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Gas-to-Liquids Processes for Chemicals and Energy Production

Gas-to-Liquids Processes for Chemicals and Energy Production

The value of products produced by gas-to-liquid (GTL), coal-to-liquid (CTL) and biomass to liquid processes was worth $8.4 billion in 2014. This is expected to grow from $8.6 billion in 2015 to $11.8 billion in 2020, with a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 6.5% from 2015 to 2020.

This report provides:

An overview of the market for GTL processes for chemicals and energy production.

Analyses of market trends, with data from 2014, estimates for 2015, and projections of CAGRs through 2020.

Discussion on the use of GTL processes to produce ultraclean diesel fuels and high-quality chemical products such as waxes.

An assessment of the role of GTL as an enabling technology for the production of clean transportation fuels.

Quantification of the demand for GTL by type of output, application, and production technology.

Analysis of the competition GTL-derived fuels face including low-grade and synthetic petroleum, compressed natural gas (CNG), CTL, biofuels, electric vehicles (EVs), and hydrogen.


An overall study of the GTL market was undertaken during the preparation of this report. All areas of the GTL market are addressed, including identification of current and future technologies, product types, market segments, and end markets. Legislation and government and regulatory agency involvement are analyzed. The producing companies are discussed in light of technological strengths and weaknesses, market shares, marketing strengths and innovative marketing practices.

This report, which is divided into seven sections, assesses and evaluates the demand and costs of GTL in the chemical and energy production markets. It begins with an overview that describes the importance of the GTL industry in relation to the overall U.S. economy, including a brief history and important indications for the GTL industry. Major products and applications are reviewed, and key findings from the study are presented.

Environmental and energy regulations as they apply to GTL are discussed. The structure of the GTL industry and competitive aspects are analyzed, including the driving forces of the industry. Key strategies for staying competitive and important shifts in the industry are assessed. GTL industry trade practices and the impact of GTL on the oil industry are covered.

GTL markets by product type are evaluated, including synfuels and chemicals. These are quantified with forecasts through 2020. Competing markets for gas are discussed, including liquefied natural gas (LNG) and natural gas liquid (NGL). GTL technology is presented by covering patents and markets and investments by technology type. These technology types include Shell Middle Distillate Synthesis (SMDS), Sasol Slurry Phase Distillate (SSPD), Exxon Mobil’s Advanced Gas Conversion for the 21st Century (AGC-21) and Syntroleum process (SP). International GTL aspects also are considered, and major overseas companies involved in GTL processes and their activities are assessed.

