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Building the Global Hydrogen Economy: Technologies and Opportunities

Building the Global Hydrogen Economy: Technologies and Opportunities

Global investments in building the hydrogen economy cost more than $3.4 billion in 2014, and they are expected to approach $4.8 billion in 2015 and $21.8 billion by 2020, with a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 35.5% from 2015 to 2020.

This report provides:

An overview of the global Hydrogen economy with regard to technology and opportunities.

Analyses of global market trends, with data from 2014, 2015, and projections of CAGRs through 2020.

Comprehensive descriptions of key enabling technologies used in the production, storage, and distribution of hydrogen, its conversion to other forms of energy or direct consumption as a fuel, and miscellaneous other types of hydrogen-related technology such as hydrogen sensors.

A look at challenges that must be overcome to reach commercialization potential.

Evaluations of government programs and policies in support of the hydrogen economy.

Coverage of the market's dynamics, specifically growth drivers, inhibitors, and opportunities.

Relevant patent analysis.

Profiles of major players in the industry.


SCOPE OF REPORT

The report covers the global market for technologies used in the production, storage and distribution of hydrogen; its conversion to other forms of energy or direct consumption as a fuel; and miscellaneous other types of hydrogen-related technology, such as hydrogen sensors.

The study format includes:
Executive summary.
Key enabling technologies for the hydrogen economy, as well as their commercial or developmental status.
Developments that will influence commercial prospects and demand for hydrogen technologies.
Hydrogen technology market projections through 2015.
Key patents.
Government programs and policies in support of the hydrogen economy.
Technology vendor profiles.

