013 AND 2019 (%)
CONSUMPTION OF FATS AND OILS IN OLEOCHEMICALS
FIGURE 11 ESTIMATED PERCENTAGE OF USAGE OF OILS AND FATS, 2000
AND 2013 (%)
PRODUCTION OF OILS AND FATS: REGIONAL DIFFERENCES AND DEMAND TABLE 5 WORLD PRODUCTION OF OILS AND FATS BY REGION, THROUGH 2019 (MILLION METRIC TONS)
CHOICE OF RAW MATERIALS
FATTY ACIDS AND GLYCERIN
FATTY ACID COMPOSITION OF VARIOUS NATURAL OILS AND FATS
Nomenclature
Composition, Saturated versus Unsaturated, MUFA versus PUFA
Properties
TABLE 6 COMPOSITION AND PROPERTIES OF NATURAL OILS AND FATS COMPOSITION AND CHARACTERISTICS OF NATURAL FATTY ACIDS AND GLYCERIN
Properties
SATURATED FATTY ACIDS IN ALPHABETICAL ORDER OF COMMON NAMES
Arachidic Acid (C20)
Behenic Acid (C22)
Capric Acid (C10)
Caproic Acid (C6)
Caprylic Acid (C8)
Lauric Acid (C12)
Myristic Acid (C14)
Palmitic Acid (C16)
Stearic Acid (C18)
TABLE 7 SELECTED PROPERTIES OF SATURATED FATTY ACIDS
UNSATURATED FATTY ACIDS IN ALPHABETICAL ORDER BY COMMON NAMES
Erucic Acid (C22:1)
Gadoleic Acid (C20:1)
Linoleic Acid (C18:2)
Linolenic Acid (C18:3)
Myristoleic Acid (C14:1)
Oleic Acid (C18:1)
Palmitoleic Acid (C16:1)
Ricinoleic Acid (C18:1OH)
TABLE 8 SELECTED PROPERTIES OF UNSATURATED FATTY ACIDS
PROPERTIES OF GLYCERIN AND TOFA
Glycerin
TABLE 9 PROPERTIES OF GLYCERIN
Tall Oil Fatty Acids (TOFA)
TABLE 10 EXAMPLE OF PROPERTIES OF TOFA
END USES, APPLICATIONS
THE MANUFACTURING LANDSCAPE
Hydrolysis or Splitting
FIGURE 12 SPLITTING COLUMN
Segregation/Separation
Distillation of Fatty Acids
Hydrogenation (Hardening)
Partial Hydrogenation
GLYCERIN PURIFICATION
MANUFACTURERS OF PRODUCTION EQUIPMENT
Which Technology to Use
FATTY ACID MANUFACTURERS AND THE INDUSTRY
A Changing Manufacturer’s Landscape
Mergers and Acquisitions, Strategic Changes
TABLE 11 SELECTION OF MERGERS AND ACQUISITIONS WITH AN IMPACT IN THE FATTY ACIDS AND DERIVATIVES INDUSTRY
TABLE 12 CAPACITY CHANGE ANNOUNCEMENTS
LEGISLATION
TRENDS AND IMPACTS
REGIONAL AND GEOGRAPHICAL DEVELOPMENTS
RENEWABLES-GREEN CHEMISTRY-SUSTAINABILITY
FIGURE 13 RSPO ENTRY PAGE FOR PLAYERS IN THE PALM OIL
PRODUCTION SUPPLY CHAIN
CHAPTER 4 OVERVIEW OF MARKETS AND APPLICATIONS FOR NATURAL
FATTY ACIDS
INTRODUCTION
CHANGING NATURE OF OLEOCHEMICAL PRODUCERS
OLEOCHEMICAL BUSINESS MODEL
OLEOCHEMICAL BASE FAMILY
OLEOCHEMICAL COMPARED TO FOSSIL-FUEL-BASED PETROCHEMICALS
GREEN CHEMISTRY
SUSTAINABLE PALM OIL INDUSTRY
MANUFACTURING LANDSCAPE
TABLE 13 SNAPSHOT OF BASE FATTY ACID CAPACITY BY REGION, 2013 (MILLION METRIC TONS)
FIGURE 14 SNAPSHOT OF BASE FATTY ACID CAPACITY, BY REGION, 2013 (MILLION METRIC TONS)
FATTY ACID GLOBAL CONSUMPTION OVERVIEW