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION
STUDY GOALS AND OBJECTIVES
REASONS FOR DOING THE STUDY
INTENDED AUDIENCE
SCOPE OF REPORT
INFORMATION SOURCES
ANALYST'S CREDENTIALS
RELATED BCC RESEARCH REPORTS
BCC RESEARCH WEBSITE
DISCLAIMER
CHAPTER 2 SUMMARY
MAJOR FINDINGS
KEY FINDINGS OF THIS STUDY
SUMMARY TABLE MARKET FOR GAS-TO-LIQUID, COAL-TO-LIQUID AND BIOMASS TO LIQUID PRODUCTS, THROUGH 2020 ($ BILLIONS)
SUMMARY FIGURE MARKET FOR GAS-TO-LIQUID, COAL-TO-LIQUID AND BIOMASS TO LIQUID PRODUCTS, 2014-2020 ($ BILLIONS)
CHAPTER 3 OVERVIEW
NATURAL GAS VERSUS GAS TO LIQUIDS IN THE TRANSPORTATION SECTOR
MAGNITUDE AND LOCATION OF STRANDED GAS
TABLE 1 GLOBAL DISTRIBUTION OF STRANDED NATURAL GAS RESOURCES BY REGION, 2014 (%)
TABLE 2 FLARED GAS VOLUMES FROM SATELLITE DATA, 2005-2011 (BILLION CUBIC METERS)
INVESTMENT SITUATION
CARBON REGULATIONS AND GAS-TO-LIQUID MARKET PROSPECTS
FACTORS DRIVING ADOPTION OF GAS-TO-LIQUID PROCESSES
RECENT ACTIVITY OVERVIEW
TABLE 3 KEY GAS-TO-LIQUID DEMONSTRATION PLANTS (BARRELS PER DAY)
VELOCYS COMMERCIAL GAS-TO-LIQUID PLANT IN OKLAHOMA
SASOL
RENTECH (SUNSHINE KAIDI NEW ENERGY GROUP CO. LTD.)
SYNTROLEUM CORP. (RENEWABLE ENERGY GROUP)
MITSUI OCEAN DEVELOPMENT AND ENGINEERING CO. LTD.
WORLD GTL
EXXON MOBIL
SHELL
STRANDED GAS IN THE MIDDLE EAST
QATAR
EGYPT
IRAN: GAS-TO-LIQUID IN THE CONTEXT OF SANCTIONS
PROJECT LIST
TABLE 4 GLOBAL PRINCIPAL GAS-TO-LIQUID PLANTS
TABLE 5 GLOBAL LARGE GASIFICATION PLANTS BY OUTPUT
GAS-TO-LIQUID INDUSTRY HISTORY
FIGURE 1 GAS-TO-LIQUID PRODUCTION OPTIONS, TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND CHEMICALS
TABLE 6 GLOBAL COMMERCIAL SYNFUEL CAPACITY (BARRELS PER DAY)
TABLE 7 COMPARATIVE FISCHER-TROPSCH MERITS AND DRAWBACKS
SHELL MIDDLE DISTILLATE SYNTHESIS
SASOL GAS-TO-LIQUID PROCESSES
SASOL COAL-TO-LIQUID PLANTS
STATOIL AND PETROSA
EXXON MOBIL'S ADVANCED GAS CONVERSION
SYNTROLEUM CORP.
BRITISH PETROLEUM PILOT PLANT IN ALASKA
CHOREN INDUSTRIES
SYNFUELS INTERNATIONAL
CANMET ENERGY TECHNOLOGY CENTER
COMPACTGTL
LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS MARKETS
COAL TO LIQUIDS
GASIFICATION
SRI INTERNATIONAL ALTERNATIVE TO FISCHER-TROPSCH
NATIONAL ENERGY TECHNOLOGY LABORATORY STUDY
AEROJET ROCKETDYNE INC.
ALSTOM POWER INC.
SOUTHERN RESEARCH INSTITUTE SMALL-SCALE COAL BIOMASS LIQUID
PRODUCTION
BAARD ENERGY CTL PLANT
TABLE 8 OPERATING AND PLANNED LARGE COAL GASIFICATION AND COAL-TO-LIQUID PLANT STATUS, 2014