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION
STUDY BACKGROUND
GOALS AND OBJECTIVES
INTENDED AUDIENCE
SCOPE OF REPORT
METHODOLOGY AND INFORMATION SOURCES
ANALYST'S CREDENTIALS
RELATED BCC RESEARCH REPORTS
BCC RESEARCH WEBSITE
DISCLAIMER
CHAPTER 2 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
SUMMARY TABLE GLOBAL HYDROGEN PLANT AND EQUIPMENT INVESTMENTS, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS)
SUMMARY FIGURE SHARE TRENDS FOR HYDROGEN PLANTS AND EQUIPMENT, 2014 AND 2020 (% TOTAL INVESTMENTS)
CHAPTER 3 OVERVIEW
HYDROGEN ECONOMY
DEFINITIONS
HYDROGEN CHARACTERISTICS
GLOBAL HYDROGEN CONSUMPTION
FIGURE 1 GLOBAL HYDROGEN CONSUMPTION SHARE, 2014 (%)
TABLE 1 GLOBAL HYDROGEN CONSUMPTION, THROUGH 2020 (MILLION TONS)
FIGURE 2 GLOBAL HYDROGEN CONSUMPTION TRENDS, 2014-2020 (MILLION TONS)
RATIONALE FOR A HYDROGEN ECONOMY
Economic
Environmental
Energy Security
Economic Development
Other Socio-Economic Impacts
TECHNOLOGIES
HYDROGEN PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES
HYDROGEN STORAGE TECHNOLOGIES
HYDROGEN DISTRIBUTION TECHNOLOGIES
ELECTROCHEMICAL ENERGY CONVERSION TECHNOLOGIES
DIRECT HYDROGEN COMBUSTION TECHNOLOGIES
OTHER TECHNOLOGIES
MARKET SUMMARY
TABLE 2 GLOBAL HYDROGEN TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENTS, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS)
FIGURE 3 GLOBAL HYDROGEN TECHNOLOGY SHARES, 2014-2020 (%)
CHAPTER 4 GOVERNMENT-SUPPORTED HYDROGEN INITIATIVES
U.S.
FEDERAL INITIATIVES
Department of Energy
FIGURE 4 U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL FUNDING, FISCAL YEARS, 2004-2014 ($ MILLIONS)
FIGURE 5 HYDROGEN BUDGET OF U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OFFICE OF ENERGY EFFICIENCY AND RENEWABLE ENERGY, FISCAL YEAR 2014 (% OF HYDROGEN BUDGET)
Other U.S. Government Programs and Initiatives
STATE INITIATIVES
California
New York
Other States
REGIONAL INITIATIVES
Clean Energy States Alliance
EUROPEAN UNION
EUROPEAN UNION PROGRAMS
European Union Framework Program
FIGURE 6 EUROPEAN UNION FUEL CELL AND HYDROGEN JOINT UNDERTAKING OPERATION BUDGET, 2008-2013 (MILLION EUROS)
FIGURE 7 JOINT UNDERTAKING HYDROGEN INVESTMENTS BY AREA, 2008-2013 (% OF TOTAL HYDROGEN INVESTMENTS)
Carbon Dioxide Emission Restrictions
EUROPEAN UNION MEMBER STATES
Germany
France
Italy
Denmark
JAPAN
CHINA
INDIA
OTHER COUNTRIES
AUSTRALIA
CANADA
ICELAND
SOUTH KOREA
RUSSIA
INTERGOVERNMENTAL PROGRAMS
U.S.-E.U. COLLABORATION
INTERNATIONAL PARTNERSHIP FOR THE HYDROGEN ECONOMY
INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY HYDROGEN COORDINATION GROUP
CHAPTER 5 HYDROGEN PRODUCTION
SUMMARY
PRINCIPAL TECHNOLOGIES
THERMAL PROCESSES
TABLE 3 THERMAL PROCESSES FOR HYDROGEN PRODUCTION
Steam Reforming of Natural Gas
Partial Oxidation
Autothermal Reforming
Coal Gasification
FutureGen
Carbon Black and Hydrogen Process
Biomass Gasification
Gasification with Oxygen
HydroMax Process
Startech Process
Pyrolysis
National Renewable Energy Laboratory/Eprida Process
Reforming of Renewable Liquid Fuels
ECD Ovonics
HTC Purenergy
Innovatek
High-Temperature Water Splitting
Sulfur-Iodide Cycle
ELECTROLYTIC PROCESSES
TABLE 4 ELECTROLYTIC PROCESSES FOR THE PRODUCTION OF HYDROGEN
Conventional Electrolysis
High-Temperature Electrolysis
Solid Oxide Electrolysis Cells
Energy Sources
Nuclear Reactors
Solar Concentrators
Technological Challenges
Other Electrolytic Technologies for Hydrogen Production
Hybrid Thermochemical and Electrolytic Processes
Hybrid Sulfur Process
SRI Process
PHOTOLYTIC PROCESSES
TABLE 5 PHOTOLYTIC PROCESSES FOR THE PRODUCTION OF HYDROGEN
Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting
Photobiological Water Splitting
OTHER TYPES OF PROCESS
Dark Fermentation
PATENT ANALYSIS
PATENTS BY TECHNOLOGY TYPE
FIGURE 8 U.S. HYDROGEN PRODUCTION PATENTS ISSUED BY TECHNOLOGY TYPE, 1975-AUGUST 1, 2015 (%)
PATENT TRENDS OVER TIME
TABLE 6 U.S. HYDROGEN PRODUCTION PATENTS ISSUED, 2008–AUGUST 1, 2015 (PATENTS)
MAJOR INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY PORTFOLIOS