TABLE 14 BASE FATTY ACID CONSUMPTION BY REGION, THROUGH 2019 (%*)
FIGURE 15 BASE FATTY ACID CONSUMPTION BY REGION, 2013-2019 (%)
APPLICATIONS FOR OLEIC ACID AND ITS SIMPLE DERIVATIVES
TABLE 15 TYPICAL APPLICATIONS FOR OLEIC ACID AND ITS SIMPLE
DERIVATIVES
ECONOMIC OUTLOOK
TABLE 16 REAL DOMESTIC PRODUCT GROWTH RATES, 2012-2015 (%)
FIGURE 16 REAL DOMESTIC PRODUCT GROWTH RATES, 2012-2015 (%)
IMPACT OF GOVERNMENT POLICIES
PRODUCT OVERVIEW
FATTY ACID TYPES
TABLE 17 SPLIT OF FATTY ACID TYPES ACROSS REGIONS IN TERMS OF CONSUMPTION, 2013 (%)
DISTILLED FATTY ACIDS
TABLE 18 EXAMPLES OF DISTILLED FATTY ACIDS
POLYUNSATURATED FATTY ACIDS
TABLE 19 EXAMPLES OF POLYUNSATURATED FATTY ACIDS
TABLE 20 DFA AND PUFA MANUFACTURING SALES, THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS)
FIGURE 17 DFA AND PUFA MANUFACTURING SALES, 2013-2019 ($ MILLIONS)
FRACTIONATED FATTY ACIDS
TABLE 21 EXAMPLES OF FRACTIONATED FATTY ACIDS
TABLE 22 FFA MANUFACTURING SALES, THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS)
FIGURE 18 FFA MANUFACTURING SALES, 2013-2019 ($ MILLIONS)
STEARIC ACID
TABLE 23 EXAMPLES OF STEARIC FATTY ACIDS
TABLE 24 STEARIC ACID MANUFACTURING SALES, THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS)
FIGURE 19 STEARIC ACID MANUFACTURING SALES, 2013-2019 ($ MILLIONS)
OLEIC ACID
TABLE 25 EXAMPLES OF OLEIC FATTY ACIDS
TABLE 26 OLEIC ACID MANUFACTURING SALES, THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS)
FIGURE 20 OLEIC ACID MANUFACTURING SALES, 2013-2019 ($ MILLIONS)
PRICES
TABLE 27 AVERAGE PRICE OF FATTY ACIDS, THROUGH 2019 ($/METRIC TON)
DEMAND BY APPLICATION
CAPTIVE COMPARED TO MERCHANT
TABLE 28 MANUFACTURERS' FATTY ACID CONSUMPTION BY SEGMENT, THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS)
FIGURE 21 MANUFACTURERS’ CONSUMPTION OF FATTY ACIDS BY SEGMENT, 2013-2019 ($ MILLIONS)
ANIMAL FEED
TABLE 29 ANIMAL FEED MANUFACTURERS' CONSUMPTION OF FATTY ACIDS BY REGION, THROUGH 2019
FIGURE 22 ANIMAL FEED MANUFACTURERS' CONSUMPTION OF FATTY ACIDS BY REGION, 2013-2019 ($ MILLIONS)
COSMETICS AND TOILETRIES
TABLE 30 COSMETICS AND TOILETRIES MANUFACTURERS' CONSUMPTION OF FATTY ACIDS BY REGION, THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS)
FIGURE 23 COSMETICS AND TOILETRIES MANUFACTURERS' CONSUMPTION OF FATTY ACIDS BY REGION, 2013-2019 ($ MILLIONS)
DETERGENTS AND CLEANERS
TABLE 31 FATTY ACID SALES TO DETERGENT MANUFACTURERS’ CONSUMPTION OF FATTY ACIDS BY REGION, THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS)
FIGURE 24 FATTY ACID SALES TO DETERGENT MANUFACTURERS' CONSUMPTION OF FATTY ACIDS BY REGION, 2013-2019 ($ MILLIONS)