TABLE 9 GLOBAL PLANNED GASIFICATION UNITS, NOVEMBER 2014
GAS-TO-LIQUID TECHNOLOGIES
INTRODUCTION
TECHNOLOGIES AND PRODUCTION COSTS
GAS-TO-LIQUID PLANT SCALES
GAS-TO-LIQUID OUTPUTS
REFORMING
Adiabatic Prereforming
Tubular Reforming
Advanced Reforming
Sulfur-Passivated Reforming
Catalytic Partial Oxidation
Two-Step Reforming
Heat-Exchange Reforming
Catalyst Developments
HYDROGEN SHIFT CONVERSION AND METHANATION
SHIFT CONVERSION
METHANATION
CHAPTER 4 INDUSTRY STRUCTURE AND COMPETITIVE DEVELOPMENTS
TIER 1-LARGE DEVELOPERS AND PATENT HOLDERS
BP
CHEVRON CORP.
CONOCOPHILLIPS CO.
EXXON MOBIL CORP.
GTL.F1 AG
IFP ENERGIES NOUVELLES
LINC ENERGY LTD.
MARATHON OIL CORP.
METHANEX CORP.
PETROSA
REPSOL
ROYAL DUTCH SHELL PLC
SASOL CHEVRON
SASOL SYNFUELS INTERNATIONAL
STATOIL
TOTAL
TIER 2: COMPONENT AND ENGINEERING SERVICE SUPPLIERS
ABB, LTD
AIR LIQUIDE GROUP
AIR PRODUCTS AND CHEMICALS INC.
AMEC FOSTER WHEELER
AXENS
BASF CORP.
BLACK & VEATCH HOLDING CO.
CHICAGO BRIDGE & IRON COMPANY N.V.
CRYOMECH INC.
DESCON ENGINEERING CO. INC.
DOW CHEMICAL CO.
ELTRON RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT INC.
EPIC SYSTEMS INC.
FLUOR CORP.
FMC TECHNOLOGIES
FOSTER WHEELER CORP.
HALDOR TOPSOE A/S
HATCH
JACOBS ENGINEERING
JAPAN OIL, GAS, AND METALS NATIONAL CORP.
JOHNSON MATTHEY CATALYSTS
KAWASAKI HEAVY INDUSTRIES
KINETICS TECHNOLOGY INTERNATIONAL CORP. INC.
LINDE GROUP
LURGI AG
MITSUI OCEAN DEVELOPMENT & ENGINEERING CO. LTD.
NIPPON STEEL CORP.
PALL CORP.
PRAXAIR INC.
SIEMENS AG
STORK
SUMITOMO CORP.
SYNFUELS INTERNATIONAL INC.
TECHNIP
UOP LLC
VELOCYS
ZETON INC.
TIER 3: DEVELOPMENT-STAGE COMPANIES
ACCELERGY CORP.
ALEPH SCIENCES GROUP
ANELLOTECH INC.
BIOFUELS POWER CORP.
BLUEFIRE RENEWABLES INC.
CALYSTA ENERGY
CARBON SCIENCES INC.
COMPACTGTL PLC
EMBERCLEAR
GAS2 LTD.
G2X ENERGY INC.
GAS TECHNOLOGIES LLC
GREYROCK ENERGY INC.
GTL PARTNERS
HYDROGENICS CORP.
INFRA TECHNOLOGY LLC
INTREXON CORP.
JUNIPER GTL LLC
MARCELLUS GTL LLC
MAVERICK SYNFUELS
NESTE OIL OYJ
OBERON FUELS
PRIMUS GREEN ENERGY
REACTION 35 LLC.
RENEWABLE ENERGY GROUP INC.
SILURIA TECHNOLOGIES INC.
SUNDROP FUELS INC.
SYNTHESIS ENERGY SYSTEMS INC.
THERMOCHEM RECOVERY INTERNATIONAL
TRANSGAS DEVELOPMENT SYSTEMS LLC
VENTECH ENGINEERS INTERNATIONAL LLC
VIRENT
WORLD GTL
WYOMING GTL LLC
SCIENTIFIC, GOVERNMENT AND EDUCATION ORGANIZATIONS
ADVANCED MANUFACTURING OFFICE
ALASKA NATURAL RESOURCES TO LIQUIDS LLC
ALLIANCE FOR SYNTHETIC FUELS IN EUROPE
ARGONNE NATIONAL LABORATORY
CANMETENERGY TECHNOLOGY CENTER