FIGURE 9 MAJOR HYDROGEN PRODUCTION INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY PORTFOLIOS ISSUED, 1975-AUGUST 1, 2015 (%)
MARKETS
TABLE 7 GLOBAL MARKET FOR EQUIPMENT USED TO GENERATE HYDROGEN FOR DIRECT ENERGY APPLICATIONS, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS)
LARGE AND CENTRALIZED HYDROGEN PLANTS
TABLE 8 PROJECTED EXPENDITURES ON CONSTRUCTION OF HYDROGEN GENERATORS ASSOCIATED WITH LARGE AND CENTRALIZED HYDROGEN POWER PLANTS, 2014-2020 ($ MILLIONS)
DECENTRALIZED HYDROGEN PRODUCTION
External Fuel Cell Reformers
TABLE 9 GLOBAL FUEL CELL REFORMER MARKET, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS)
Hydrogen Stations
CHAPTER 6 HYDROGEN STORAGE
SUMMARY
PRINCIPAL TECHNOLOGIES
TABLE 10 U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY TARGETS FOR ON-BOARD
HYDROGEN STORAGE SYSTEMS, 2020
TABLE 11 HYDROGEN STORAGE TECHNOLOGIES
DIRECT STORAGE OF HYDROGEN
Gaseous Storage
Current Gaseous Hydrogen Storage Technology
Geologic Bulk Storage Systems
Liquid Storage
BMW Dual Fuel Thermo-Tank
Future Developments
HYDROCARBONS
Technologies
Onboard Reforming of Hydrocarbons
Approaches to Onboard Reforming
External Reforming
Internal Reforming
Advantages and Disadvantages of On-Board Reforming
Commercial Status of Onboard Reforming
IdaTech
Innovatek
Direct Hydrocarbon Fuel Cells
Direct Hydrocarbon Fuel Cell Types
Direct Methanol Fuel Cells
Direct Ethanol Fuel Cells
Advantages and Disadvantages of Direct Hydrocarbon Fuel Cells
Commercial Status of Direct Hydrocarbon Fuel Cells
AMMONIA STORAGE
Ammonia-Borane Storage
Ammonia-Sea Salt Storage
METAL HYDRIDES
General Principles
Metal Hydride Types
Advantages and Disadvantages for Hydrogen Storage
Commercial Status
ZEOLITES
General Principles
Zeolite Types
ZK-5
CD-Exchanged Rho Zeolite
Magnesium-Optimized Zeolites for Hydrogen Storage
Other Zeolites
OTHER NANOSTRUCTURED MATERIALS
Carbon Nanotubes and Buckyballs
Metal-Organic Frameworks
OTHER STORAGE TECHNOLOGIES
Phosphonium Borate
Polymers
Polymers of Intrinsic Microporosity
Conformal Polymeric Foams
Ethylene
Hollow Glass Microspheres
PATENT ANALYSIS
PATENTS BY TECHNOLOGY TYPE
FIGURE 10 U.S. HYDROGEN STORAGE PATENTS BY TECHNOLOGY TYPE, THROUGH AUGUST 1, 2015 (% PATENTS ISSUED)
PATENT TRENDS OVER TIME
TABLE 12 U.S. HYDROGEN STORAGE PATENTS ISSUED PER YEAR, 2008 - AUGUST 1, 2015 (PATENTS)
FIGURE 11 ANNUAL U.S. HYDROGEN STORAGE PATENTS ISSUED TRENDS, 2008 - AUGUST 1, 2015 (PATENTS)
MAJOR INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY PORTFOLIOS
FIGURE 12 MAJOR HYDROGEN STORAGE INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY PORTFOLIOS ISSUED, 1975 - AUGUST 1, 2015 (%)
MARKETS
SUMMARY
TABLE 13 GLOBAL HYDROGEN STORAGE TECHNOLOGY* MARKET, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS)
PRESSURIZED STORAGE CYLINDERS
TABLE 14 GLOBAL PRESSURIZED CYLINDERS USED TO STORE HYDROGEN MARKET, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS)
HYDROGEN FUEL TANKS
TABLE 15 GLOBAL MARKET FOR HYDROGEN FUEL TANKS USED IN MOBILE APPLICATIONS, THROUGH 2020* ($ MILLIONS)
CHAPTER 7 BULK HYDROGEN DISTRIBUTION
SUMMARY
PRINCIPAL TECHNOLOGIES
TANK TRUCKS, RAILCARS AND BARGES
TUBE TRAILERS
PIPELINES
New Hydrogen Pipeline Materials
Mixed Hydrogen and Natural Gas Pipelines
Commingled Hydrogen and Natural Gas
Alternating Hydrogen and Natural Gas
Other Technical Issues
Effect of Hydrogen Exposure on Pipeline Materials
Hydrogen Permeation and Leaks
Compression Technology
Single-Screw Hydrogen Compressor
Hydride Based Hydrogen Compressor
Advanced Centrifugal Compressor
Electrochemical Compressor
Advanced Materials for Compressors
Alternatives to Transmission of Gaseous Hydrogen
HYDROGEN STATIONS
Hydrogen Filling Stations
Mobile Hydrogen Refuelers
Hydrogen Home Stations
PATENT ANALYSIS
PATENTS BY TECHNOLOGY TYPE
FIGURE 13 U.S. HYDROGEN TRANSMISSION AND DISTRIBUTION TECHNOLOGY PATENTS ISSUED, BY TECHNOLOGY TYPE, THROUGH AUGUST 2015 (%)
PATENTS BY ASSIGNEE
FIGURE 14 U.S. HYDROGEN TRANSMISSION AND DISTRIBUTION TECHNOLOGY PATENTS ISSUED BY ASSIGNEE, THROUGH AUGUST 2015 (%)
MARKETS