EMULSION POLYMERIZATION
TABLE 32 EMULSION POLYMERIZATION MANUFACTURERS’ CONSUMPTION OF FATTY ACIDS BY REGION, THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS)
FIGURE 25 EMULSION POLYMERIZATION MANUFACTURERS' CONSUMPTION OF FATTY ACIDS BY REGION, 2013-2019 ($ MILLIONS)
LUBRICANTS
TABLE 33 LUBRICANT MANUFACTURERS' CONSUMPTION OF FATTY ACIDS, BY REGION, THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS)
FIGURE 26 LUBRICANT MANUFACTURERS' CONSUMPTION OF FATTY ACIDS, BY REGION, 2013-2019 ($ MILLIONS)
ORE PROCESSING
TABLE 34 ORE PROCESSING CHEMICAL MANUFACTURERS' CONSUMPTION OF FATTY ACIDS BY REGION, THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS)
FIGURE 27 ORE PROCESSING CHEMICAL MANUFACTURERS' CONSUMPTION OF FATTY ACIDS BY REGION, 2013-2019 ($ MILLIONS)
RESINS
TABLE 35 RESIN MANUFACTURERS' CONSUMPTION OF FATTY ACIDS, BY REGION, THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS)
FIGURE 28 RESIN MANUFACTURERS' CONSUMPTION OF FATTY ACIDS BY REGION, 2013-2019 ($ MILLIONS)
TEXTILE SOFTENERS
TABLE 36 TEXTILE SOFTENER MANUFACTURERS' CONSUMPTION OF FATTY ACIDS BY REGION, THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS)
FIGURE 29 TEXTILE SOFTENER MANUFACTURERS' CONSUMPTION OF FATTY ACIDS BY REGION, 2013-2019 ($ MILLIONS)
VULCANIZATION
TABLE 37 RUBBER PRODUCTS MANUFACTURERS' CONSUMPTION OF FATTY ACIDS BY REGION, THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS)
FIGURE 30 RUBBER PRODUCTS MANUFACTURERS' CONSUMPTION OF FATTY ACIDS BY REGION, 2013-2019 ($ MILLIONS)
WAXES
TABLE 38 WAX PRODUCTS MANUFACTURERS' CONSUMPTION OF FATTY ACIDS BY REGION, THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS)
FIGURE 31 WAX PRODUCTS MANUFACTURERS' CONSUMPTION OF FATTY ACIDS BY REGION, 2013-2019 ($ MILLIONS)
DERIVATIVES
FIGURE 32 MAJOR FATTY ACID DERIVATIVES
TABLE 39 COMPARISON OF MINERAL OIL VS. FATTY ACID ESTERS FOR LUBRICANT APPLICATIONS
TABLE 40 TYPICAL DIMER AND ISOSTEARIC ACIDS YIELD (%)
TABLE 41 COMMON TYPES OF FATTY ACID HYDROPHOBES
TABLE 42 DERIVATIVES MANUFACTURERS' CONSUMPTION OF FATTY ACIDS BY REGION, THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS)
FIGURE 33 DERIVATIVES MANUFACTURERS' CONSUMPTION OF FATTY ACIDS BY REGION, 2013-2019 ($ MILLIONS)
OTHERS
TABLE 43 OTHERS MANUFACTURERS' CONSUMPTION OF FATTY ACIDS BY REGION, THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS)
FIGURE 34 OTHERS MANUFACTURERS' CONSUMPTION OF FATTY ACIDS BY REGION, 2013-2019 ($ MILLIONS)
SURFACTANT ALTERNATIVES BASED ON FERMENTATION TECHNOLOGY
RAW MATERIAL OVERVIEW
SPLIT OF FATS AND OILS CONSUMED IN FATTY ACID