IDAHO NATIONAL LABORATORY
INSTITUT FRANCAIS DU PETROLE
JAPAN-GTL CONSORTIUM
LEHIGH UNIVERSITY
NATIONAL ENERGY TECHNOLOGY LABORATORY
NATIONAL RENEWABLE ENERGY LABORATORY
OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY
OFFICE OF FOSSIL ENERGY
UNIVERSITY OF HOUSTON
UNIVERSITY OF KENTUCKY
CHAPTER 5 GAS-TO-LIQUID PRODUCT DEMAND FORECASTS
PRODUCT OVERVIEW
TABLE 10 MARKET FOR PRODUCTS PRODUCED BY GAS-TO-LIQUID, COAL-TO-LIQUID AND BIOMASS-TO-LIQUID METHODS, THROUGH 2020 ($ BILLIONS)
TOTAL UNCONVENTIONAL FUEL MARKET
TABLE 11 GLOBAL UNCONVENTIONAL LIQUID FUEL MARKET, THROUGH 2020 (MILLION BARRELS PER DAY)
FISCHER-TROPSCH GAS-TO-LIQUID FUEL DEMAND BY PRODUCT TYPE
DIESEL
GASOLINE
OTHER GAS-TO-LIQUID PRODUCTS
TABLE 12 FISCHER-TROPSCH GAS-TO-LIQUID TRANSPORTATION FUELS MARKET BY PRODUCT TYPE, THROUGH 2020 ($ BILLIONS)
FISCHER-TROPSCH GAS-TO-LIQUID CHEMICAL DEMAND BY PRODUCT TYPE
TABLE 13 FISCHER-TROPSCH GAS-TO-LIQUID CHEMICAL MARKET BY PRODUCT TYPE, THROUGH 2020 ($ BILLIONS)
GAS-TO-LIQUID CHEMICAL PROCESSING
METHANOL MARKET
METHANOL-TO-GASOLINE PROCESS
Natgasoline Methanol-to-Gasoline Plant
DKRW Advanced Fuels LLC Methanol-to-Gasoline Plant
Other Methanol-to-Gasoline Projects
GAS-TO-LIQUID PRODUCTS: WAXES
GAS-TO-LIQUID PRODUCTS: LUBRICANTS
FUELS THAT WILL COMPETE WITH GAS TO LIQUIDS
GROWING GLOBAL LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS DEMAND
CHANGING LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS PROJECT ECONOMICS
GLOBAL DEMAND FOR NATURAL GAS
RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT POLICIES: EFFECT ON SUPPLY FOR GAS-TO-LIQUID
PLANTS
COAL-TO-LIQUIDS
FIGURE 2 TWO APPROACHES TO PRODUCING LIQUID FUELS FROM COALS
COAL-TO-LIQUID PROJECT ECONOMICS
BIOMASS-TO-LIQUID DEVELOPMENTS
OVERVIEW
TABLE 14 COMMERCIAL BIOMASS-BASED GASIFICATION PLANTS, 2014
BIOMASS-TO-LIQUID PROJECTS IN EUROPE
BRITISH AIRWAYS GREENSKY PROJECT
BIOTFUEL BIOMASS-TO-LIQUID DEMONSTRATION PROJECT
BIOLIQ PILOT PLANT AT KARLSRHUE
CEA/AIR LIQUIDE SYNDIESE-BTS PROJECT, BURE-SAUDRON
FULCRUM BIOENERGY SIERRA BIOFUELS MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE TO JET
FUEL AND DIESEL FACILITY
COOL PLANET REFORMATE COMMERCIAL FACILITY IN LOUISIANA
PETROCHEMICALS FROM BIOMASS
BIOMASS-TO-LIQUID GASIFICATION TECHNOLOGY
BIOFUELS AND RENEWABLE BIOFUELS
ETHANOL
BIODIESEL
OTHER SYNTHETIC CRUDE OILS
OIL SANDS
EXTRA-HEAVY OIL
SHALE OIL
CHAPTER 6 REGULATORY DRIVERS: THE MACRO ENVIRONMENT
EARLY SYNTHETIC FUEL LEGISLATION
