Industrial and environmental biotechnology has many uses in modern science. Living cells and enzymes can be used to produce vitamins, antibiotics, vaccines and proteins for medicinal purposes.
Cells can be modified to produce enzymes. Enzymes, which function biologically as catalysts to bring about a specific biochemical reaction, can be used industrially to make products. As an alternative to harmful chemicals, enzymes consume less water, raw materials and energy, making them eco-efficient.
Another application of efficient biotechnology is the production of chemicals, pesticides, biofuels and biodegradable plastics made from renewable raw materials like starch, vegetable oils, cellulose and agricultural waste.
Biotechnology can have a huge environmental impact by reducing waste and pollution, conserving energy, water and raw materials, production of safer and higher quality foods and using waste to create new bio-based materials. The use of natural biotechnological resources effectively as a strategic foundation for the development of an efficient bio-resource economy is crucial in achieving the interrelated environmental, social and economic objectives for sustainable human development.