TABLE 16 GLOBAL HYDROGEN TRANSMISSION AND DISTRIBUTION TECHNOLOGY MARKET, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS)
TRANSMISSION
FIGURE 15 HYDROGEN FUEL SOURCES FOR EXISTING AND PLANNED HYDROGEN FILLING STATIONS, 2014 (PERCENTAGE OF EXISTING AND CURRENTLY PLANNED HYDROGEN STATIONS)
Liquid Hydrogen Tankers
TABLE 17 GLOBAL LIQUID HYDROGEN TANKER TRUCK MARKET, THROUGH 2020 (UNITS/$ MILLIONS)
Tube Trailers
TABLE 18 GLOBAL COMPRESSED HYDROGEN TUBE TRAILER MARKET, THROUGH 2020 (UNITS/$ MILLIONS)
Pipelines
HYDROGEN STATIONS
TABLE 19 GLOBAL HYDROGEN STATION MARKET, THROUGH 2020 (UNITS/$ MILLIONS)
Hydrogen Filling Stations
TABLE 20 GLOBAL INVESTMENTS IN NEW HYDROGEN FUELING STATIONS, THROUGH 2020 (UNITS/$ MILLIONS)
Hydrogen Home Stations
TABLE 21 GLOBAL HYDROGEN HOME STATION MARKET, THROUGH 2020 (UNITS/$ MILLIONS)
CHAPTER 8 ELECTROCHEMICAL ENERGY CONVERSION
SUMMARY
PRINCIPAL TECHNOLOGIES
FIGURE 16 FUEL CELL PRINCIPLES
MAIN TECHNOLOGIES
TABLE 22 MAJOR FUEL CELL TECHNOLOGIES
Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells
Direct Methanol Fuel Cells
Alkaline Fuel Cells
Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cells
Molten Carbonate Fuel Cells
Solid Oxide Fuel Cells
PATENT ANALYSIS
PATENTS BY TECHNOLOGY TYPE
FIGURE 17 U.S. FUEL CELL PATENTS BY TECHNOLOGY TYPE, THROUGH AUGUST 2015 (%)
PATENT TRENDS OVER TIME
TABLE 23 U.S. FUEL CELL PATENTS ISSUED PER YEAR, 2008-2015 (NUMBER OF PATENTS)
FIGURE 18 ANNUAL U.S. FUEL CELL ISSUED PATENT TRENDS, 2008-2015 (NUMBER OF PATENTS)
MAJOR INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY PORTFOLIOS
FIGURE 19 MAJOR FUEL CELL INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY PORTFOLIOS ISSUED, THROUGH AUGUST 2015 (PERCENTAGE OF U.S. HYDROGEN STORAGE PATENTS)
MARKETS
TABLE 24 GLOBAL FUEL CELL SALES BY APPLICATION TYPE, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS)
FIGURE 20 GLOBAL FUEL CELL SALE TRENDS BY APPLICATION TYPE, 2014-2020 ($ MILLIONS)
FIGURE 21 GLOBAL FUEL CELL MARKET SHARES BY APPLICATION TYPE, 2014-2020 (% TOTAL SALES)
CHAPTER 9 DIRECT HYDROGEN COMBUSTION
SUMMARY
TECHNOLOGIES
INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES
Hydrogen Internal Combustion Engines
BMW Dual-Fuel Technology
Ford and Mazda Technology
Hybrid Hydrogen-Electric Propulsion Systems
Hydrogen-Boosted Gasoline Engines
TURBINES
PATENTS
MARKETS
TABLE 25 GLOBAL DIRECT HYDROGEN COMBUSTION TECHNOLOGY MARKET, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS)
HYDROGEN INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES
HYDROGEN TURBINES
TABLE 26 GLOBAL MARKET FOR LARGE HYDROGEN TURBINES USED TO GENERATE ELECTRICITY, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS)
CHAPTER 10 OTHER HYDROGEN-RELATED TECHNOLOGIES
HYDROGEN SENSORS
TECHNOLOGIES
MEMS Hydrogen Sensors
Hydrogen Nanosensors
Nanoscale Palladium Thin-Film Sensors
Carbon Nanotube-Based Hydrogen Sensors
Titania Nanotube-Based Hydrogen Sensors
Nanowire-Based Hydrogen Sensors
PATENTS
FIGURE 22 U.S. HYDROGEN SENSOR PATENT HOLDERS, DECEMBER 2009 - AUGUST 2015 (PERCENTAGE OF TOTAL PATENTS)
MARKETS
TABLE 27 GLOBAL HYDROGEN SENSOR MARKET, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS)
CHAPTER 11 COMPANY PROFILES
ACTA SPA
ADVANCED MATERIALS CORP.
AIR PRODUCTS AND CHEMICALS INC.
ALCHEMIX CORP
AMMINEX A/S
AVALENCE LLC
BALLARD POWER SYSTEMS
BAYERISCHE MOTOREN WERKE AG
CERAMATEC
DIVERSIFIED ENERGY CORP
DUPONT
EPRIDA TECHNOLOGIES
ERGENICS
ETUDES CHEMIQUES ET PHYSIQUES SARL
FOSTER WHEELER CORP.
FUEL CELL ENERGY INC.
GENERAL ATOMICS
H2GEN INNOVATIONS INC.
H2SCAN
HALDOR TOPSOE A/S
HCE LLC
HTC PURENERGY
HY9 CORP.
HYDROGENICS CORP.
INERGY AUTOMOTIVE SYSTEMS
INNOVATEK INC.
LINDE AG
LUXFER GROUP LTD.
MAGNA STEYR AG & CO. KG
MAKEL ENGINEERING INC.
MATERIALS AND SYSTEMS RESEARCH INC.
MEMBRANE TECHNOLOGY AND RESEARCH INC.
MERITOR INC.
MO-SCI CORP.
NANOMIX INC.
PLUG POWER LLC
PROTON ONSITE
QUANTUM FUEL SYSTEMS TECHNOLOGIES WORLDWIDE INC.
SECAT INC.
SOTACARBO S.P.A.
TECHNIP SA
UHDE GMBH
WELDSHIP CORP.
XEBEC INC.
ZTEK COR
LIST

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