TABLE 44 PERCENTAGE OF RAW MATERIAL BASED FATTY ACID CONSUMED, 2013-2019 (%)
FIGURE 35 PERCENTAGE OF RAW MATERIAL BASED FATTY ACID CONSUMED, 2013-2019 (%)
TABLE 45 CHOICE OF MATERIAL FOR SELECTED FATTY ACIDS
FIGURE 36 SPLIT ACROSS TROPICAL OILS, 2013-2019 (%)
TABLE 46 TROPICAL OILS PRODUCTION, THROUGH 2012 (MILLION METRIC TONNES)
FIGURE 37 TROPICAL OILS PRODUCTION, 2007-2014 (MILLION METRIC TONNES)
BIODIESEL IMPACT ON RAW MATERIAL AVAILABILITY
ANIMAL RAW MATERIAL
TABLE 47 ANIMAL FATS CONSUMED IN FATTY ACID PRODUCTION BY REGION, THROUGH 2019 (%)
FIGURE 38 ANIMAL FATS CONSUMED IN FATTY ACID PRODUCTION BY REGION, 2013-2019 (%)
TABLE 48 FATTY ACID MANUFACTURERS' CONSUMPTION OF ANIMAL FATS BY REGION, THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS)
FIGURE 39 FATTY ACID MANUFACTURERS' CONSUMPTION OF ANIMAL FATS BY REGION, 2013-2019 ($ MILLIONS)
TROPICAL OILS OVERVIEW
TABLE 49 TROPICAL OILS CONSUMED IN FATTY ACID PRODUCTION BY REGION, THROUGH 2019 (%)
FIGURE 40 TROPICAL OILS CONSUMED IN FATTY ACID PRODUCTION BY REGION, 2013-2019 (%)
TABLE 50 TROPICAL OILS FATTY ACID MANUFACTURING SALES BY REGION, THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS)
FIGURE 41 TROPICAL OILS FATTY ACID MANUFACTURING SALES BY REGION, 2013-2019 ($ MILLIONS)
SOFT OILS OVERVIEW
TABLE 51 SOFT OILS CONSUMED IN FATTY ACID PRODUCTION BY REGION, THROUGH 2019 (%)
FIGURE 42 SOFT OILS CONSUMED IN FATTY ACID PRODUCTION BY REGION, 2013-2019 (%)
TABLE 52 SOFT OILS FATTY ACID MANUFACTURING SALES BY REGION, THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS)
FIGURE 43 SOFT OILS FATTY ACID MANUFACTURING SALES BY REGION, 2013-2019 ($ MILLIONS)
CRUDE TALL OIL
KRAFT PAPER MILL PROCESS
TOFA-BASED FATTY ACID
TABLE 53 CRUDE TALL OILS CONSUMED IN FATTY ACID PRODUCTION BY REGION, THROUGH 2019 (%)
FIGURE 44 CRUDE TALL OILS CONSUMED IN FATTY ACID PRODUCTION BY REGION, 2013-2019 (%)
TABLE 54 CRUDE TALL OIL FATTY ACID MANUFACTURING SALES BY REGION, THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS)
FIGURE 45 CRUDE TALL OIL FATTY ACID MANUFACTURING SALES BY REGION, 2013-2019 ($ MILLIONS)
TOTAL RAW MATERIAL PICTURE FOR THE FATTY ACID INDUSTRY
TABLE 55 RAW MATERIAL CONSUMPTION IN FATTY ACID PRODUCTION BY REGION, THROUGH 2019 (%)
TABLE 56 FATTY ACID MANUFACTURERS' CONSUMPTION OF FATTY ACIDS BY REGION, THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS)
GLYCERIN
GLYCERIN GRADES
GLYCERIN PRODUCTION
TABLE 57 GLYCERIN PRODUCTION FROM NATURAL FATTY ACIDS BY REGION, THROUGH 2019 (THOUSANDS OF METRIC TONS)
BIODIESEL IMPACT ON GLYCERIN MARKET
