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Antibiotics: Technologies and Global Markets

Antibiotics: Technologies and Global Markets

The global systemic antibiotics market should reach nearly $44.7 billion in 2020 from nearly $40.6 billion in 2015 at a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 2.0% from 2015 to 2020.

This report provides:
An overview of the global markets and related technologies for antibiotics.
Analyses of global market trends, with data from 2014, 2015, and projections of compound annual growth rates (CAGRs) through 2020.
Breakdowns of the market by human application and veterinary application
A look at major market trends and the factors driving or inhibiting the growth of the global pharmaceutical antibiotics market and its various submarkets
Profiles of key players in the market and analysis of their core competencies and market shares
Detailed coverage of
Beta–lactams.
Penicillin.
Cephalosporins.
Carbapenems.

Fluoroquinolones.
Second generation.
Third generation.
Others.

Macrolides.
Tetracycline.
Other antibiotic classes.


SCOPE OF REPORT

This research report categorizes the systemic antibiotics market into the following segments:

Antibiotics market (human application) by product:
Beta–lactams.
Penicillin.
Cephalosporins.
Carbapenems.

Fluoroquinolones.
Second generation.
Third generation.
Others.

Macrolides.
Tetracycline.
Other antibiotic classes.

Antibiotics market by application:
Human applications.
Veterinary applications.

Launch of any new antibiotics during the forecast period has not been accounted in the market.

