Ultracapacitors For Stationary, Industrial, Consumer And Transport Energy Storage - An Industry, Technology And Market AnalysisInnovative Research and Products (iRAP), Inc.
February 1, 2010
171 Pages - SKU: IRAP2614903
Additional InformationTO WHOM THE STUDY CATERS
This study addresses the global market for electric double layer carbon (EDLC) supercapacitors, which uniquely combine the characteristics of extremely high capacitance (in the farad range) in low voltage cells (1.2 to 2.5 Vdc in large quantities).
The study looks at this fledging market - the players, the technical challenges, and technical threats, the activated carbon supply chain, and the end markets in which these devices are consumed. including stationary, industrial, consumer and transport energy storage. It further focuses on coin cells and large can supercapacitors and the rapid growth of large can designs in variable speed drives, and heavy trucks and buses.
Therefore, this study will benefit existing manufacturers of capacitors who seek to expand revenues and market opportunities by expanding to new technology such as ultracapacitors, which are positioned to become a preferred solution for some of the energy storage and power delivery applications. Also, this study will benefit users of ultracapacitors who deal with new power-hungry electronic products such as wireless communications devices, the increasing use of electric power in vehicles, and the growing demand for highly reliable, maintenance-free backup power. These demands are creating significant markets for new and improved energy storage and power delivery solutions. For example, sizing the primary power source to meet transient peak power requirements, rather than average power requirements, is costly and inefficient. Primary energy sources can be designed to be smaller, lighter and less costly if they are coupled with specialized power components, such as ultracapacitors, that can deliver or absorb brief bursts of high power on demand for periods of time ranging from fractions of a second to several minutes.
Ultracapacitors and electric double-layer capacitors (EDLCs) fill an important and otherwise vacant niche in the current set of energy storage devices, bridging the gap between batteries and conventional capacitors. They offer greater energy densities than electrostatic capacitors, making them a better choice for back-up applications. They also possess higher power densities than batteries, allowing them to perform a role in load-leveling of pulsed currents. They can help to improve battery performance when combined in hybrid power sources, or they can provide an efficient and long-lasting means of energy storage when used on their own.
However, the technology does have limitations, and applications requiring a long duration of discharge are probably better suited to batteries. If power requirements are found to be at the border of a battery’s capabilities, a hybrid EDLC/battery configuration may be an optimal solution. Advantage can then be gained from both the power density of the EDLC and the energy storage of the battery. This would seem to be the case in electric vehicles, which require power for acceleration in short bursts. The fast response time of EDLCs also makes them suitable for power-quality applications such as static condensers (STATCONs) and digital video recorders (DVRs). Power can quickly be injected or absorbed to help minimize voltage fluctuations in distribution systems.
The greatest barrier to the widespread use of EDLCs is cost, with only a few manufacturers producing devices by automation. Long-established battery technology is often the cheaper alternative, despite the reduced lifetime costs of double-layer capacitor banks. The technology is still in its infancy, however, and it will no doubt become a more competitive energy storage solution in the future.
Ultracapacitors have to be able to stand up to tough environments. Dirt, humidity, salt, fuel additives, vibrations and severe shocks call for the highest standards. Furthermore, ultracapacitors must be able to endure in temperatures ranging from -40°C to +160°C without significant deviation in accuracy over the entire lifetime of a vehicle, standby equipment, or device.
The GSM phone will require a 200Hz response time to improve the transmit burst in a digital phone system. In these devices, high power is more important than energy density. Therefore, to get the desired frequency response, ultracapacitors will use aqueous electrolytes that provide much lower resistance. To attain these frequencies, carbon electrodes need to be thin, with large pores for rapid ion transport through the material.
By far the highest value target for ultracapacitor technology is the global automobile industry for the 50 to 60 million passenger vehicles that roll off assembly lines around the world each year.
Major findings of this report are:
Ultracapacitor market growth will continue during 2009 to 2014. Worldwide business, over US$275 million in 2009, will continue to grow at an AAGR of 21.4% through 2014.
There are four major markets where ultracapacitors are needed - stationary, industrial, consumer and transport energy storage power management. Each has its own specific requirements.
The transport energy storage market aims to use ultracapacitors as load-leveling devices with batteries in electric and hybrid vehicles. Automotive applications range from hybrid drive trains to power network stabilization to the "electrification" of braking, steering, air conditioning and other subsystems to improve the fuel efficiency and reliability. From 2009 to 2014, transport energy applications, which are mostly automotive applications, will show the highest growth rate.
The stationary energy storage market needs ultracapacitors for short duration applications of energy storage, which are characterized by the need for high power for short periods of time. These include power quality ride-through applications, power stabilization, adjustable speed drive support, temporary support of DR (distributed resources) during load steps, voltage flicker mitigation and many other applications.
Industrial applications need ultracapacitors to improve power quality, specifically using ultracapacitors to handle power surges and short-term power loss.
The consumer electronics and computer market needs small high frequency devices in order to reduce battery size. Typical applications are pagers, personal data assistance devices and cell phones.
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