Almost 10% of global gross domestic product (GDP) is generated by activities related to tourism, which include: the direct receipts of tourism industry players (for example hotels, car-rental firms, travel agents and tour operators, some food and beverage outlets and certain attractions); indirect receipts of suppliers to the tourism industry; and induced receipts (spending by employees of the tourism industry and its suppliers). Tourism is therefore a vital component of the world economy and its sustainability is of utmost importance, especially for some developing countries, which count on tourism for a large proportion of their GDP and employment. For example, the direct contribution of tourism to Cambodia’s economy is estimated by the World Travel & Tourism Council (WTTC) to be 9.5%, and the total contribution of tourism (including direct, indirect and induced receipts) is estimated at 22.1%. These figures can be compared to worldwide averages of only 2.8% and 9.5%, respectively.
This report treats three distinct topics. First, the impact that tourism is having on climate change is examined. Second, the report reviews how the tourism industry and its supply chain have been and will be affected by efforts to mitigate the impact of tourism on climate change. Finally, how tourism is being affected by climate change, which is for example reducing snow coverage and producing heatwaves in beach holiday destinations, is evaluated.