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION
STUDY GOALS AND OBJECTIVES
REASONS FOR DOING THE STUDY
SCOPE OF REPORT
INTENDED AUDIENCE
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
ANALYST'S CREDENTIALS
RELATED BCC RESEARCH REPORTS
BCC RESEARCH WEBSITE
DISCLAIMER
CHAPTER 2 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
SUMMARY TABLE GLOBAL ANTIBIOTICS MARKET BY CLASS, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS)
SUMMARY FIGURE GLOBAL ANTIBIOTICS MARKET BY CLASS, 2015 AND 2020 ($ MILLIONS)
CHAPTER 3 MARKET OVERVIEW
INTRODUCTION
BACTERIA
TABLE 1 DIFFERENCES BETWEEN GRAM-NEGATIVE AND GRAM-POSITIVE BACTERIA
GRAM-POSITIVE BACTERIA
GRAM-NEGATIVE BACTERIA
Mycobacterium
TABLE 2 CLASSIFICATION OF BACTERIA BY SHAPE
BACTERIAL INFECTIONS
RESPIRATORY TRACT INFECTIONS
Upper Respiratory Tract Infection
TABLE 3 PRINCIPLES FOR JUDICIAL USE OF ANTIBIOTICS
TABLE 4 INCIDENCE OF UPPER RESPIRATORY TRACT INFECTIONS CAUSED BY STREPTOCOCCUS BY COUNTRY, 2010 (NUMBER/%)
Lower Respiratory Tract Infection
PNEUMONIA
TABLE 5 COMMON CAUSATIVE MICROBES OF COMMUNITY AND
HOSPITAL-ACQUIRED PNEUMONIA
Community-acquired Pneumonia
Hospital-acquired Pneumonia
TABLE 6 PREFERRED PHARMACOTHERAPY FOR MICROORGANISMS CAUSING
BACTERIAL PNEUMONIA
TABLE 7 INCIDENCE OF COMMUNITY-ACQUIRED PNEUMONIA BY COUNTRY, 2010 (NUMBER/%)
TUBERCULOSIS
URINARY TRACT INFECTIONS (UTI)
TABLE 8 INCIDENCE OF URINARY TRACT INFECTIONS CAUSED BY STREPTOCOCCUS BY COUNTRY, 2010 (NUMBER/%)
SKIN AND SKIN STRUCTURE INFECTIONS
TABLE 9 INCIDENCE OF BACTERIAL SKIN AND SKIN STRUCTURE INFECTIONS CAUSED BY STREPTOCOCCUS BY COUNTRY, 2010 (NUMBER/%)
Cellulitis and Erysipelas
Folliculitis
Impetigo and Ecthyma
Abscesses
Carbuncles and Furuncles
GYNECOLOGICAL INFECTIONS
TABLE 10 INCIDENCE OF BACTERIAL VAGINOSIS INFECTIONS CAUSED BY STREPTOCOCCUS BY COUNTRY, 2010 (NUMBER/%)
DEFINITION OF ANTIBIOTIC
CLASSIFICATION OF ANTIBIOTICS
FIGURE 1 CLASSIFICATION OF ANTIBIOTICS
HISTORY OF ANTIBIOTICS AND CURRENT STATUS
PRE-ANTIBIOTIC ERA
ANTIBIOTIC ERA
TABLE 11 U.S. LIFE EXPECTANCY AT BIRTH, 1920-2013 (YEARS)
TABLE 12 ANTIBIOTICS: YEAR OF INTRODUCTION, MODE OF ACTION AND TARGET
SPECIES
ANTIBIOTIC-RESISTANT BACTERIA
MECHANISM OF RESISTANCE
TABLE 13 ANTIBIOTICS: MODE OF ACTION
Mechanisms of Antimicrobial Resistance
TABLE 14 ESTIMATED DEATHS PER YEAR CAUSED BY AMR BY REGION, 2050 (NUMBER)
Methods for the Dissemination of Antimicrobial Resistance Genes
Resistance to B-Lactam Antibiotics
Tetracycline Resistance
Chloramphenicol Resistance
Aminoglycoside Resistance
Quinolone Resistance
Macrolide, Lincosamide, and Streptogramin (MLS) Resistance
Glycopeptide Resistance
Sulfonamides and Trimethoprim Resistance
Multidrug Resistance
TABLE 15 TYPES OF ANTIBIOTICS AND METHODS OF RESISTANCE
TABLE 16 CURRENT AND EMERGING ANTIBIOTIC-RESISTANT BACTERIA
EMERGENCE OF POST-ANTIBIOTIC ERA
TABLE 17 BIOCHEMICAL MECHANISM OF ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE
FIGURE 2 CDC LIST OF HIGHLY CONCERNING BACTERIA, ACCORDING TO THREAT
LEVEL
TABLE 18 ADDITIONAL COST AND LENGTH OF STAY DUE TO
ANTIBIOTIC-RESISTANT BACTERIA BY REGION
Limitation of Antibiotics
Some Antibiotics are Active against Only Certain Kinds of
Bacteria
Some Bacteria are Virulent and Can Kill Quickly
Some Bacteria Grow in Biofilms that cannot be Easily Penetrated
by Antibiotics
DRIVERS RESTRAINTS AND OPPORTUNITIES
DRIVERS
Growth of the Global Pharmaceutical Market Driven by Antibiotics
Aging Population Propels the Growth of the Antibiotics Market
FIGURE 3 INCREASE IN AGING POPULATION, 2011 AND 2050
Public-Private Partnerships Encourage Antibiotic Development
Increasing Prevalence of Hospital-Acquired Infections Triggers Market
Growth
RESTRAINTS
Antibiotic Resistance
Declining R&D Investment Poses Long-Term Barrier to Market Growth
Genericization of Antibiotics Restrains Market Growth
OPPORTUNITIES
Market Expansion into Emerging Countries