DEVELOPMENTS AND TAX INCENTIVES, 2007 TO 2014
CARBON DIOXIDE EMISSIONS TO BECOME A PRIORITY IN LAW AND
REGULATION
STATE INITIATIVES RELATIVE TO FUEL CARBON DIOXIDE EMISSIONS
FUEL STANDARDS ARE DRIVING THE ADOPTION OF GAS TO LIQUID
EARLIER INITIATIVES
GOVERNMENT FUNDING FOR GAS-TO-LIQUID RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
SNYGAS RESEARCH FUNDING VIA THE HYDROGEN FUEL INITIATIVE
CHAPTER 7 NEW TECHNOLOGY AND PATENT ACTIVITY
NEW TECHNOLOGY
FAST-HYDROPYROLYSIS-HYDRODEOXYGENATION TO GENERATE
BIOMASS-TO-LIQUID FUEL
NEW METHANE CONVERSION TECHNOLOGY
ENZYME ENGINEERING FOR FUEL CONVERSION
PATENT OVERVIEW
TABLE 15 COMPANIES ASSIGNED MULTIPLE U.S. PATENTS RELATING TO GAS-TO-LIQUID PRODUCTION, 2008-2014
NOTEWORTHY PATENTS
MAGNETIC SEPARATION COMBINED WITH DYNAMIC SETTLING FOR FISCHER-TROPSCH PROCESSES
MONETIZING REMOTE GAS USING HIGH-ENERGY MATERIALS
SECOND-STAGE FISCHER-TROPSCH REACTION SYSTEM TO ENHANCE THE CONVERSION OF SYNTHETIC GAS
NATURAL GAS TO LIQUID FUELS
SLURRY BED FISCHER-TROPSCH CATALYSTS WITH SILICA/ALUMINA
STRUCTURAL PROMOTERS
PROCESS OF CONVERTING GASEOUS HYDROCARBONS TO A LIQUID
HYDROCARBON COMPOSITION
PROCESS FOR MAKING BASESTOCKS FROM RENEWABLE FEEDSTOCKS
MICRO-CHANNEL REACTOR FOR PRODUCING SYNTHETIC NATURAL GAS
PROCESS AND APPARATUS EMPLOYING MICROCHANNEL PROCESS
TECHNOLOGY
SABATIER PROCESS AND APPARATUS FOR CONTROLLING EXOTHERMIC
REACTION
METHOD FOR IMPROVING THE CORROSION INHIBITING PROPERTIES OF LUBRICANT COMPOSITIONS
SINGLE-LOOP MULTISTAGE FUEL PRODUCTION
SYNGAS PRODUCTION THROUGH THE USE OF MEMBRANE TECHNOLOGIES
SOOT CONTROL FOR DIESEL ENGINE LUBRICANTS
OIL-IN-OIL COMPOSITIONS AND METHODS OF MAKING
FISCHER-TROSPCH AND OXYGENATE SYNTHESIS CATALYST
ACTIVATION/REGENERATION IN A MICRO-SCALE PROCESS
HYDROGENATING PRE-REFORMER IN SYNTHESIS GAS PRODUCTION
PROCESSES
MICROCHANNEL COMPRESSION REACTOR
METHOD FOR HAZE MITIGATION AND FILTERABILITY IMPROVEMENT FOR BASE STOCKS
PRODUCTION METHOD OF LIQUID HYDROCARBONS FROM NATURAL GAS
METHOD FOR EFFICIENT USE OF HEAT FROM TUBULAR REFORMER
OPERATION METHOD OF SYNTHESIS GAS REFORMER IN GTL PLANT
TRACKING FEEDSTOCK PRODUCTION WITH MICRO-SCALE GAS-TO-LIQUID
UNITS
PRODUCTION METHOD OF LIQUID HYDROCARBONS FROM NATURAL GAS
ENHANCEMENT OF LOW-TEMPRATURE PERFORMANCE OF GROUP III BASE
STOCKS BY BLENDING WITH HVI-PAO
ISOLATION AND SUBSEQUENT UTILIZATION OF SATURATED FATTY ACIDS
AND ALPHA-OLEFINS IN THE PRODUCTION OF ESTER-BASED
