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Low And High Temperature Superconductor Wire

Low And High Temperature Superconductor Wire:beyond Magnetic Resonance Imagingto Electrical Equipment And Thenfusion Power–global Markets, Technologies And Compeititors:2015-2020 Analysis And Forecasts

Superconductivity-the absence of electrical resistance in certain materials at very low temperatures-continues to be of great scientific, technological and commercial interest. The purpose of Superconductors is to generate high magnetic fields. And in terms of magnetic fields, Superconductors rule.

It has been 104 years since the initial discovery of superconductivity in 1911. Since then, only one, major commercial application has developed: Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) in the 1980s. Even so, MRI along with other superconductor applications has developed into a global market worth billions.

A renaissance of superconductivity applications could appear in the next 3–7 years (2018–2023) and will be based not on incremental progress in the existing technologies but rather on a radical breakthrough in a different, highly attractive and rapidly growing industries, including clean energy and electric power equipment.

The primary focus of this report is Superconductor Wire-both Low Temperature and High Temperature. Superconductor Wire is what makes Superconductivity applications possible.

The secondary focus of this report is on applications for Superconductor Wire. The major application for Superconductor Wire to date is magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanners. MRI technologies and markets are thus examined in detail in this report.

The question is: what will be the next generation commercial applications for Superconductor Wire? At present, the new applications are thought to be electrical equipment and nuclear fusion power. So, both these technologies and potential markets are discussed in detail in this report.



Included in the report are detailed analyses of:

  • Global Market For Superconductivity: Existing vs. Emerging Applications by Type and Low Temperature vs. High Temperature Superconductors.
  • Global Market for Low Temperature and High Temperature Superconductor Wire.
  • Global Superconductor Wire Market by Application.
  • Producers of Low Temperature and High Temperature Superconductor Wire.
  • Low Temperature and High Temperature Superconductor Wire Sales and Market Shares by Producer.
  • Global MRI Market, Metrics and Producers.
  • Global Market for Utility Equipment Including Cables, Medium and High Voltage Transformers, Medium and High Voltage Switchgear and Motors.
The report also includes comprehensive evaluations of:
  • The Seven Eras in Superconductor Technology.
  • Existing and Emerging Superconductor Applications.
  • Low Temperature Superconductor vs. High Temperature Superconductor Applications
  • Opportunities Beyond MRI.
  • Utilities Markets for High Temperature Superconductors.
  • Future World Electric Energy Requirements.
  • Nuclear Fusion and Superconducting Tokamaks.
  • ITER Project: Conductor Procurement Companies, Procurement Costs by Product, Conductor Costs, LHC Conductor Costs.
  • Installed Cost Goals for Fusion Power and the Global Power Generation Market.
  • Fusion Entrepreneurs: Private Sector Companies Doing Fusion Power R&D and Capital Investments in These Companies.
Additionally, profiles of 24 leading foreign and U.S. Superconductor wire manufacturers are given, along with 30 tables and 115 figures.


  • EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
  • INTRODUCTION
    • Report Objective
    • Methodology and Sources
    • Statistical Notes
  • SUPERCONDUCTIVITY: SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY AND INDUSTRY OVERVIEW
    • Original Discovery
    • Three Parameters Describing Superconductors
    • 100+-Year History of Superconductivity by Era
    • Era of Science and Discovery (1908–1961)
    • Era of Technology and Innovation (1962–1970)
    • Era of Entrepreneurship (1971–1981)
    • Era of Products and Profits (1982–1990)
    • Era of New Materials and Applications (1991–2003)
    • Era of industry Consolidation (2004–2007)
    • Future of Superconductivity Technology
    • Kondratiev Waves and Technology Innovation
    • Superconductivity Technology Waves
    • Bust Phase of Technology Cycle
    • Electrical Equipment and Fusion Energy
  • SUPERCONDUCTOR MARKET
    • Purpose of Superconductors
    • Market Segments
    • Existing Applications
    • Emerging Applications
    • Emerging Large-Scale Applications
    • Emerging Electronic Applications
    • Market by Existing Applications
      • Table Global Market For Superconductivity: Existing vs. Emerging Applications by Type and Low Temperature vs. High Temperature Superconductors: ($ Million): 2015-2020
    • Market by Emerging Applications
    • Low Temperature Superconductor vs. High Temperature Superconductor Applications
    • Opportunities Beyond MRI
    • Problems with HTS
    • Government Projects Will Fund HTS
    • Need for Young Minds
  • SUPERCONDUCTOR WIRE MARKET
    • LTS and HTS Definitions
    • Properties of Superconductors Used in Industrial Applications
    • Low Temperature Superconductors
    • Copper as a Matrix Material
    • Production Flow for Technical Superconductors
    • General Design of NbTi Conductor
    • General Design of Nb3Sn (Bronze) Conductor
    • General Design of Nb3Sn (Internal Tin) Conductor
    • Properties NbTi vs. Nb3Sn
      • Table Properties NbTi vs. Nb3Sn
    • NbTi Manufacturing Process
    • LTS Present Applications
      • Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
    • Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR)
    • High Energy Physics
    • Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES)
    • Nuclear Fusion
    • Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer II (AMS II)
    • Other Applications
    • High Temperature Superconductors and Magnet Technology
    • Magnesium Diboride
    • MgB2-based MRI Magnets
    • MgB2 Conductor Developments
    • Columbus Superconductors PIT Technique
    • MgB2 Challenges Remain
    • OpenSky 0.5 T MgB2 MRI Scanner
      • Table Parameters of the ASG MgB2 Magnet Used in the Paramed OpenSky MRI System
    • Development of HTS Conductors
    • HTS Critical Parameters
    • HTS Conductor Cost
    • Stress Limitations
    • Reliable Manufacturing
    • Persistent Joints
    • Quench Protection
    • YBCO Conductor Manufacturers
    • HTS YBCO Challenges
    • YBCO Unlikely in MRIs
    • First HTS MRI Scanner
    • HTS Commercial Development Requirements
    • Realization of Commercial HTS Industry
    • LTS vs. HTS Price Trends
      • Table Low Temperature and High Temperature Superconductor Wire Prices by Critical Temperature and Type ($/kA-m): 2015
    • Global Superconductor Wire Market
      • Table Global Market for Superconductor Wire ($ Million, Million Meters, Average Selling Price in $/kA-m): 2015-2020
    • Low and High Temperature Superconductor Wire Markets
      • Table Global Market for Low Temperature and High Temperature Superconductor Wire ($ Million): 2015-2020
    • Superconductor Wire Market by Application
      • Table Global Superconductor Wire Market by Application ($ Million): 2015-2020
    • Competitive Environment
      • Table Producers of Low Temperature and High Temperature Superconductor Wire: 2015
      • Table Low Temperature Superconductor Wire Sales and Market Shares by Company ($ Million): 2015
  • MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING MARKET
    • MRI Overview
    • MRI Technology
    • MRI Commercialized Superconductivity
    • Magnet Strength Measure
    • Types of MRI Magnets
    • Advantages/Disadvantages of Resistive-Magnet MRIs
    • Advantages/Disadvantages of Permanent-Magnet MRIs
    • Advantages/Disadvantages of Superconducting-Magnet MRIs
    • MRI Uses Majority of Superconducting Materials
    • Field Strength
      • Table Typical Parameters of Cylindrical MRI Magnets
    • Advantages of Higher Field MRIs
    • Challenges / Disadvantages / Limitations of Higher-Field MRIs
    • Lower Field Scanners Fading Away
    • 3 Tesla Scanners Now Predominant
    • Changing Definition of High Field
    • Magnet Shape and Orientation
    • Design Issues
    • Open Vs. Cylindrical Systems
    • Magnet Design
      • Table Requirements To MRI Magnets
    • Compactness and Accessibility
    • Uniformity and Persistence
    • Stray Magnetic Field and Shielding
    • Refrigeration
    • NbTI vs. HTS Conductors
    • Magnesium Diboride Magnets
    • Global MRI Production: 2015-2020
      • Table Global MRI Production Volume (Units), Value ($ Million), Average Selling Price ($/Unit): 2015-2020
    • Upside Limits on MRI Production
    • Global MRI Production by Type: 2015
      • Table Global MRI Market Volume by Type (Units), Value ($ Million), Average Selling Price ($/Unit): 2015
    • Superconducting Components Share of MRI Production
      • Table Superconducting Components Share of 1.5 T and 3+ T MRI Production ($ Million): 2015
    • Global MRI Installed Base
    • U.S. MRI Installed Base by Type
      • Table U.S. MRI Scanner Installed Base by Type: 2013-2020
    • Cylindrical Vs. Open Installed Systems
    • Bore Size in New Installations
    • U.S. MRI Site Budgets for Systems
    • MRI Procedures Done in the U.S. Annually
