Second-generation biofuel technologies are expected to produce competitive liquid biofuels from cellulosic feedstocks, including wood and agricultural residues. The technology for commercially viable conversion of cellulose to liquid biofuels is currently in the demonstration phase with cellulosic liquid biofuel the closest to mass commercialization, especially in the U.S. Agricultural residues will be among the least expensive liquid biofuel feedstocks. Residues from the production of cereals, including maize, wheat, and barley, are among the feedstocks that can be converted to bioethanol. Residues from forest products comprise only a small proportion of today’s liquid biofuels, but research is increasing into economically viable conversion technologies for wood products. Second-generation processes could be more profitable when integrated into established manufacturing facilities, such as paper mills, that produce or have access to low-cost biomass. The U.S. is among the most technologically advanced countries for cellulosic conversion processes.Biodiesel is a clean burning alternative fuel, produced from domestic, renewable resources.
Biodiesel is derived from the vegetable oils extracted by crushing oil-seeds, although wastefrom cooking oil or animal fats (tallow) may be used. The oil is strained by combining the fatty acid molecules in the oil with methanol or ethanol. Biodiesel contains no petroleum, but it can be blended at any level with petroleum diesel to create a biodiesel blend. It can be used in diesel engines with little or no modifications. In the U.S., most biodiesel is made from soybean oil or recycle cooking oils.