BIOLUBRICANTS
PROCESS FOR THE PRODUCTION OF HYBRID CATALYSTS FOR FISCHER-TROPSCH SYNTHESIS AND HYBRID CATALYST
PRODUCED ACCORDING TO SAID PROCESS
SYSTEMS, METHODS AND COMPOSITIONS FOR PRODUCTION OF SYNTHETIC HYDROCARBON COMPOUNDS
CATALYSTS FOR FISCHER-TROPSCH SYNTHESIS ON COBALT/PHOSPHORUS-ALUMINUM OXIDE AND PREPARATION METHODS THEREOF
COBALT-BASED CATALYST FOR FISCHER-TROPSCH SYNTHESIS
BUBBLE COLUMN-TYPE FISCHER-TROPSCH SYNTHESIS SLURRY BED
REACTION SYSTEM
FISCHER-TROPSCH CATALYST
LOW-PRESSURE FISCHER-TROPSCH PROCESS
ACID TREATMENT OF A FISCHER-TROPSCH DERIVED HYDROCARBON
STREAM
PROCESS FOR CONVERTING GASEOUS ALKANES TO OLEFINS AND LIQUID HYDROCARBONS
PROCESS FOR THE PURIFICATION OF AN AQUEOUS STREAM COMING FROM THE FISCHER-TROPSCH REACTION
PROCESS FOR STABILIZING THE PERFORMANCES OF A CATALYST FOR FISCHER TROPSCH REACTION
METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR REGENERATING AN IRON-BASED
FISCHER-TROPSCH CATALYST
FISCHER-TROPSCH WAX COMPOSITION AND METHOD OF TRANSPORT
PRODUCTION OF LOW-SULFUR, MODERATELY AROMATIC DISTILLATE
FUELS BY HYDROCRACKING OF COMBINED FISCHER-TROPSCH AND PETROLEUM STREAMS
ZEOLITE SUPPORTED COBALT HYBRID FISCHER-TROPSCH CATALYST
MICRO SCALE FISCHER-TROPSCH AND OXYGENATE SYNTHESIS PROCESS
STARTUP UNIT
DEVICE FOR PRODUCING LIQUID HYDROCARBONS BY FISCHER-TROPSCH
SYNTHESIS IN A THREE-PHASE BED REACTOR
ELECTROMECHANICAL FILTER FOR FISCHER-TROPSCH SYNTHESIS
PROCESS FOR IMPROVING THE LUBRICATING PROPERTIES OF BASE OILS
USING A FISCHER-TROPSCH DERIVED BOTTOMS
APPARATUS AND METHODS FOR THE PRODUCTION OF AMMONIA AND FISCHER-TROPSCH LIQUIDS
METHOD TO TRANSFORM BULK MATERIAL
FINISHED LUBRICANT WITH IMPROVED RUST INHIBITION MADE USING
FISCHER-TROPSCH BASE OIL
FISCHER-TROPSCH CATALYST
PROCESS FOR MAKING FISCHER-TROPSCH OLEFINIC NAPHTHA AND HYDROGENATED DISTILLATES
PRODUCTION OF HYDROCARBONS FROM NATURAL GAS
FISCHER-TROPSCH PROCESS AND REACTOR ASSEMBLY
PROCESS TO BLEND A MINERAL- AND A FISCHER-TROPSCH-DERIVED
PRODUCT ONBOARD A MARINE VESSEL
APPARATUS AND METHODS FOR THE PRODUCTION OF AMMONIA AND FISCHER-TROPSCH LIQUIDS
MULTI STAGE FISCHER-TROPSCH PROCESS
PROCESS TO PREPARE A FISCHER-TROPSCH SYNTHESIS PRODUCT
FISCHER-TROPSCH-DERIVED TURBINE FUEL AND PROCESS FOR MAKING
SAME
FISCHER-TROPSCH SYNTHESIS PROCESS WITH IMPROVED REGULATION
INTERNAL EXCHANGER FOR GAS-LIQUID-SOLID REACTOR FOR FISCHER-TROPSCH SYNTHESIS
PROCESS TO PREPARE A FISCHER-TROPSCH PRODUCT