TABLE 58 GLOBAL BIODIESEL PRODUCTION BY REGION, THROUGH 2013 (%/MILLION MT)
FIGURE 46 GLOBAL BIODIESEL PRODUCTION BY REGION, 2008-2013 (%)
GLYCERIN APPLICATIONS
TABLE 59 MAJOR ESTABLISHED GLYCERIN APPLICATIONS
New Outlets for Glycerin
TABLE 60 EMERGING GLYCERIN APPLICATIONS
OVERVIEW OF GLYCERIN PRICES
TABLE 61 AVERAGE GLYCERIN PRICE PER METRIC TONNE, 2005-2013 ($)
FIGURE 47 AVERAGE GLYCERIN PRICE PER METRIC TONNE, 2005-2013 ($)
TABLE 62 GLYCERIN SALES BASED ON NATURAL FATTY ACID PRODUCTION, THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS)
FIGURE 48 GLYCERIN MANUFACTURING SALES BASED ON NATURAL FATTY ACID PRODUCTION, 2013-2019 ($ MILLIONS)
CHAPTER 5 LEGISLATION
INTERNATIONAL GUIDELINES AND LEGISLATION
HAZARD ANALYSIS AND CRITICAL CONTROL POINTS (HACCP) AND GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE (GMP)
ENVIRONMENTAL, HEALTH AND SAFETY (EHS)
GLOBALLY HARMONIZED SYSTEM OF CLASSIFICATION AND LABELING OF CHEMICALS (GHS)
FIGURE 49 FIRST EXAMPLE OF GHS LABELING
FIGURE 50 SECOND EXAMPLE OF GHS LABELING
EUROPE
Raw Materials, Renewables, Energy
Animal Byproduct Regulation (ABPR)
TABLE 63 ABPR RISK CATEGORIES
Renewable Energy and Biofuels
REACH
VOC Solvents Emissions
AMERICAS
North America
Renewable Fuel Policies
Safe Cosmetics Act
EU ABPR Effects NAM/USA
Import Regulations
Latin America
Brazil
ASIA
Indonesia
Palm Oil Stimulation Plans and Regulations
Malaysia
Import and Export Regulations
Renewable Fuels Policy
India
Import Regulations
China
Import Regulations
CHAPTER 6 TECHNOLOGY AND CHEMISTRY OF FATTY ACIDS
HISTORY
FIGURE 51 THE PRINCIPLE MODEL OF HISTORIC OIL LAMP HAS ALWAYS
REMAINED THE SAME
COMPOSITION AND TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENTS
CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND STRUCTURE OF FATTY ACIDS
SHORT-, MIDDLE- AND LONG-CHAIN FREE FATTY ACIDS
TABLE 64 EXAMPLES OF SATURATED FATTY ACIDS AND TWO EXAMPLES OF UNSATURATED FATTY ACIDS
Conjugated Linoleic Acid
FIGURE 52 VISUALIZATION CIS AND TRANS
TABLE 65 EXAMPLES OF UNSATURATED FATTY ACIDS
SOURCES OF FATTY ACIDS
FIGURE 53 A TRIGLYCERIDE MOLECULE (C63H12 2O6)
NATURAL SOURCES OF FATS AND OILS
Vegetable
Animal
DIFFERENT SOURCES AND EXCEPTIONS
PRODUCTION OF FATTY ACIDS FROM FATS AND OILS
SPLITTING OR HYDROLYSIS
Saponification or Soap Boiling
FIGURE 54 SIMPLE VISUALIZATION OF SOAP BOILING PROCESS
Twitchell Process
FIGURE 55 SIMPLE VISUALIZATION OF TWITCHELL PROCESS
Autoclave or In-batch Splitting
FIGURE 56 SIMPLE VISUALIZATION OF AUTOCLAVE OR IN-BATCH
SPLITTING
Colgate-Emery Process
FIGURE 57 SIMPLE VISUALIZATION OF COLGATE-EMERY SPLITTING
PROCESS
