Battery Safety 2011/Lithium Battery Power

Knowledge Foundation
November 9, 2011
1276 Pages - SKU: CHDQ3810892
Rechargeable Batteries for the 300-Mile Electric Vehicles and Beyond

K.M. Abraham, PhD, Chief Technology Officer, E-KEM Sciences
Today’s lithium ion batteries are unable to satisfy the energy density and cost requirements of 300-mile all-electric vehicles. New rechargeable batteries have to be identified and developed in order to meet this challenge. A brief update of lithium ion technology will be provided with its energy density and cost evolution in the foreseeable future. New materials and battery systems for meeting the driving range of extended range all-electric vehicles will be discussed along with updates on the rechargeable Li-air and Li-sulfur batteries.

Recent Advances in Rechargeable Battery Technology: An Overview

Ralph J. Brodd, PhD, Director, Kentucky - Argonne Battery Manufacturing Research and Development Center

Recent work on new electrode materials and structures will be reviewed along with comments and the implication for their ability to meet demands for the high performance, cycle life as well as cost for electric vehicle applications. The increased interest in electric vehicle batteries has stimulated significant new work on cell components, including anodes, electrolytes and separators. A potential issue is available resources relating to the supply critical elements for large scale vehicle cell production. While the availability of lithium resources is assured, other elements such as nickel and cobalt will require consideration and recycling as the market expands. Exciting new systems such as lithium alloy anode materials and lithium - air cells are beginning to challenge Li-ion system for utility in vehicle applications.
Subsonic Ultra Green Aircraft Research (SUGAR) Study Results: Hybrid Electric Propulsion with Advanced Battery Technology
Marty Bradley, PhD, Technical Fellow, Principal Investigator, Subsonic Ultra Green Aircraft Research The Boeing Company*

This presentation summarizes the work accomplished by the Boeing Subsonic Ultra Green Aircraft Research (SUGAR) team in a NASA study looking at future concepts and technologies for commercial aircraft in the 2030-2035 timeframe. The team developed a comprehensive future scenario for world-wide commercial aviation, selected baseline and advanced configurations for detailed study, generated technology suites for each configuration, conducted detailed performance analysis, calculated noise and emissions, assessed technology risks and payoffs, and developed technology roadmaps for key technologies. A wide portfolio of technologies was identified and evaluated to address the NASA goals. The highest payoff technologies were identified as hybrid-electric gas turbine propulsion and advanced modular batteries. Compared to today’s aircraft, fuel burn reductions of up to 90% and energy use reductions of greater than 55% are possible. To achieve this, significant advances in battery technology are needed and aviation specific challenges need to be addressed. The goal of this presentation is to begin a dialog between the aviation industry and battery technology and system experts to eventually enable the benefits identified in this study to come to fruition.

*In collaboration with: D.Coates, Boeing; R.Delrosario, NASA Glenn Research Center; R.Wahls, NASA Langley Research Center
Zero-Volt Technology with High Power Characteristics

Hisashi Tsukamoto, PhD, CEO, CTO and Co-Founder, Quallion LLC
Quallion has developed Zero-Volt™ technology (US Patent 6,596,439) for medical implantable Li-ion battery. This technology allows Li-ion battery deep discharged to “zero volt” and stored prolonged time, and be able to recharge without any damage. Quallion recently advanced this technology for high power Li-ion battery for military applications. We believe this technology can benefit calendar life and safety for various commercial applications including EV.
How Long Will Automotive Li-Ion Last In Real-World Applications?

Kandler Smith, Senior Researcher, National Renewable Energy Laboratory*

Laboratories run around-the-clock aging tests to try to as quickly as possible gain an understanding of how long new Li-ion battery designs will last under certain duty-cycles. Such tests, however, are generally accelerated and do not consider possible dwell time at high temperatures and states-of-charge. Furthermore, automotive duty-cycles are highly variable, making it difficult to span the realm of real-world duty-cycles in the laboratory. To overcome these issues, battery life-predictive models provide guidance as to how long Li-ion batteries may last under real-world electric-drive vehicle applications. Worst-case aging scenarios are extracted from hundreds of real-world duty-cycles developed from vehicle travel surveys.
*In collaboration with: M.Earleywine, S.Santhanagopalan, A.Pesaran

How to Have Your Cake & Eat It Too - An Investigation into Innovation-Driven High Performance, Cost-Effective Battery Systems
Gitanjali DasGupta, Manager, Electric Vehicle Division, Electrovaya, Canada
Large battery systems for automotive and utility applications is a rapidly developing market segment. The most pressing challenges for large-format applications are generally agreed to be lower battery cost and improved performance. In this paper, Electrovaya investigates the three pillars of the cost structure to demonstrate how advanced technology and clean manufacturing processes can drive both reduced cost and exceptional performance.