FISCHER-TROPSCH CATALYSTS INCORPORATING PROMOTER FOR INCREASING YIELDS OF C5 HYDROCARBONS AND METHODS FOR MAKING AND USING SAME
DUAL CATALYST SYSTEM FOR HYDROISOMERIZATION OF FISCHER-TROPSCH WAX AND WAXY RAFFINATE
METHOD FOR THE PRODUCTION OF MIDDLE DISTILLATES BY HYDROISOMERISATION AND HYDROCRACKING OF CHARGES
ARISING FROM THE FISCHER-TROPSCH METHOD
CATALYST STRUCTURE AND METHOD OF FISCHER-TROPSCH SYNTHESIS
METHOD FOR ACTIVATING AN IRON-BASED FISCHER-TROPSCH CATALYST
PROCESS OF FISCHER-TROPSCH SYNTHESIS BY CONTROL OF THE PARTIAL
PRESSURE OF WATER IN THE REACTION ZONE
PROCESS FOR PRODUCING MIDDLE DISTILLATES BY HYDROISOMERIZING AND HYDROCRACKING FEEDS FROM THE FISCHER-TROPSCH PROCESS
USING A MULTIFUNCTIONAL GUARD BED
PROCESS FOR PRODUCING MIDDLE DISTILLATES BY HYDROISOMERIZING AND HYDROCRACKING FEEDS FROM THE FISCHER-TROPSCH PROCESS
USING A DOPED CATALYST BASED ON MESOPOROUS ALUMINA-SILICA
WITH A CONTROLLED MACROPORE CONTENT
PROCESS FOR THE PREPARATION OF PROPYLENE AND ETHYLENE FROM A FISCHER-TROPSCH SYNTHESIS PRODUCT
METHOD FOR PROVIDING AUXILIARY POWER TO AN ELECTRIC POWER
PLANT USING FISCHER-TROPSCH TECHNOLOGY
EXPANDED BED REACTOR SYSTEM AND METHOD FOR HYDROPROCESSING
WAX PRODUCED BY FISCHER-TROPSCH REACTION AND CONTAMINATED WITH SOLIDS
CONVERSION PROCESS
HIGH SURFACE AREA, SMALL CRYSTALLITE SIZE CATALYST FOR FISCHER-TROPSCH SYNTHESIS
PRODUCTION OF ALCOHOLS FROM SYNTHESIS GAS
AMMONIA PLANT CONFIGURATION AND METHODS
METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR PRODUCING PRODUCTS FROM NATURAL
GAS INCLUDING HELIUM AND LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS
METHOD OF GENERATING HYDROCARBON REAGENTS FROM DIESEL, NATURAL GAS AND OTHER LOGISTICAL FUELS
PROCESS FOR SYNTHESIZING HYDROCARBONS
HIGH-PURITY OLEFINIC NAPHTHAS FOR THE PRODUCTION OF ETHYLENE AND PROPYLENE
PROCESS FOR IMPROVING PREREFORMING AND REFORMING OF NATURAL
GAS CONTAINING HIGHER HYDROCARBONS ALONG WITH METHANE
SYNTHESIS GAS AND CARBON DIOXIDE GENERATION METHOD
PROCESS FOR THE PREPARATION OF A SUPPORTED CATALYST
PROCESS AND SYSTEM FOR PRODUCING SYNTHETIC LIQUID
HYDROCARBON FUELS
PREPARATION OF TITANIA AND COBALT ALUMINATE CATALYST SUPPORTS
AND THEIR USE IN FISCHER-TROPSCH SYNTHESIS
PROCESS FOR REMOVING ALUMINUM CONTAMINANTS FROM FISCHER-TROPSCH FEED STREAMS USING DICARBOXYLIC ACID
HYDROGEN RECOVERY FROM HYDROCARBON SYNTHESIS PROCESSES
PROCESS FOR THE PRODUCTION OF MIDDLE DISTILLATES BY HYDROISOMERISATION AND HYDROCRACKING FEEDS FROM