Splitting of Specific Delicate Unsaturated Fatty Acids
FIGURE 58 FATTY ACID AND GLYCERIN PRODUCING REACTIONS
Byproduct Glycerin (aka Glycerol)
SEGREGATION, PURIFICATION, AND HYDROGENATION
Segregation versus Separation
Distilled Fatty Acids
FIGURE 59 SIMPLE VISUALIZATION OF DISTILLATION PROCESS
Segregation of Raw Fatty Acids into Solids and Liquids
Historic Method: Pressing
Emersol Process
Solexol Process
Wet Separation Process
Follow-Up
Hydrogenation
FIGURE 60 SIMPLE VISUALIZATION OF HYDROGENATION PROCESS
GLYCERIN BACKGROUNDS AND PROCESSES
CHEMISTRY AND TECHNOLOGY
GLYCERIN RECOVERY
PURIFICATION
CHEMISTRIES OF GLYCERIN
USES OF GLYCERIN
FATTY ACIDS REACTIONS AND DERIVATIVES
SALT FORMATION
ESTER FORMATION
FIGURE 61 SIMPLE VISUALIZATION OF A COMMON ESTERIFICATION
PROCESS
Numerous Applications
Transesterification
FIGURE 62 SIMPLE VISUALIZATION OF TRANSESTERIFICATION
PROCESS
NITROGEN DERIVATIVES OF FATTY ACIDS
REDUCTION
HALOGENATION
REACTIONS ON THE HYDROCARBON CHAIN
Sulfation
Sulfonation
Sulfurization
Oxidation
Polymerization
Combustion
Reactions of Castor Oil and Its Fatty Acids
CHAPTER 7 PATENTS AND NEW TECHNOLOGIES, TRENDS IN FATTY
ACID TECHNOLOGY
INTRODUCTION
HIGHLIGHTS OF RESEARCH PROJECTS AND PROGRAMS
ALGAE
ENZYMES AND MICROORGANISMS
HIGH ERUCIC ACID RAPESEED (HEAR)
HIGH OLEIC SUNFLOWER (HOS)
GLYCERIN
PATENT SEARCH
TABLE 66 FATTY ACID PATENTS, BY ASSIGNEE/INVENTOR
CHAPTER 8 COMPANY PROFILES
INTRODUCTION
MAJOR GLOBAL NATURAL FATTY ACIDS PLAYERS
FIGURE 63 MARKET SHARES OF GLOBAL MAJOR PLAYERS, 2013 (%)
FIGURE 64 ESTIMATED FUTURE SHARES OF GLOBAL MAJOR PLAYERS (%)
COMPANY PROFILES
AARHUSKARLSHAMN AB (AAK)
Recent Developments
A. AZEVEDO INDUSTRIA E COMERCIO DE OLEOS LTDA.
ABITEC CORP. (ASSOCIATED BRITISH INGREDIENT TECHNOLOGIES)
Recent Developments
ACIDCHEM INTERNATIONAL SDN. BHD.
ACME-HARDESTY
ADEKA CORPCORP.
ADI FINECHEM LTD.
ADVANCED ORGANIC MATTER S.A. (AOM)
AKZONOBEL/BOXING CHEMICAL CHINA
ALEMDAR KIMYA ENDUSTRISI A.S.
ALLOCCO
AMBROGIO PAGANI SPA
ARIZONA CHEMICALS
Products and Applications
Recent Developments
ASHLAND INC.
AURORA ALGAE
BAERLOCHER GMBH
Recent Developments
BAKRIE SUMATERA
Recent Developments
BASF CORP.
Recent Developments
BEHN-MEYER HOLDING AG
BERG+SCHMIDT GMBH & CO. KG
Recent Developments
BRAIDO; GRUPO BRAIDO INDÚSTRIA AGROQUIMICA
BRASWEY S.A. INDUSTRIA E COMERCIO
CAILA Y PARES, SA
CAROTECH BHD.
CHEMITHON CORP.
CHEMOL COMPANY INC.
CHEMPRI OLEOCHEMICALS
CHEMREZ TECHNOLOGIES INC.
Recent Developments
CHIBA FATTY ACID CO. LTD.
CHRISTEYNS OLEOCHEMICALS
Recent Developments
CISADANE RAYA CHEMICALS, PT (CRC)
COLGATE-PALMOLIVE (INDIA) LTD.