    • U.S MRI Procedures Done Compared to Other Countries
    • U.S. Sites Where MRI Procedures Are Performed
    • U.S. MRI Procedures by Study
    • MRI Procedures by Site
    • MRI Scanners by Site
    • MRI Producer Market Shares
    • MRI Site Purchase Plans by System Type
    • MRI Site Purchase Plans by Producer
    • MRI System Global Producers
      • Table MRI System Producers: 2015
    • Superconducting MRI Magnet Producers
    • Japan MRI Market
    • China MRI Market
    • Russia MRI Market
  • UTILITIES MARKETS FOR HIGH TEMPERATURE SUPERCONDUCTORS
    • HTS Barriers to Adoption
    • HTS Wire Cost Must Be Reduced.
    • HTS Equipment Applications
    • Cable
    • Triaxial Cable
    • Transformers
    • Fault Current Limiters
    • Motors and Generators
    • Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES)
    • Utilities Available Market for Superconductor Products
    • Global Utility Cable/Lines Market
      • Table Global Market for Utility Medium- and High-Voltage Utility Cables and Lines ($ Million): 2015-2020
    • Global Superconducting Cable Market
    • Global Utility Transformer Market
      • Table Global Market for Utility Medium and High Voltage Transformers ($ Million): 2015-2020
    • Global Fault Current Limiter Market
    • Global Utility Switchgear Market
      • Table Global Market for Utility Medium and High Voltage Switchgear ($ Million): 2015-2020
    • Global Utility Motors Market
      • Table Global Market for Utility Motors ($ Million): 2015-2020
    • Sakura Internet DC Power Transmission Project
    • Sakura Cable Manufactured by SEI
    • Superconducting Cable and DC Transmission Reduce Power Consumption by 30%
    • New Addressable Market
    • Technical Issues
  • NUCLEAR FUSION, SUPERCONDUCTIVITY, ITER PROJECT AND POWER GENERATION MARKETS
    • Promise of Near Limitless Energy
    • Superconductivity the Key Enabling Technology
    • Twice as Much Power Needed by 2050
    • ITER Is the Largest Applied Superconductivity Project
    • Sustainable Energy System Needed
    • Future World Population
    • Future World Electric Energy Requirements
    • Huge Growth In Energy Demand Forecast
      • Table World Energy Intensity: 1900-2000
      • Table World Energy Intensity: 1980-2030
    • Specific Energy of Available Fuels
    • Scale of the Energy Problem
    • Future Power Requirements Needed
    • Carbon-Free Energy Sources
    • Nuclear
    • Carbon Sequestration
    • Renewables
      • Table World Renewable Energy Resources By Type (TW)
    • Sustainable Energy Policies
    • Nuclear Power
      • Fusion vs. Fission Reactions
    • Nuclear Fusion
    • Nuclear Fusion Fuels
    • Nuclear Fusion Products
    • Nuclear Fusion Reactor
    • Challenges of Fusion
    • Plasma Confinement
    • Tokamaks
    • Conventional vs. Superconducting Tokamaks
    • Advantages of Superconductivity
    • Drawbacks of Superconductivity
    • Superconducting Fusion Machines
    • Superconductor Materials Development
    • Superconducting Wire Production
    • ITER Project Overview
    • Project Management
    • ITER Site Construction
    • ITER Tokamak and Magnet System
    • Feeders
    • Largest Superconducting Magnet Built
    • ITER Magnet System Supply
    • ITER Conductors Overview
    • TF and CS Conductors
    • Conductor Manufacture
    • Jacketing Lines
    • Quality Assurance, Quality Control and ITER Conductor Database
    • Features of ITER TF Coils
    • Conductor Production Status
    • ITER HTS Leads
    • ITER Conductor Procurement Companies
    • ITER Procurement Costs by Product
      • Table ITER Procurements by Product, Procurement Type, Investment (kIUA) and Country
    • ITER Conductor Costs
      • Table ITER Conductor And Magnets Procurement Costs by Type (kIUA)
    • ITER Conductor Costs vs. LHC Conductor Costs
      • Table Large Hadron Collider Conductors and Components Costs by Type (CHF Million)
    • Installed Cost Goals for Fusion Power
      • Table Global Installed Costs for Coal, Gas, Nuclear, Hydroelectric and Renewable Power Generation Plants ($/MW): 2015-2020
    • Global Power Generation Market
      • Table Global Power Generation Equipment Market by Product Class Including Coal, Gas, Nuclear, Hydroelectric, Renewables ($ Billion): 2015-2019
    • Private Sector Companies Doing Fusion Power R&D
    • Fusion Entrepreneurs
    • Capital Going to Private Sector R&D
  • COMPANY PROFILES
    • Advanced Conductor Technologies, Boulder, CO
    • Allegheny Technologies Incorporated, Pittsburgh, PA
    • American Superconductor Corporation, Devens, MA
      • Table American Superconductor Income Statement: 2011-2014
    • ASG Superconductors SpA, Genova, Italy
    • Bruker Corporation, Billerica, Massachusetts
    • CAN SUPERCONDUCTORS, s.r.o, Kamenice, Czech Republic
    • Companhia Brasileira de Metalurgia e Mineraçã o S.A. (CBMM), Araxá, Brazil
    • Deutsche Nanoschicht GmbH, Rheinbach, Germany
    • Grid Logic, Lapeer, MI
    • Hyper Tech Research, Inc., Columbus, OH
    • Japan Superconductor Technology, Inc, Hyogo, Japan
    • Luvata Pori OY, Pori, Finland
    • Metal Oxide Technologies Inc, Houston, TX
    • Nexans SA, Paris, France
    • Oxford Instruments plc, Abingdon, UK
    • SH Copper Products Co. Ltd., Tokyo, Japan
    • Structured Materials Industries, Piscataway, NJ
      • Table Range of Elements that Structured Materials Industries' MOCVD Technology Has or Can Produce
    • Sumitomo Electric Industries, Ltd, Osaka Japan
    • SuNam Co., Ltd., Gyeonggi, Korea
    • Superconductor Technologies, Inc., Austin, TX
      • Table Superconducting Technologies Inc. Income Statement: 2010-2014
    • SuperOx, Moscow, Russia
    • SuperPower Inc., Schenectady, NY
    • TVEL Fuel Company, Moscow, Russia
    • Western Superconducting Technologies Co., Ltd, XI'an, China

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