THE FISCHER-TROPSCH PROCESS
STABILIZED TRANSITION ALUMINA CATALYST SUPPORT FROM BOEHMITE
AND CATALYSTS MADE THEREFROM
RECOVERY OF ALCOHOLS FROM FISCHER-TROPSCH NAPHTHA AND DISTILLATE FUELS CONTAINING THE SAME
PRODUCTION OF SYNTHETIC TRANSPORTATION FUELS FROM
CARBONACEOUS MATERIAL USING SELF-SUSTAINED
HYDRO-GASIFICATION
PROCESS FOR PRODUCING SYNTHESIS GAS FOR THE FISCHER-TROPSCH
SYNTHESIS AND PRODUCING APPARATUS THEREOF
LOW-SULPHUR DIESEL FUEL AND AVIATION TURBINE FUEL
PROCESSES FOR MAKING LUBRICANT BLENDS WITH LOW BROOKFIELD
VISCOSITIES
PROCESS AND APPARATUS FOR THE PRODUCTION OF USEFUL PRODUCTS
FROM CARBONACEOUS FEEDSTOCK
PRODUCTION OF LOW-SULFUR, MODERATELY AROMATIC DISTILLATE
FUELS BY HYDROCRACKING OF COMBINED FISCHER-TROPSCH AND PETROLEUM STREAMS
CATALYSTS
FISCHER-TROPSCH COMPOSITION AND PROCESS
SUPPORTED CATALYST
FISCHER-TROPSCH CATALYST PRODUCTION
PROCESS TO PREPARE A HEAVY AND A LIGHT LUBRICATING BASE OIL
HYDROPROCESSING METHODS AND APPARATUS FOR USE IN THE
PREPARATION OF LIQUID HYDROCARBONS
SYSTEMS AND METHODS OF IMPROVING DIESEL FUEL PERFORMANCE IN COLD CLIMATES
METHOD FOR PRODUCING LONG-CHAIN HYDROCARBONS FROM NATURAL GAS
FISCHER-TROPSCH CATALYST, PREPARATION, AND USE THEREOF
HOMOGENEOUS MODIFIED-ALUMINA FISCHER-TROPSCH CATALYST
SUPPORTS
BLENDING FOR DENSITY SPECIFICATIONS USING FISCHER-TROPSCH
DIESEL FUEL
OXYGENATE TREATMENT OF DEWAXING CATALYST FOR GREATER YIELD
OF DEWAXED PRODUCT
PROCESS FOR REMOVING CONTAMINANTS FROM FISCHER-TROPSCH FEED
STREAMS
PROCESS TO PREPARE A WAXY RAFFINATE
PROCESS FOR THE PRODUCTION OF MIDDLE DISTILLATES BY HYDROISOMERISATION AND HYDROCRACKING FEEDS FROM
THE FISCHER-TROPSCH PROCESS
RECEPTION, PROCESSING, HANDLING, AND DISTRIBUTION OF HYDROCARBONS AND OTHER FLUIDS
PRODUCTION OF HYDROCARBONS
METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR REGENERATING AN IRON-BASED
FISCHER-TROPSCH CATALYST
PROCESS FOR CONVERTING GASEOUS ALKANES TO LIQUID
HYDROCARBONS
INTEGRATED PROCESSING OF NATURAL GAS INTO LIQUID PRODUCTS
GAS-TO-LIQUIDS FACILITY FOR FIXED OFFSHORE HYDROCARBON
PRODUCTION PLATFORMS
MODIFICATION OF A METHANOL PLANT FOR CONVERTING NATURAL GAS TO LIQUID HYDROCARBONS
PROCESS FOR THE RECOVERY OF OIL FROM A NATURAL OIL RESERVOIR
APPARATUS FOR PRODUCING HIGH MOLECULAR WEIGHT LIQUID
HYDROCARBONS FROM METHANE AND/OR NATURAL GAS
MANAGING HYDROGEN IN A GAS TO LIQUID PLANT
METHOD FOR CONVERTING NATURAL GAS TO LIQUID HYDROCARBONS

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