COMMODITY TRADING S.R.O.
CREMER OLEO
Recent Developments
CRODA INDUSTRIAL CHEMICALS
Recent Developments
CROWN IRON WORKS COMPANY
Recent Developments
DAVY PROCESS TECHNOLOGY LTD.
DERICHEM (MALAYSIA) SDN. BHD.
DERIVES RESINIQUES ET TERPENIQUES SA, LES (DRT)
DESMET BALLESTRA OLEO
Recent Developments
DONGMA OILS AND FATS/DONGMA OLEOCHEMICALS CO. LTD.
DUA KUDA INDONESIA (PT)
EASTMAN CHEMICAL
ECOGREEN OLEOCHEMICALSPTE
Recent Developments
ELEVANCE RENEWABLE SCIENCES INC.
Recent Developments
EMERY OLEOCHEMICALS
Recent Developments
ESTEARINA PARANAENSE, CIA. COMPANHIA
EVONIK GOLDSCHMIDT
FACI SPA
FATTY CHEMICAL (MALAYSIA) SDN. BHD.
FELDA GLOBAL VENTURES HOLDINGS SDN BHD (FGV)
FELDA IFFCO SDN. BHD.
FELDA IFFCO LLC.
FELDA IFFCO OIL PRODUCTS SDN. BHD.
FERRO CORP.
FORCHEM OY
Recent Developments
FPG OLEOCHEMICALS SDN. BHD.
GEORGIA-PACIFIC LLC (GP)
GLYCONA S.R.O.
Recent Developments
GODREJ INDUSTRIES LTD.
Recent Developments
HANGZHOU OIL AND FAT CHEMICAL CO. LTD.
Recent Developments
HARIMA CHEMICALS
Recent Developments
HB INTERNATIONAL SA
HOBUM OLEOCHEMICALS GMBH
HUDONG HOUSEHOLD AUXILIARIES COMPANY LIMITED
INTER-CONTINENTAL OILS AND FATS PTE. LTD. (ICOF)
IFFCO EMIRATES REFINING COMPANY LTD.
IMPERIAL INDUSTRIAL CHEMICALS (THAILAND) CO. LTD. (IIC)
IMPERIAL-OEL-IMPORT-IOI
INDUSTRIA CAMPINEIRA DE SABAO E GLICERINA (CAMPINEIRA)
INTERMED SDN. BHD.
IOI OLEOCHEMICAL INDUSTRIES BHD. ACIDCHEM INTERNATIONAL SDN.
BHD.
Recent Developments
INDUSTRIAL OLEOCHEMICAL PRODUCTS, (IOP)
JAYANT AGRO-ORGANICS LIMITED
Recent Developments
JIANGSU JINMA OIL TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT CO. LTD.
JIANGSU NEW HUAMING OLEOCHEMICAL CO. LTD.
JIANGSU YONGLIN OLEOCHEMICAL CO. LTD.
JINAN HAOHUA INDUSTRY CO. LTD.
JOCIL LIMITED
KAO OLEOCHEMICAL
Kao Penang Group
Recent Developments
KASHIMA CHEMICAL CO. LTD.
KEMIRA CHEMIE GES.MBH
KERRY OLEOCHEMICAL SHANGHAI CO. LTD.
Recent Developments
KEWALRAM OILS SDN. BHD./KEWALRAM CHANRAI
KLK OLEOCHEMICALS (KUALA LUMPUR KEPONG BERHAD)
Products and Brands
Recent Developments
KULIM (MALAYSIA) BHD
LAMBERTI ITALIA SPA
LANXI JIABAO CHEMICAL INDUSTRY CO.
LASCARAY S.A.
LG CHEMICALS
LIAOYANG HUA XING
LURGI(AIR LIQUIDE)
MARTEK BIOSCIENCES
Recent Developments
MATERIA OLEOCHEMICALS ARGENTINA MATERIA HNOS. S.A.C.I.F.
MATRIX OLEOCHEM SDN. BHD.
