The cancer vaccine industry has a promising future by all indications propelled by advances in molecular biology technology. The industry is poised for unprecedented growth and market participants face countless opportunities if they are equipped with a strategic plan of action. However, there are numerous stumbling blocks along the way that can interfere with advancement of cancer vaccines. One of the major interests is in early detection and screening for cancer. Education and advancement of methods to detect cancer early are paramount. Another issue that affects the introduction of new vaccine products is reimbursement. Controversial issues face some of the products that have been approved or are in late stage development. Manufacturers must demonstrate that the new vaccine is superior to other products on the market. New technology and innovations regarding the treatment of cancer face the same challenge as far as demonstrating that pharmacogenomics and personalized medicine is worth the anticipated additional cost.