Translating High Capacity Materials into High Energy Density, High Performance Cells

Brian M. Barnett, PhD, Vice President, TIAX LLC
For several years, TIAX has been developing a stabilized nickelate cathode material that provides a unique combination of both high capacity and high power, and is an excellent option for portable, transportation and specialty applications. This material has now been implemented in cells by multiple manufacturers of lithium-ion cells, a process that necessarily involved development of detailed cell designs as part of the implementation. Most materials developers are not able to make cells, and yet cell-level performance is the ultimate requirement and cell-level performance sets the most pertinent materials targets. We have found that a combination of cell design models and relevant experimental data can help bridge the gap to cell level performance and also set appropriate development targets. This presentation illustrates the challenge of identifying relevant active materials targets to deliver enhanced performance at the cell level. In addition to the impact of TIAX new stabilized nickelate-based cathode material at the cell level, the presentation puts in a cell-level context some of the other recent high capacity materials developments for lithium-ion anodes and cathodes.
An Update on the Materials Development at JPL for Enhancing the Specific Energy and Safety of Li-Ion Cells
Ratnakumar V. Bugga, PhD, Principal Member Technical Staff, Electrochemical Technologies Group, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology*
For enhancing the future NASA missions that will involve robotic as well as human exploration, we will need rechargeable batteries with improved specific energy and safety. Under a NASA-sponsored program and in collaboration with other centers and external partners, we have been developing new cathode materials with higher voltage and enhanced specific energy, as well as electrolyte formulations with high voltage compatibility and reduced flammability. In this paper, we will present the performance characteristics as well as basic electrochemical studies of the materials in laboratory cells.

*In collaboration with: W.West, M.C.Smart
NCM Cathode Materials with High Energy Density for the Emerging Automotive Market
Kirill Bramnik, PhD, Global Product Technology Manager, Battery Materials, BASF Corporation
NCM (Nickel-Cobalt-Manganese based oxides) cathode materials for Li-ion batteries employ a unique combination of Lithium and Manganese rich mixed metal oxides and have successfully substituted LCO in many consumer applications. It is also the material of choice for large auto-batteries due to lower costs, intrinsically higher safety and extended cycling stability. Moreover, the enhanced stability of the NCM chemistry enables development of new battery systems, which can be charged to the higher voltages and leads to a substantially higher energy storage capacity than currently available materials. The increased capacity of such materials goes hand in hand with reduced costs and therefore offers a number of advantages for battery makers. Dedicated design of particles together with high purity makes BASF materials well suited for demanding applications such as batteries for automotive drivetrains.

Discovery of 5V Cathode and Electrolyte Materials via High Throughput Methods
Steven Kaye, PhD, Chief Scientific Officer, Wildcat Discovery Technologies
Wildcat Discovery Technologies has developed a high throughput synthesis and screening platform for battery materials. Wildcat’s system produces materials in bulk form, enabling evaluation of its properties in a standard cell configuration. This allows simultaneous optimization of all aspects of the cell, including the active materials, binders, separator, electrolyte and additives. Wildcat is using this high throughput system to develop new electrode and electrolyte materials for a variety of battery types (primary, secondary, aqueous, non-aqueous). In this talk, I will discuss results from our latest discovery programs, including new 5V cathodes and electrolytes with >700 Wh/kg and significantly improved cycle life in full cells.

Transition Metal Oxynitride as Electrode Material for Rechargeable Li-Ion Battery
Xiao-Jun Wang, PhD, and Reinhard Nesper, Prof Dr, Laboratory of Inorganic Chemistry, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH), Switzerland
Transition metal oxides have been widely studied as promising electrode materials in Li-ion batteries. In principle, transition metal oxynitrides have better electrical conductivity and higher theoretical capacity than oxides. But they are investigated rarely due to their crystal structural instability and restricted chemical synthesis method. In this talk, synthesis and characterizations of nanoparticles of niobium (V) oxynitride, namely NbON, will be presented, and the electrochemical behaviors vs. lithium will be discussed as well. NbON has the baddeleyite (ZrO2) structure with monoclinic symmetry (space group P21/c). Nanoparticles of NbON were synthesized from thermal decomposition of ammolysized NbOCl3. By using elemental analysis and neutron diffraction, this compound was determined to be NbO1.3(1)N0.7(1) instead of NbON. Samples exhibiting the morphologically feature as 3-5 nm nano-sized particles were observed. Our study indicates that NbO1.3(1)N0.7(1) coated with 4.6 weight-% of carbon has much more stable and reversible cycling performance than the pure sample. When the cutoff potential was set at 0.05V and 1V, the measured capacities reached 500 Ah/kg and 100Ah/kg during the first discharge and then stabilized at 250 Ah/kg and 80 Ah/kg in subsequent cycling, respectively.


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