Multidrug-Resistant Pathogens Provide an Opportunity to Develop
Novel Antibacterial Agents
BURNING ISSUE
New Antibiotic Discovered From Soil
MARKET SHARES OF KEY COMPANIES
FIGURE 4 GLOBAL MARKET SHARES FOR ANTIBIOTIC COMPANIES, 2014 (%)
VALUE CHAIN OF ANTIBIOTICS
CHINA IS A BECOMING A CENTER FOR MICROBIAL THREATS
REGULATORY ISSUES
FDA AND INTERNATIONAL REGULATORY AGENCIES
RECENT REGULATORY REFORMS
KETEK CASE STUDY
KEY TRENDS AFFECTING THE MARKET
NEVER EVENTS
Impact on the Use of Antibiotics
FUNDING FOR NEW ANTIBIOTICS
United States
Infectious Diseases Society of America
NIH Funding
Public-Private Partnerships
Europe
Innovative Medicines Initiative
EMERGING DRUGS WITH NOVEL MECHANISMS OF ACTION
PharmaSea Project
Combination of Different Antibiotics
Others
CHAPTER 4 ANTIBIOTIC RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
REASONS FOR LACK OF INNOVATION IN ANTIBIOTIC RESEARCH
FIGURE 5 REASONS FOR LACK OF INNOVATION IN ANTIBIOTIC RESEARCH
LOW RETURN ON INVESTMENT
STRICT REGULATORY ENVIRONMENT
SCIENTIFIC CHALLENGES
STRATEGIES TO PROMOTE ANTIBIOTIC RESEARCH
FIGURE 6 STRATEGIES TO PROMOTE ANTIBIOTIC RESEARCH
PUSH STRATEGIES
Increasing Access to Research
Increasing the Number of Scientific Personnel
Direct Funding of Research
Translational Research
Tax Incentives
Product Development Partnerships
PULL STRATEGIES
Monetary Awards
Advance Market Commitments
Legal and Regulatory Initiatives
Clinical Trials
Accelerated Regulatory Review
Intellectual Property Rights Strategies
Increasing the Term of IP Protection and Data Exclusivity
Wildcard Patent Extension
Patent Buyouts
Pricing and Reimbursement
Other Legal/Regulatory Strategies
COMBINED PULL AND PUSH INCENTIVES
ORPHAN DRUG STATUS
TABLE 19 COMPARISON OF U.S. AND EU ORPHAN DRUG LEGISLATION AND PROCESS
Delinkage of Antibiotics
TABLE 20 LIST OF DELINKAGE MODELS
TABLE 21 LIST OF HYBRID MODELS
CHAPTER 5 ANTIBIOTICS MARKET BY TYPE
MARKET SIZE ESTIMATION
MARKET SHARE ESTIMATION
GLOBAL ANTIBIOTICS MARKET BY CLASS
TABLE 22 GLOBAL ANTIBIOTICS MARKET BY CLASS, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS)
TABLE 23 GLOBAL ANTIBIOTICS MARKET BY REGION, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS)
FIGURE 7 ANTIBIOTICS BY CLASS
BETA-LACTAM ANTIBIOTICS
TABLE 24 GLOBAL MARKET FOR BETA-LACTAM ANTIBIOTICS BY TYPE, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS)
TABLE 25 GLOBAL MARKET FOR BETA-LACTAM ANTIBIOTICS BY REGION, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS)
Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamase
Metallo-Beta-Lactamases
FIGURE 8 TYPES OF BETA-LACTAM ANTIBIOTICS
Penicillins
TABLE 26 GLOBAL MARKET FOR PENICILLIN BY REGION, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS)
Types of Penicillin
TABLE 27 TYPES OF PENICILLIN BY BRAND NAME AND APPROVAL DATE
Cephalosporins
Side Effects
TABLE 28 GLOBAL MARKET FOR CEPHALOSPORIN BY REGION, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS)
Teflaro Driving the Cephalosporin Market
Generations of Cephalosporins
TABLE 29 GENERATIONS OF CEPHALOSPORIN
First-Generation Cephalosporins
TABLE 30 LIST OF FIRST-GENERATION CEPHALOSPORINS
Second-Generation Cephalosporins
TABLE 31 LIST OF SECOND-GENERATION CEPHALOSPORINS
Third-Generation Cephalosporins
Antipseudomonal Cephalosporins
TABLE 32 LIST OF THIRD-GENERATION CEPHALOSPORINS
Fourth-Generation Cephalosporins
TABLE 33 LIST OF FOURTH-GENERATION CEPHALOSPORINS
Fifth-Generation Cephalosporins
TABLE 34 LIST OF FIFTH-GENERATION CEPHALOSPORINS
Carbapenems
TABLE 35 GLOBAL MARKET FOR CARBAPENEM BY REGION, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS)
TABLE 36 TYPES OF CARBAPENEMS
QUINOLONES AND FLUOROQUINOLONES
TABLE 37 DEVELOPMENT HISTORY OF FLUOROQUINOLONES
TABLE 38 GLOBAL MARKET FOR FLUOROQUINOLONES BY GENERATION, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS)
TABLE 39 GLOBAL MARKET FOR FLUOROQUINOLONES BY REGION, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS)