MAZZONI LB
MEADWESTVACO (MWV)
MERIDIONAL TCS IND. E COM DE OLEOS S/A
Recent Developments
MIGASA
MIRACEMA NUODEX INDUSTRIA QUIMICA LTDA.
MISSION NEWENERGY LTD.
MUDPETROL S.R.L.
MUSIM MAS
Recent Developments
MIYOSHI OIL AND FAT CO. LTD.
NANJING CJJY OLEO CHEMICAL CO, LTD.
NANJING XINXU INDUSTRY LIMITED COMPANY
NATURAL OLEOCHEMICALS SDN. BHD. (NATOLEO)
NEW JAPAN CHEMICAL CO. LTD. (NJC)
NIMIR INDUSTRIAL CHEMICALS
NORDISCHE OLWERKE (WALTER) CARROUX GMBH
NOVANCE
OLEO CHEMICAL A.S.
OLEOCHEM INDIA PVT. LTD.
OLEOMUD, COMPANIA QUIMICA
OLEON N.V.
Recent Developments
OLEOQUIMICA BRAZIL
OXITENO
Recent Developments
PACIFIC OLEO/PACIFIC OLEOCHEMICALS SDN. BHD.
PAN CENTURY OLEOCHEMICALS SDN. BHD.
PT. PERKEBUNAN NUSANTARA III
Recent Developments
PERMATA HIJAU GROUP
PETER GREVEN GMBH & CO. KG
Recent Developments
PILIPINAS KAO
PMC BIOGENIX
Recent Developments
PRIGNITZER CHEMIE GMBH
PROCTER & GAMBLE CHEMICALS
Recent Developments
PT. BINA KARYA PRIMA
PTT GLOBAL CHEMICAL PUBLIC COMPANY LIMITED (PTTCH)
QUIMIC S.A. DE C.V.
RAJ CHEMICALS
RESITEC INDUSTRIAL QUIMICA LTDA.
RIKEVITA SDN BHD
(RUGAO) SHUANGMA CHEMICAL CO. LTD.
SAKAMOTO ORIENT CHEMICALS CORP. (SOCC)
SAKAMOTO YAKUHIN KOGYO CO. LTD.
SEGEZHA PPM
SERVOTECH INDIA LTD.
SETUZA A.S.
SHANGHAI SOAP CO. LTD.
SICHUAN TIANYU OLEOCHEMICAL CO. LTD.
SIME DARBY
Recent Developments
SIM ESTEARINA
SINAR OLEOCHEMICAL INTERNATIONAL, PT SOCI MAS
PT SINERGI OLEO NUSANTARA
SMARANA OLEO CHEMICALS SDN. BHD.
SO.G.I.S INDUSTRIA CHIMICA S.P.A.
SOLAZYME INC.
Recent Developments
SOUTHERN ACIDS
SREE RAYALASEEMA ALKALIES AND ALLIED CHEMICALS LTD.
PT SUMI ASIH
SUNSHINE OLEOCHEMICALS LTD.
SWEE KEE M&E AND CONSTRUCTION SDN. BHD.
SYMEX
Recent Developments
TAIKO PALM OLEO
TALLOW PRODUCTS PTY. LTD.
TECK GUAN OLEOCHEMICAL
THAI CASTOR OIL INDUSTRIES COMPANY LTD.
THAI OLEOCHEMICALS
TIMUR OLEOCHEMICALS
TRIVEDI ENTERPRISES PVT. LTD.
TWIN RIVERS TECHNOLOGIES (FELDA COMPANY)
UNION DERIVAN, SA (UNDESA)
Recent Developments
UNITED COCONUT CHEMICALS INC.
VALE MINING
VANTAGE OLEOCHEMICALS
VVF LTD.
Recent Developments
WILMAR INTERNATIONAL LIMITED
Recent Developments
WUJIANG JINYU LANOLIN CO. LTD.
YIHAI(LIANYUNGANG)OLEOCHEMICAL IND.
YUEYANG CH-CHENG OLEOCHEMICALS CO. LTD.
ZIBO FENBAO CHEMICAL CO. LTD/ZIBO KEHONG GREASE CO. LTD.

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