Generations of Quinolones
First-Generation Quinolones
Second-Generation Fluoroquinolones
TABLE 40 GLOBAL MARKET FOR SECOND-GENERATION FLUOROQUINOLONES BY REGION, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS)
Third-Generation Fluoroquinolones
TABLE 41 GLOBAL MARKET FOR THIRD-GENERATION FLUOROQUINOLONES BY REGION, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS)
Levofloxacin: A Major Driver of the Market for
Third-Generation Fluoroquinolones
Fourth-Generation Fluoroquinolones
TABLE 42 GLOBAL MARKET FOR OTHER QUINOLONES BY REGION, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS)
TABLE 43 TYPES OF QUINOLONES
TETRACYCLINE
TABLE 44 GLOBAL MARKET FOR TETRACYCLINE BY REGION, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS)
TABLE 45 TYPES OF TETRACYCLINE
MACROLIDES
TABLE 46 GLOBAL MARKET FOR MACROLIDE BY REGION, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS)
Ketolides
Ketek
TABLE 47 TYPES OF MACROLIDES/KETOLIDES
OTHER ANTIBIOTICS
Pseudomonas Aeruginosa
TABLE 48 GLOBAL MARKET FOR OTHER ANTIBIOTICS BY REGION, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS)
CHAPTER 6 VETERINARY ANTIBIOTICS MARKET
INTRODUCTION
TABLE 49 DIFFERENCES BETWEEN ANTIBIOTIC USAGE IN ANIMALS AND HUMANS
TABLE 50 GLOBAL MARKET FOR VETERINARY ANTIBIOTICS BY APPLICATION, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS)
VETERINARY APPLICATIONS
FEED APPLICATION
FDA to Phase out Antibiotics from Food Production
THERAPEUTIC APPLICATIONS
TABLE 51 GLOBAL MARKET FOR VETERINARY THERAPEUTIC ANTIBIOTICS BY TYPE, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS)
TABLE 52 GLOBAL MARKET FOR VETERINARY THERAPEUTIC ANTIBIOTICS BY ANIMAL TYPE, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS)
OTHER APPLICATIONS
CHAPTER 7 COMPANY PROFILES
ASTRAZENECA
FINANCIALS
TABLE 53 ASTRAZENECA REVENUES AND R &D EXPENDITURES, 2012-2014 ($MILLIONS/%)
DEVELOPMENTS
TABLE 54 ASTRAZENECA DEVELOPMENTS
BAYER HEALTHCARE AG
FINANCIALS
TABLE 55 BAYER REVENUES AND R &D EXPENDITURES, 2012-2014 ($ MILLIONS/%)
DEVELOPMENTS
CUBIST PHARMACEUTICALS
DEVELOPMENTS
TABLE 56 CUBIST PHARMACEUTICAL DEVELOPMENTS
GLAXOSMITHKLINE
FINANCIALS
TABLE 57 GSK REVENUES AND R & D EXPENDITURES, 2012-2014 ($ MILLIONS/%)
DEVELOPMENTS
TABLE 58 GSK DEVELOPMENTS
JOHNSON & JOHNSON
FINANCIALS
TABLE 59 JOHNSON & JOHNSON REVENUES AND R &D EXPENDITURES, 2012-2014 ($ MILLIONS/%)
DEVELOPMENTS
TABLE 60 JOHNSON & JOHNSON DEVELOPMENTS
MERCK & CO.
FINANCIALS
TABLE 61 MERCK & CO. REVENUES AND R &D EXPENDITURES, 2012-2014 ($MILLIONS/%)
DEVELOPMENTS
TABLE 62 MERCK & CO.DEVELOPMENTS
PFIZER
FINANCIALS
TABLE 63 PFIZER REVENUES AND R &D EXPENDITURES, 2012-2014 ($ MILLIONS/%)
DEVELOPMENTS
TABLE 64 PFIZER DEVELOPMENTS
RECENT MERGERS AND ACQUISITIONS
TABLE 65 LIST OF OTHER COMPANIES IN THE ANTIBIOTICS MARKET
CHAPTER 8 CLINICAL TRIALS ON ANTIBIOTICS
FIGURE 9 ANTIBIOTICS IN PHASES I-III CLINICAL TRIALS, 2015 (%)
TABLE 66 ANTIBIOTIC COMPOUNDS IN PHASE III CLINICAL TRIALS, 2015
ANTIBIOTICS IN PHASE II CLINICAL TRIALS
TABLE 67 ANTIBIOTIC COMPOUNDS IN PHASE II CLINICAL TRIALS, 2015
ANTIBIOTICS IN PHASE I CLINICAL TRIALS
TABLE 68 ANTIBIOTIC COMPOUNDS IN PHASE I CLINICAL TRIALS, 2015
TABLE 69 NATURAL PRODUCTS IN CLINICAL TRIALS FOR ANTIBIOTIC ACTIVITY
THAT REPRESENT NEW CHEMICAL CLASSES, 2015
CHAPTER 9 OVERVIEW OF BACTERIA TYPES
DISEASE ORGANISMS, DIAGNOSTICS, CLINICAL MANIFESTATIONS AND
TREATMENTS
TABLE 70 LIST OF GRAM-POSITIVE BACTERIA
TABLE 71 LIST OF GRAM-NEGATIVE BACTERIA
TABLE 72 LIST OF GRAM-NEGATIVE COCCI
TABLE 73 LIST OF GRAM-NEGATIVE RODS RELATED TO RESPIRATORY TRACT
INFECTIONS
TABLE 74 LIST OF GRAM-NEGATIVE RODS RELATED TO THE ENTERIC TRACT
TABLE 75 LIST OF GRAM-NEGATIVE SPIROCHETES
TABLE 76 LIST OF GRAM-NEGATIVE OBLIGATE INTRACELLULAR PARASITES
TABLE 77 LIST OF MISCELLANEOUS BACTERIA
CHAPTER 10 LIST OF ACRONYMS
LIST OF ACRONYMS

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